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A. F. Morrison 









London, New York, Toronto and Melbourne 


GIFT 01" 



THE popularity of the dog as a companion, as a 
guardian of property, as an assistant in the pursuit of 
game, and as the object of a pleasurable hobby, has 
never been so great as it is at the present time. More 
dogs are kept in this country than ever there formerly 
were, and they are more skilfully bred, more tenderly 
treated, and cared for with a more solicitous pride than 
was the case a generation ago. There are fewer mongrels 
in our midst, and the family dog has become a respect- 
able member of society. Two million dog licences were 
taken out in the British Isles in the course of 1909. In 
that year, too, as many as 906 separate dog shows were 
sanctioned by the Kennel Club and held in various parts 
of the United Kingdom. At the present time there exist 
no fewer than 156 specialist clubs established for the 
purpose of watching over the interests of the different 

Recognising this advance in our national love of dogs 
and the growing demand for information on their distin- 
guishing characteristics, I am persuaded that there is 
ample room for a concise and practical handbook on 
matters canine. In preparing the present volume, I have 
drawn abundantly upon the contents of my larger and 
more expensive New Book of The Dog, and I desire to 
acknowledge my obligations to the eminent experts who 
assisted me in the production of the earlier work and 
whose contributions I have further utilised in these pages. 
I am indebted to Mr. W. J. Stubbs for his clear exposition 
of the points of the Bulldog, to Colonel Claude Cane for 




his description of the Sporting Spaniels, to Lady Algernon 
Gordon Lennox for her authoritative paragraphs on the 
Pekinese, to Mr. Desmond O'Connell for his history of the 
Fox-terrier, and to Mr. Walter S. Glynn, Mr. Fred Gresham, 
Major J. H. Bailey, Mr. E. B. Joachim and other specialists 
whose aid I have enlisted. 

In the following chapters the varieties of the dog are 
classified in the order of (i) Non-Sporting and Utility 
breeds, (2) Hounds, Gundogs and other Sporting breeds, 
(3) the Terriers, (4) Toy and Miniature breeds. 






3. THE BULLDOG . . . . ... . 17 

4. THE ST. BERNARD . . . / . . 32 

5. THE NEWFOUNDLAND . . . .* . .38 

6. THE GREAT DANE. . . . . . . 44 

7. THE DALMATIAN ... . . . 49 

8. THE COLLIE . . . . . . . . 53 


10. THE CHOW CHOW . . . . . - . . 67 

11. THE POODLE 70 


13. THE BLOODHOUND . . . . . . 80 

14. THE OTTERHOUND . . . . . . 86 

15. THE IRISH WOLFHOUND . ... . 90 



18. THE GREYHOUND . . . . . , 108 

19. THE WHIPPET . . .' . . . . 113 

20. THE FOXHOUND . . . . . . . 118 


22. THE POINTER 127 

23. THE SETTERS 132 










31. THE BULL-TERRIER ... . . . . . 198 



34. THE AIREDALE TERRIER . .' . . . 219 

35. THE BEDLINGTON TERRIER . .' . . . 226 

36. THE IRISH TERRIER . . . . . . 229 

37. THE WELSH TERRIER . . . . . . 236 

38. THE SCOTTISH TERRIER . . . . . 240 











49. PRACTICAL MANAGEMENT . . ... . 310 







(From the painting by Lilian Cheviot.) Frontispiece 





MONTGOMERY ...; ' 36 




REDGRAVE .,. ' .. ... .."' ... ... ... 48 







BESS 142 




2. MR. J. C. TINNE'S, CH. THE SYLPH 208 




SPORT 234 







SONNY AND SARAH ... ... ... ... ... 252 






MITE 288 

LADY HULTON'S BLENHEIM, CH. JOY ... ,.,.. ... 288 





SPORT 304 




THERE is no incongruity in the idea that in the very earliest 
period of man's habitation of this world he made a friend 
and companion of some sort of aboriginal representative 
of our modern dog, and that in return for its aid in protecting 
him from wilder animals, and in guarding his sheep and 
goats, he gave it a share of his food, a corner in his dwelling, 
and grew to trust it and care for it. Probably the animal 
was originally little else than an unusually gentle jackal, 
or an ailing wolf driven by its companions from the wild 
marauding pack to seek shelter in alien surroundings. One 
can well conceive the possibility of the partnership beginning 
in the circumstance of some helpless whelps being brought 
home by the early hunters to be tended and reared by the 
women and children. The present-day savage of New Guinea 
and mid-Africa does not, as a rule, take the trouble to tame 
and train an adult wild animal for his own purposes, and primi- 
tive man was surely equally indifferent to the questionable 
advantage of harbouring a dangerous guest. But a litter 
of woolly whelps introduced into the home as playthings 
for the children would grow to regard themselves, and be 
regarded, as members of the family, and it would soon be 
found that the hunting instincts of the maturing animal 
were of value to his captors. The savage master, treading 
the primeval forests in search of food, would not fail to recog- 
nise the helpfulness of a keener nose and sharper eyes even 
than his own unsullied senses, while the dog in his turn would 


find* a" 'better sheltef-m association with man than if he were 
fr 'hferovta. account. Thus mutual benefit would 
Jrt some kind.'ofc <acit agreement of partnership, and 
through the generations the wild wolf or jackal would gradu- 
ally become gentler, more docile, and tractable, and the 
dreaded enemy of the flock develop into the trusted guardian 
of the fold. 

In nearly all parts of the world traces of an indigenous 
dog family are found, the only exceptions being the West 
Indian Islands, Madagascar, the eastern islands of the Malayan 
Archipelago, New Zealand, and the Polynesian Islands, where 
there is no sign that any dog, wolf, or fox has existed as a 
true aboriginal animal. In the ancient Oriental lands, and 
generally among the early Mongolians, the dog remained 
savage and neglected for centuries, prowling in packs, gaunt 
and wolf-like, as it prowls to-day through the streets and 
under the walls of every Eastern city. No attempt was made 
to allure it into human companionship or to improve it into 
docility. It is not until we come to examine the records 
of the higher civilisations of Assyria and Egypt that we 
discover any distinct varieties of canine form. 

Assyrian sculptures depict two such, a Greyhound and a 
Mastiff, the latter described in the tablets as " the chained-up, 
mouth-opening dog " ; that is to say, it was used as a watch- 
dog ; and several varieties are referred to in the cuneiform 
inscriptions preserved in the British Museum. The Egyptian 
monuments of about 3000 B.C. present many forms of the 
domestic dog, and there can be no doubt that among the 
ancient Egyptians it was as completely a companion of man, 
as much a favourite in the house, and a help in the chase, 
as it is among ourselves at present. In the city of Cynopolis 
it was reverenced next to the sacred jackal, and on the death 
of a dog the members of the household to which he had 
belonged carefully shaved their whole bodies, and religiously 
abstained from using the food, of whatever kind, which 
happened to be in the house at the time. Among the distinct 


breeds kept in Egypt there was a massive wolf-dog, a large, 
heavily-built hound with drooping ears and a pointed head, 
at least two varieties of Greyhound used for hunting the 
gazelle, and a small breed of terrier or Turnspit, with short, 
crooked legs. This last appears to have been regarded as an 
especial household pet, for it was admitted into the living 
rooms and taken as a companion for walks out of doors. It 
was furnished with a collar of leaves, or of leather, or precious 
metal wrought into the form of leaves, and when it died 
it was embalmed. Every town throughout Egypt had its 
place of interment for canine mummies. 

The dog was not greatly appreciated in Palestine, and in 
both the Old and New Testaments it is commonly spoken of 
with scorn and contempt as an "unclean beast." Even the 
familiar reference to the Sheepdog in the Book of Job 
" But now they that are younger than I have me in derision, 
whose fathers I would have disdained to set with the dogs of my 
flock " is not without a suggestion of contempt, and it is 
significant that the only biblical allusion to the dog as a 
recognised companion of man occurs in the apocryphal Book 
of Tobit (v. 16), " So they went forth both, and the young man's 
dog with them." 

The pagan Greeks and Romans had a kindlier feeling for 
dumb animals than had the Jews. Their hounds, like their 
horses, were selected with discrimination, bred with care, 
and held in high esteem, receiving pet names ; and the 
literatures of Greece and Rome contain many tributes to the 
courage, obedience, sagacity, and affectionate fidelity of the 
dog. The Phoenicians, too, were unquestionably lovers 
of the dog, quick to recognise the points of special breeds. 
In their colony in Carthage, during the reign of Sardanapalus, 
they had already possessed themselves of the Assyrian Mastiff, 
which they probably exported to far-off Britain, as they are 
said to have exported the Water Spaniel to Ireland and to 

It is a significant circumstance when we come to consider 


the probable origin of the dog, that there are indications of 
his domestication at such early periods by so many peoples 
in different parts of the world. As we have seen, dogs were 
more or less subjugated and tamed by primitive man, by the 
Assyrians, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks, and Romans, 
as also by the ancient barbaric tribes of the western hemi- 
sphere. The important question now arises : Had all these 
dogs a common origin in a definite parent stock, or did they 
spring from separate and unrelated parents ? 

Half a century ago it was believed that all the evidence 
which could be brought to bear upon the problem pointed 
to an independent origin of the dog. Youatt, writing in 
1845, argued that " this power of tracing back the dog to the 
very earliest periods of history, and the fact that he then 
seemed to be as sagacious, as faithful, and as valuable as at 
the present day, strongly favours the opinion that he was 
descended from no inferior and comparatively worthless 
animal ; and that he was not the progeny of the wolf, the 
jackal, or the fox, but was originally created, somewhat as 
we now find him, the associate and friend of man." 

When Youatt wrote, most people believed that the world 
was only six thousand years old, and that species were origin- 
ally created and absolutely unchangeable. Lyell's dis- 
coveries in geology, however, overthrew the argument of the 
earth's chronology and of the antiquity of man, and Darwin's 
theory of evolution entirely transformed the accepted beliefs 
concerning the origin of species and the supposed invariability 
of animal types. 

The general superficial resemblance between the fox and 
many of our dogs, might well excuse the belief in a relationship. 
Gamekeepers are often very positive that a cross can be 
obtained between a dog fox and a terrier bitch ; but cases 
in which this connection is alleged must be accepted with 
extreme caution. The late Mr. A. D. Bartlett, who was for 
years the superintendent of the Zoological Gardens in London, 
studied this question with minute care, and as a result of 


experiments and observations he }x>sitively affirmed that 
he had never met with one well-authenticated instance of a 
hybrid dog and fox. Mr. Bartlett's conclusions are incon- 
testable. However much in appearance the supposed dog-fox 
may resemble the fox, there are certain opposing characteris- 
tics and structural differences which entirely dismiss the 
theory of relationship. 

One thing is certain, that foxes do not breed in confinement, 
except in very rare instances. The silver fox of North America 
is the only species recorded to have bred in the Zoological 
Gardens of London ; the European fox has never been known 
to breed in captivity. Then, again, the fox is not a sociable 
animal. We never hear of foxes uniting in a pack, as do the 
wolves, the jackals, and the wild dogs. Apart from other 
considerations, a fox may be distinguished from a dog, without 
being seen or touched, by its smell. No one can produce a 
dog that has half the odour of Reynard, and this odour the 
dog-fox would doubtless possess were its sire a fox-dog or its 
dam a vixen. 

Whatever may be said concerning the difference existing 
between dogs and foxes will not hold good in reference to 
dogs, wolves, and jackals. The wolf and the jackal are so 
much alike that the only appreciable distinction is that of 
size, and so closely do they resemble many dogs in general 
appearance, structure, habits, instincts, and mental endow- 
ments that no difficulty presents itself in regarding them as 
being of one stock. Wolves and jackals can be, and have 
repeatedly been, tamed. Domestic dogs can become, and 
again and again do become, wild, even consorting with wolves, 
interbreeding with them, assuming their gregarious habits, 
and changing the characteristic bark into a dismal wolf-like 
howl. The wolf and the jackal when tamed answer to their 
master's call, wag their tails, lick his hands, crouch, jump 
round him to be caressed, and throw themselves on their 
backs in submission. When in high spirits they run round 
in circles or in a figure of eight, with their tails between their 


legs. Their howl becomes a business-like bark. They smell 
at the tails of other dogs and void their urine sideways, and 
lastly, like our domestic favourites, however refined and 
gentlemanly in other respects, they cannot be broken of the 
habit of rolling on carrion or on animals they have killed. 

This last habit of the domestic dog is one of the surviving 
traits of his wild ancestry, which, like his habits of burying 
bones or superfluous food, and of turning round and round on 
a carpet as if to make a nest for himself before lying down, 
go far towards connecting him in direct relationship with 
the wolf and the jackal. 

The great multitude of different breeds of the dog and the 
vast differences in their size, points, and general appearance 
are facts which make it difficult to believe that they could 
have had a common ancestry. One thinks of the difference 
between the Mastiff and the Japanese Spaniel, the Deerhound 
and the fashionable Pomeranian, the St. Bernard and the 
Miniature Black and Tan Terrier, and is perplexed in con- 
templating the possibility of their having descended from a 
common progenitor. Yet the disparity is no greater than 
that between the Shire horse and the Shetland pony, the 
Shorthorn and the Kerry cattle, or the Patagonian and the 
Pygmy ; and all dog breeders know how easy it is to produce 
a variety in type and size by studied selection. 

In order properly to understand this question it is necessary 
first to consider the identity of structure in the wolf and the 
dog. This identity of structure may best be studied in a 
comparison of the osseous system, or skeletons, of the two 
animals, which so closely resemble each other that their 
transposition would not easily be detected. 

The spine of the dog consists of seven vertebrae in the neck, 
thirteen in the back, seven in the loins, three sacral vertebrae, 
and twenty to twenty-two in the tail. In both the dog and 
the wolf there are thirteen pairs of ribs, nine true and four 
false. Each has forty-two teeth. They both have five front 
and four hind toes, while outwardly the common wolf has 


so much the appearance of a large, bare-boned dog, that a 
popular description of the one would serve for the other. 

Nor are their habits different. The wolf's natural voice 
is a loud howl, but when confined with dogs he will learn to 
bark. Although he is carnivorous, he will also eat vegetables, 
and when sickly he will nibble grass. In the chase, a pack of 
wolves will divide into parties, one following the trail of the 
quarry, the other endeavouring to intercept its retreat, exer- 
cising a considerable amount of strategy, a trait which is 
exhibited by many of our sporting dogs and terriers when 
hunting in teams. 

A further important point of resemblance between the 
Canis lupus and the Canis familiaris lies in the fact that the 
period of gestation in both species is sixty-three days. There 
are from three to nine cubs in a wolf's litter, and these are 
blind for twenty-one days. They are suckled for two months, 
but at the end of that time they are able to eat half-digested 
flesh disgorged for them by their dam or even their sire. 

We have seen that there is no authenticated instance of a 
hybrid between the dog and the fox. This is not the case 
with the dog and the wolf, or the dog and the jackal, all of 
which can interbreed. Moreover, their offspring are fertile. 
Pliny is the authority for the statement that the Gauls tied 
their female dogs in the wood that they might cross with 
wolves. The Eskimo dogs are not infrequently crossed 
with the grey Arctic wolf, which they so much resemble, and 
the Indians of America were accustomed to cross their half- 
wild dogs with the coyote to impart greater boldness to the 
breed. Tame dogs living in countries inhabited by the jackal 
often betray the jackal strain in their litters, and there are 
instances of men dwelling in lonely outposts of civilisation 
being molested by wolves or jackals following upon the trail 
of a bitch in season. 

These facts lead one to refer to the familiar circumstance 
that the native dogs of all regions approximate closely in size, 
coloration, form, and habit to the native wolf of those regions. 


Of this most important circumstance there are far too many 
instances to allow of its being looked upon as a mere coinci- 
dence. Sir John Richardson, writing in 1829, observed 
that " the resemblance between the North American wolves 
and the domestic dog of the Indians is so great that the size 
and strength of the wolf seems to be the only difference. I 
have more than once mistaken a band of wolves for the dogs 
of a party of Indians ; and the howl of the animals of both 
species is prolonged so exactly in the same key that even the 
practised ear of the Indian fails at times to discriminate 
between them." 

As the Eskimo and Indian dogs resemble the North 
American wolf, so the dog of the Hare Indians, a very different 
breed, resembles the prairie wolf. Except in the matter of 
barking, there is no difference whatever between the black 
wolf-dog of the Indians of Florida and the wolves of the same 
country. The same phenomenon is seen in many kinds of 
European dogs. The Shepherd Dog of the plains of Hungary 
is white or reddish-brown, has a sharp nose, short erect ears, 
shaggy coat, and bushy tail, and so much resembles a wolf 
that Mr. Paget, who gives the description, says he has known 
a Hungarian mistake a wolf for one of his own dogs. Many 
of the dogs of Russia, Lapland, and Finland are comparable 
with the wolves of those countries. Some of the domestic 
dogs of Egypt, both at the present day and in the condition of 
mummies, are wolf-like in type, and the dogs of Nubia have 
the closest relation to a wild species of the same region, which 
is only a form of the common jackal. Dogs, it may again 
be noted, cross with the jackal as well as with wolves, and this 
is frequently the case in Africa, as, for example, in Bosjesmans, 
where the dogs have a marked resemblance to the black- 
backed jackal, which is a South African variety. 

It has been suggested that the one incontrovertible argu- 
ment against the lupine relationship of the dog is the fact that 
all domestic dogs bark, while all wild Canidce express their 
feelings only by howls. But the difficulty here is not so 


great as it seems, since we know that jackals, wild dogs, and 
wolf pups reared by bitches readily acquire the habit. On 
the other hand, domestic dogs allowed to run wild forget how 
to bark, while there are some which have not yet learned so 
to express themselves. 

The presence or absence of the habit of barking cannot, 
then, be regarded as an argument in deciding the question 
concerning the origin of the dog. This stumbling block 
consequently disappears, leaving us in the position of agreeing 
with Darwin, whose final hypothesis was that "it is highly 
probable that the domestic dogs of the world have descended 
from two good species of wolf (C. lupus and C. latrans), and 
from two or three other doubtful species of wolves namely, 
the European, Indian, and North African forms ; from at 
least one or two South American canine species ; from several 
races or species of jackal ; and perhaps from one or more 
extinct species " ; and that the blood of these, in some 
cases mingled together, flows in the veins of our domestic 


OF the many different kinds of dogs now established as British, 
not a few have had their origin in other lands, whence speci- 
mens have been imported into this country, in course of time 
to be so improved by selection that they have come to be 
commonly accepted as native breeds. Some are protected 
from the claim that they are indigenous by the fact that their 
origin is indicated in their names. No one would pretend 
that the St. Bernard or the Newfoundland, the Spaniel or the 
Dalmatian, are of native breed. They are alien immigrants 
whom we have naturalised, as we are naturalising the majestic 
Great Dane, the decorative Borzoi, the alert Schipperke, 
and the frowning Chow Chow, which are of such recent 
introduction that they must still be regarded as half-acclima- 
tised foreigners. But of the antiquity of the Mastiff there 
can be no doubt. He is the oldest of our British dogs, culti- 
vated in these islands for so many centuries that the only 
difficulty concerning his history is that of tracing his descent, 
and discovering the period when he was not familiarly known. 
It is possible that the Mastiff owes his origin to some remote 
ancestor of alien strain. The Assyrian kings possessed a large 
dog of decided Mastiff type, and used it in the hunting of 
lions. It is supposed by many students that the breed was 
introduced into early Britain by the adventurous Phoenician 
traders who, in the sixth century B.C., voyaged to the Scilly 
Islands and Cornwall to barter their own commodities in ex- 
change for the useful metals. Knowing the requirements 
of their barbarian customers, these early merchants from 



Tyre and Sidon are believed to have brought some of the 
larger pugnaces, which would be readily accepted by the 
Britons to supplant, or improve, their courageous but under- 
sized fighting dogs. 

In Anglo-Saxon times every two villeins were required 
to maintain one of these dogs for the purpose of reducing the 
number of wolves and other wild animals. This would 
indicate that the Mastiff was recognised as a capable hunting 
dog ; but at a later period his hunting instincts were not 
highly esteemed, and he was not regarded as a peril to pre- 
served game ; for in the reign of Henry III. the Forest Laws, 
which prohibited the keeping of all other breeds by un- 
privileged persons, permitted the Mastiff to come within the 
precincts of a forest, imposing, however, the condition that 
every such dog should have the claws of the fore-feet removed 
close to the skin. 

The name Mastiff was probably applied to any massively 
built dog. It is not easy to trace the true breed amid the 
various names which it owned. Molossus, Alan, Alaunt, 
Tie-clog, Bandog (or Band-dog), were among the number. 
The names Tie-dog and Bandog intimate that the Mastiff 
was commonly kept for guard, but many were specially 
trained for baiting bears, imported lions, and bulls. 

There is constant record of the Mastiff having been kept 
and carefully bred for many generations in certain old English 
families. One of the oldest strains of Mastiffs was that kept 
by Mr. Legh, of Lyme Hall, in Cheshire. They were large, 
powerful dogs, and longer in muzzle than those which we 
are now accustomed to see. Another old and valuable strain 
was kept by the Duke of Devonshire at Chatsworth. It is 
to these two strains that the dogs of the present day trace 

Mr. Woolmore's Crown Prince was one of the most celebrated 
of Mastiffs. He was a fawn dog with a Dudley nose and light 
eye, and was pale in muzzle, and whilst full credit must 
be given to him for having sired many good Mastiffs, he must 


be held responsible for the faults in many specimens of more 
recent years. Unfortunately, he was indiscriminately bred 
from, with the result that in a very short time breeders found 
it impossible to find a Mastiff unrelated to him. 

It is to be deplored that ever since his era there 
has been a perceptible diminution in the number of good 
examples of this fine old English breed, and that from being 
an admired and fashionable dog the Mastiff has so declined 
in popularity that few are to be seen either at exhibitions or 
in breeders' kennels. At the Crystal Palace in 1871 there 
were as many as sixty-three Mastiffs on show, forming a line 
of benches two hundred yards long, and not a bad one among 
them ; whereas at a dog show held twenty-five years later, 
where more than twelve hundred dogs were entered, not a 
single Mastiff was benched. 

The difficulty of obtaining dogs of unblemished pedigree 
and superlative type may partly account for this decline, 
and another reason of unpopularity may be that the Mastiff 
requires so much attention to keep him in condition that 
without it he is apt to become indolent and heavy. Never- 
theless, the mischief of breeding too continuously from one 
strain such as that of Crown Prince has to some extent been 
eradicated, and we have had many splendid Mastiffs since 
his time. Special mention should be made of that grand 
bitch Cambrian Princess, by Beau. She was purchased by 
Mrs. Willins, who, mating her with Maximilian (a dog of her 
own breeding by The Emperor), obtained Minting, who 
shared with Mr. Sidney Turner's Beaufort the reputation of 
being unapproached for all round merit in any period. 

The following description of a perfect Mastiff, taken from 
the Old English Mastiff Club's Points of a Mastiff, is 
admirable as a standard to which future breeders should 
aim to attain. 

POINTS OF THE MASTIFF : General Character and Symmetry- 
Large, massive, powerful, symmetrical and well-knit frame. A com- 
bination of grandeur and good nature, courage and docility. General 


Description of Head In general outline, giving a square appearance 
when viewed from any point. Breadth greatly to be desired, and 
should be in ratio to length of the whole head and face as 2 to 3. General 
Description of Body Massive, broad, deep, long, powerfully built, on 
legs wide apart, and squarely set. Muscles sharply defined. Size a 
great desideratum, if combined with quality. Height and substance 
important if both points are proportionately combined. Skull Broad 
between the ears, forehead flat, but wrinkled when attention is excited. 
Brows (superciliary ridges) slightly raised. Muscles of the temples 
and cheeks (temporal and masseter) well developed. Arch across the 
skull of a rounded, flattened curve, with a depression up the centre of 
the forehead from the medium line between the eyes, to half way up 
the sagittal suture. Face or Muzzle Short, broad under the eyes, 
and keeping nearly parallel in width to the end of the nose ; truncated, 
i.e. blunt and cut off square, thus forming a right angle with the upper 
line of the face, of great depth from the point of the nose to under jaw. 
Under jaw broad to the end ; canine teeth healthy, powerful, and wide 
apart ; incisors level, or the lower projecting beyond the upper, but 
never sufficiently so as to become visible when the mouth is closed. 
Nose broad, with widely spreading nostrils when viewed from the front ; 
flat (not pointed or turned up) in profile. Lips diverging at obtuse 
angles with the septum, and slightly pendulous so as to show a square 
profile. Length of muzzle to whole head and face as 1 to 3. Cir- 
cumference of muzzle (measured midway between the eyes and nose) 
to that of the head (measured before the ears) as 3 to 5. Ears Small, 
thin to the touch, wide apart, set on at the highest points of the sides 
of the skull, so as to continue the outline across the summit, and lying 
flat and close to the cheeks when in repose. Eyes Small, wide apart, 
divided by at least the space of two eyes. The stop between the 
eyes well marked, but not too abrupt. Colour hazel-brown, the 
darker the better, showing no haw. Neck, Chest and Ribs Neck 
Slightly arched, moderately long, very muscular, and measuring in 
circumference about one or two inches less than the skull before the 
ears. Chest Wide, deep, and well let down between the fore-legs. 
Ribs arched and well-rounded. False ribs deep and well set back to 
the hips. Girth should be one-third more than the height at the 
shoulder. Shoulder and Arm Slightly sloping, heavy and muscular. 
Fore-legs and Feet Legs straight, strong, and set wide apart; bones 
very large. Elbows square. Pasterns upright. Feet large and 
round. Toes well arched up. Nails black. Back, Loins and Flanks 
Back and loins wide and muscular ; flat and very wide in a bitch, 
slightly arched in a dog. Great depth of flanks. Hind-legs and Feet 
Hind-quarters broad, wide, and muscular, with well developed second 
thighs, hocks bent, wide apart, and quite squarely set when standing 
or walking. Feet round. Tail Put on high up, and reaching to the 
hocks, or a little below them, wide at its root and tapering to the end, 
hanging straight in repose, but forming a curve, with the end pointing 
upwards, but not over the back, when the dog is excited. Coat 
Colour Coat short and close lying, but not too fine over the shoulders, 
neck, and back. Colour, apricot or silver fawn, or dark fawn-brindle. 
In any case, muzzle, ears, and nose should be black, with black round 
the orbits, and extending upwards between them. 


Size is a quality very desirable in this breed. The height of 
many dogs of olden days was from thirty-two to thirty-three 
inches. The height should be obtained rather from great 
depth of body than length of leg. A leggy Mastiff is very un- 
desirable. Thirty inches may be taken as a fair average 
height for dogs, and bitches somewhat less. Many of Mr. 
Lukey's stood 32 inches and over ; Mr. Green's Monarch was 
over 33 inches, The Shah 32 inches, and Cardinal 32 inches. 

The method of rearing a Mastiff has much to do with its 
ultimate size, but it is perhaps needless to say that the selection 
of the breeding stock has still more to do with this. It is 
therefore essential to select a dog and bitch of a large strain to 
obtain large Mastiffs. It is not so necessary that the dogs 
themselves should be so large as that they come from a large 
strain. The weight of a full-grown dog should be anything 
over 160 Ib. Many have turned over the scale at 180 Ib. The 
Shah, for instance, was 182 Ib. in weight, Scawfell over 
200 Ib. 

One of the great difficulties that breeders of Mastiffs and all 
other large dogs have to contend against is in rearing the 
puppies ; so many bitches being clumsy and apt to kill the 
whelps by lying on them. It is, therefore, always better to be 
provided with one or more foster bitches. At about six weeks 
old a fairly good opinion may be formed as to what the puppies 
will ultimately turn out in certain respects, for, although they 
may change materially during growth, the good or bad 
qualities which are manifest at that early age will, in all prob- 
ability, be apparent when the puppy has reached maturity. 
It is, therefore, frequently easier to select the best puppy in 
the nest than to do so when they are from six to nine or ten 
months old. 

Puppies should be allowed all the liberty possible, and never 
be tied up : they should be taken out for steady, gentle 
exercise, and not permitted to get too fat or they become too 
heavy, with detrimental results to their legs. Many Mastiff 
puppies are very shy and nervous, but they will grow out of this 


if kindly handled, and eventually become the best guard and 
protector it is possible to have. 

The temper of a Mastiff should be taken into consideration 
by the breeder. They are, as a rule, possessed of the best of 
tempers. A savage dog with such power as the Mastiff pos- 
sesses is indeed a dangerous creature, and, therefore, some 
inquiries as to the temper of a stud dog should be made before 
deciding to use him. In these dogs, as in all others, it is a 
question of how they are treated by the person having charge 
of them. 

The feeding of puppies is an important matter, and should 
be carefully seen to by anyone wishing to rear them success- 
fully. If goat's milk is procurable it is preferable to cow's 
milk. The price asked for it is sometimes prohibitory, but 
this difficulty may be surmounted in many cases by keeping a 
goat or two on the premises. Many breeders have obtained a 
goat with the sole object of rearing a litter of puppies on her 
milk, and have eventually discarded cow's milk altogether, 
using goat's milk for household purposes instead. As soon 
as the puppies will lap they should be induced to take arrow- 
root prepared with milk. Oatmeal and maizemeal, about one 
quarter of the latter to three quarters of the former, make a 
good food for puppies. Dog biscuits and the various hound 
meals, soaked in good broth, may be used with advantage, 
but no dogs, either large or small, can be kept in condition 
for any length of time without a fair proportion of meat of 
some kind. Sheep's paunches, cleaned and well boiled, mixed 
with sweet stale bread, previously soaked in cold water, make 
an excellent food and can hardly be excelled as a staple diet. 
In feeding on horseflesh care should be taken to ascertain 
that the horse was not diseased, especially if any is given 

Worms are a constant source of trouble from the earliest 
days of puppy-hood, and no puppy suffering from them will 
thrive ; every effort, therefore, should be made to get rid of 


With proper feeding, grooming, exercise, and cleanliness, 
any large dog can be kept in good condition without resort to 
medicine, the use of which should be strictly prohibited unless 
there is real need for it. Mastiffs kept under such conditions 
are far more likely to prove successful stud dogs and brood 
bitches than those to which deleterious drugs are constantly 
being given. 


THE Bulldog is known to have been domiciled in this country 
for several centuries. Like the Mastiff, of which it is a 
smaller form, it is a descendant of the " Alaunt," Mastive, or 
Bandog, described by Dr. Caius, who states that " the Mastyve 
or Bandogge is vaste, huge, stubborne, ougly and eager, of a 
hevy, and burthenous body, and therefore but of little swift- 
nesse, terrible and frightful to beholde, and more fearce and 
fell than any Arcadian curre." 

The first mention of " Bulldog " as the distinctive name 
of this now national breed occurs in a letter, written by 
Prestwich Eaton from St. Sebastian to George Wellingham 
in St. Swithin's Lane, London, in 1631 or 1632, " for a good 
Mastive dogge, a case of bottles replenished with the best 
lickour, and pray proceur mee two good bulldoggs, and let 
them be sent by ye first shipp." Obviously the name was 
derived from the dog's association with the sport of bull-baiting. 
The object aimed at in that pursuit was that the dog should pin 
and hold the bull by the muzzle, and not leave it. The bull 
was naturally helpless when seized in his most tender part. 
As he lowered his head in order to use his horns it was neces- 
sary for the dog to keep close to the ground, or, in the words of 
the old fanciers of the sport, to " play low." Larger dogs 
were at a disadvantage in this respect, and, therefore, those 
of smaller proportions, which were quite as suitable for the 
sport, were selected. The average height of the dogs was 
about 16 inches, and the weight was generally about 45 Ibs., 
whilst the body was broad, muscular, and compact, as is 
shown in Scott's well-known engraving of " Crib and Rosa." 
c 17 


When bull-baiting was prohibited by law the sportsmen of 
the period turned their attention to dog-fighting, and for this 
pastime the Bulldogs were specially trained. The chief 
centres in London where these exhibitions took place were the 
Westminster Pit, the Bear Garden at Bankside, and the Old 
Conduit Fields in Bayswater. In order to obtain greater 
quickness of movement many of the Bulldogs were crossed 
with a terrier, although some fanciers relied on the pure breed. 
It is recorded that Lord Camelford's Bulldog Belcher fought 
one hundred and four battles without once suffering defeat. 

The decline of bull-baiting and dog-fighting after the passing 
of the Bill prohibiting these sports was responsible for a lack of 
interest in perpetuating the breed of Bulldogs. Even in 1824 
it was said to be degenerating, and gentlemen who had pre- 
viously been the chief breeders gradually deserted the fancy. 
At one time it was stated that Wasp, Child, and Billy, who 
were of the Duke of Hamilton's strain, were the only re- 
maining Bulldogs in existence, and that upon their decease the 
Bulldog would become extinct a prophecy which all Bulldog 
lovers happily find incorrect. 

The specimens alive in 1817, as seen in prints of that period, 
were not so cloddy as those met with at the present day. 
Still, the outline of Rosa in the engraving of Crib and 
Rosa, is considered to represent perfection in the shape, make, 
and size of the ideal type of Bulldog. The only objections 
which have been taken are that the bitch is deficient in wrinkles 
about the head and neck, and in substance of bone in the 

The commencement of the dog-show era in 1859 enabled 
classes to be provided for Bulldogs, and a fresh incentive to 
breed them was offered to the dog fancier. In certain districts 
of the country, notably in London, Birmingham, Sheffield, 
Manchester, and Dudley, a number of fanciers resided, and it 
is to their efforts that we are indebted for the varied specimens 
of the breed that are to be seen at the present time. 

In forming a judgment of a Bulldog the general appearance 


is of most importance, as the various points of the dog should 
be symmetrical and well balanced, no one point being in excess 
of the others so as to destroy the impression of determination, 
strength, and activity which is conveyed by the typical speci- 
men. His body should be thickset, rather low in stature, but 
broad, powerful, and compact. The head should be strik- 
ingly massive and large in proportion to the dog's size. It 
cannot be too large so long as it is square ; that is, it must not 
be wider than it is deep. The larger the head in circumference, 
caused by the prominent cheeks, the greater the quantity 
of muscle to hold the jaws together. The head should be of 
great depth from the occiput to the base of the lower jaw, and 
should not in any way be wedge-shaped, dome-shaped, or 
peaked. In circumference the skull should measure in front 
of the ears at least the height of the dog at the shoulders. The 
cheeks should be well rounded, extend sideways beyond the 
eyes, and be well furnished with muscle. Length of skull 
that is, the distance between the eye and the ear is very 
desirable. The forehead should be flat, and the skin upon it 
and about the head very loose, hanging in large wrinkles. The 
temples, or frontal bones, should be very prominent, broad, 
square and high, causing a wide and deep groove known as 
the " stop " between the eyes, and should extend up the middle 
of the forehead, dividing the head vertically, being traceable 
at the top of the skull. The expression " well broken up " 
is used where this stop and furrow are well marked, and if 
there is the attendant looseness of skin the animal's expression 
is well finished. 

The face, when measured from the front of the cheek-bone 
to the nose, should be short, and its skin should be deeply and 
closely wrinkled. Excessive shortness of face is not natural, 
and can only be obtained by the sacrifice of the " chop." 
Such shortness of face makes the dog appear smaller in head 
and less formidable than he otherwise would be. Formerly 
this shortness of face was artificially obtained by the use of 
the "jack," an atrocious form of torture, by which an iron 


instrument was used to force back the face by means of thumb- 
screws. The nose should be rough, large, broad, and black, 
and this colour should extend to the lower lip ; its top should 
be deeply set back, almost between the eyes. The distance 
from the inner corner of the eye to the extreme tip of the nose 
should not be greater than the length from the tip of the nose 
to the edge of the under lip. The nostrils should be large and 
wide, with a well-defined straight line visible between them. 
The largeness of nostril, which is a very desirable property, is 
possessed by few of the recent prize-winners. 

When viewed in profile the tip of the nose should touch an 
imaginary line drawn from the extremity of the lower jaw to 
the top of the centre of the skull. This angle of the nose and 
face is known as the lay-back, and can only properly be ascer- 
tained by viewing the dog from the side. 

The inclination backward of the nose allows a free passage 
of the air into the nostrils whilst the dog is holding his quarry. 
It is apparent that if the mouth did not project beyond the 
nose, the nostrils would be flat against the part to which the 
dog was fixed, and breathing would then be stopped. 

The upper lip, called the " chop," or flews, should be thick, 
broad, pendant and very deep, hanging completely over the 
lower jaw at the sides, but only just joining the under lip in 
front, yet covering the teeth completely. The amount of 
" cushion " which a dog may have is dependent upon the thick- 
ness of the flews. The lips should not be pendulous. 

The upper jaw should be broad, massive, and square, the 
tusks being wide apart, whilst the lower jaw, being turned 
upwards, should project in front of the upper. The teeth 
should be large and strong, and the six small teeth between 
the tusks should be in an even row. The upper jaw cannot be 
too broad between the tusks. If the upper and lower jaws 
are level, and the muzzle is not turned upwards the dog is said 
to be " down-faced," whilst if the underjaw is not undershot 
he is said to be " froggy." A " wry-faced " dog is one having 
the lower jaw twisted, and this deformity so detracts from the 


general appearance of the dog as seriously to handicap him 
in the show-ring. 

The under jaw projects beyond the upper in order to allow 
the dog, when running directly to the front, to grasp the bull, 
and, when fixed, to give him a firmer hold. The eyes, seen 
from the front, should be situated low down in the skull, as far 
from the ears, the nose, and each other as possible, but quite 
in front of the forehead, so long as their corners are in a straight 
line at right angles with the stop, and in front of the forehead. 
They should be a little above the level of the base of the nasal 
bone, and should be quite round in shape, of moderate size, 
neither sunken nor prominent, and be as black in colour as 
possible almost, if not quite, black, showing no white when 
looking directly to the front. 

A good deal of a Bulldog's appearance depends on the 
quality, shape, and carriage of his ears. They should be small 
and thin, and set high on the head ; that is, the front inner 
edge of each ear should, as viewed from the front, join the out- 
line of the skull at the top corner of such outline, so as to place 
them as wide apart, as high, and as far from the eyes as 
possible. The shape should be that which is known as " rose," 
in which the ear folds inward at the back, the upper or front 
edge curving over outwards and backwards, showing part of 
the inside of the burr. If the ears are placed low on the skull 
they give an appleheaded appearance to the dog. If the ear 
falls in front, hiding the interior, as is the case with a Fox- 
terrier, it is said to " button," and this type is highly objec- 
tionable. Unfortunately, within the last few years the 
" button " and " semi-tulip " ear have been rather prevalent 
amongst the specimens on the show bench. 

If the ear is carried erect it is known as a " tulip " ear, and 
this form also is objectionable. Nevertheless, at the beginning 
of the nineteeth century two out of every three dogs possessed 
ears of this description. 

The neck should be moderate in length, very thick, deep, 
muscular, and short, but of sufficient length to allow it to be 


well arched at the back, commencing at the junction with the 
skull. There should be plenty of loose, thick, and wrinkled 
skin about the throat, forming a dewlap on each side from 
the lower jaw to the chest. 

The chest should be very wide laterally, round, prominent, 
and deep, making the dog appear very broad and short- 
legged in front. The shoulders should be broad, the blades 
sloping considerably from the body ; they should be deep, 
very powerful, and muscular, and should be flat at the top 
and play loosely from the chest. 

The brisket should be capacious, round, and very deep 
from the shoulder to the lowest part, where it joins the chest, 
and be well let down between the fore-legs. It should be large 
in diameter, and round behind the fore-legs, neither flat-sided 
nor sinking, which it will not do provided that the first and 
succeeding ribs are well rounded. The belly should be well 
tucked up and not pendulous, a small narrow waist being 
greatly admired. The desired object in body formation is 
to obtain great girth at the brisket, and the smallest possible 
around the waist, that is, the loins should be arched very 
high, when the dog is said to have a good " cut-up." 

The back should be short and strong, very broad at the 
shoulder and comparatively narrow at the loins. The back 
should rise behind the shoulders in a graceful curve to the 
loins, the top of which should be higher than the top of the 
shoulders, thence curving again more suddenly to the tail, 
forming an arch known as the " roach " back, which is 
essentially a characteristic of the breed, though, unfortu- 
nately, many leading prize-winners of the present day are 
entirely deficient in this respect. Some dogs dip very con- 
siderably some distance behind the shoulders before the up- 
ward curve of the spine begins, and these are known as 
" swamp-backed " ; others rise in an almost straight line to 
the root of the tail, and are known as " stern-high." 

The tail should be set on low, jut out rather straight, then 
turn downwards, the end pointing horizontally. It should be 


quite round in its whole length, smooth and devoid of fringe 
or coarse hair. It should be moderate in length, rather 
short than long, thick at the root, and taper quickly to a 
fine point. It should have a downward carriage, and the 
dog should not be able to raise it above the level of the back- 
bone. The tail should not curve at the end, otherwise it is 
known as " ring- tailed." The ideal length of tail is about 
six inches. 

Many fanciers demand a " screw " or " kinked " tail, 
that is, one having congenital dislocations at the joints, but 
such appendages are not desirable in the best interests of the 

The fore-legs should be very stout and strong, set wide 
apart, thick, muscular, and short, with well-developed 
muscles in the calves, presenting a rather bowed outline, 
but the bones of the legs must be straight, large, and not 
bandy or curved. They should be rather short in proportion 
to the hind-legs, but not so short as to make the back appear 
long or detract from the dog's activity and so cripple him. 

The elbows should be low and stand well away from the 
ribs, so as to permit the body to swing between them. If 
this property be absent the dog is said to be " on the leg." 
The ankles or pasterns should be short, straight, and strong. 
The fore-feet should be straight and turn very slightly out- 
wards ; they should be of medium size and moderately 
round, not too long or narrow, whilst the toes should be thick, 
compact, and well split up, making the knuckles prominent 
and high. 

The hind-legs, though of slighter build than the fore-legs, 
should be strong and muscular. They should be longer, in 
proportion, than the fore-legs in order to elevate the loins. 
The stifles should be round and turned slightly outwards, 
away from the body, thus bending the hocks inward and the 
hind-feet outward. The hocks should be well let down, so 
that the leg is long and muscular from the loins to the point 
of the hock, which makes the pasterns short, but these should 


not be so short as those of the fore-legs. The hind-feet, whilst 
being smaller than the forefeet, should be round and compact, 
with the toes well split up, and the knuckles prominent. 

The most desirable weight for a Bulldog is about 50 Ibs. 

The coat should be fine in texture, short, close, and smooth, 
silky when stroked from the head towards the tail owing to its 
closeness, but not wiry when stroked in the reverse direction. 

The colour should be whole or smut, the latter being a 
whole colour with a black mask or muzzle. It should be 
brilliant and pure of its sort. The colours in order of merit 
are, first, whole colours and smuts, viz., brindles, reds, white, 
with their varieties, as whole fawns, fallows, etc., and, 
secondly, pied and mixed colours. Opinions differ considerably 
on the colour question ; one judge will set back a fawn and 
put forward a pied dog, whilst others will do the reverse. 
Occasionally one comes across specimens having a black-and- 
tan colour, which, although not mentioned in the recognised 
standard as being debarred, do not as a rule figure in the prize 
list. Some of the best specimens which the writer has seen 
have been black-and-tans, and a few years ago on the award 
of a first prize to a bitch of this colour, a long but non-conclu- 
sive argument was held in the canine press. Granted that the 
colour is objectionable, a dog which scores in all other pro- 
perties should not be put down for this point alone, seeing that 
in the dog-fighting days there were many specimens of this 

In action the Bulldog should have a peculiarly heavy and 
constrained gait, a rolling, or " slouching " movement, 
appearing to walk with short, quick steps on the tip of his 
toes, his hind-feet not being lifted high but appearing to skim 
the ground, and running with the right shoulder rather ad- 
vanced, similar to the manner of a horse when cantering. 

The foregoing minute description of the various show 
points of a Bulldog indicates that he should have the appear- 
ance of a thick-set Ayrshire or Highland bull. In stature he 
should be low to the ground, broad and compact, the body 


being carried between and not on the fore-legs. He should 
stand over a great deal of ground, and have the appearance 
of immense power. The height of the fore-leg should not ex- 
ceed the distance from the elbow to the centre of the back, 
between the shoulder blades. 

Considerable importance is attached to the freedom and 
activity displayed by the animal in its movements. De- 
formed joints, or weakness, are very objectionable. The 
head should be strikingly massive and carried low, the face 
short, the muzzle very broad, blunt, and inclined upwards. 
The body should be short and well-knit, the limbs, stout and 
muscular. The hind-quarters should be very high and strong, 
but rather lightly made in comparison with the heavily- 
made fore-parts. 

It must be acknowledged that there are many strains of 
this breed which are constitutionally unsound. For this 
reason it is important that the novice should give very careful 
consideration to his first purchase of a Bulldog. He should 
ascertain beyond all doubt, not only that his proposed pur- 
chase is itself sound in wind and limb, but that its sire and 
dam are, and have been, in similarly healthy condition. The 
dog to be chosen should be physically strong and show pro- 
nounced muscular development. If these requirements are 
present and the dog is in no sense a contradiction of the good 
qualities of its progenitors, but a justification of its pedigree, 
care and good treatment will do the rest. It is to be re- 
membered, however, that a Bulldog may be improved by 
judicious exercise. When at exercise, or taking a walk with 
his owner, the young dog should always be held by a leash. 
He will invariably pull vigorously against this restraint, but 
such action is beneficial, as it tends to develop the muscles 
of the shoulders and front of the body. 

When taking up the Bulldog fancy, nine out of every ten 
novices choose to purchase a male. The contrary course should 
be adopted. The female is an equally good companion in the 
house or on the road ; she is not less affectionate and faithful ; 


and when the inevitable desire to attempt to reproduce the 
species is reached the beginner has the means at once available. 

It is always difficult for the uninitiated to select what is 
likely to be a good dog from the nest. In choosing a puppy 
care should be taken to ensure it has plenty of bone in its 
limbs, and these should be fairly short and wide ; the nostrils 
should be large and the face as short as possible. The chop 
should be thick and heavily wrinkled and the mouth square. 
There should be a distinct indent in the upper jaw, where the 
bone will eventually curve, whilst the lower jaw should show 
signs of curvature and protrude slightly in front of the upper 
jaw. The teeth from canine to canine, including the six 
front teeth, should be in a straight line. 

See that the ears are very small and thin, and the eyes set 
well apart. The puppy having these properties, together 
with a domed, peaked, or " cocoanut " shaped skull, is the one 
which, in nine cases out of ten, will eventually make the best 
headed dog of the litter. 

The breeding of Bulldogs requires unlimited patience, as 
success is very difficult to attain. The breeder who can rear 
five out of every ten puppies born may be considered fortu- 
nate. It is frequently found in what appears to be a healthy 
lot of puppies that some of them begin to whine and whimper 
towards the end of the first day, and in such cases the writer's 
experience is that there will be a speedy burial. 

It may be that the cause is due to some acidity of the milk, 
but in such a case one would expect that similar difficulty 
would be experienced with the remainder of the litter, but 
this is not the usual result. Provided that the puppies can be 
kept alive until the fourth day, it may be taken that the 
chances are well in favour of ultimate success. 

Many breeders object to feeding the mother with meat 
at this time, but the writer once had two litter sisters who 
whelped on the same day, and he decided to try the effect 
of a meat versus farinaceous diet upon them. As a result the 
bitch who was freely fed with raw beef reared a stronger lot 



of puppies, showing better developed bone, than did the one 
who was fed on milk and cereals. 

Similarly, in order that the puppy, after weaning, may 
develop plenty of bone and muscle, it is advisable to feed 
once a day upon finely minced raw meat. There are some 
successful breeders, indeed, who invariably give to each 
puppy a teaspoonful of cod liver oil in the morning and a 
similar dose of extract of malt in the evening, with the result 
that there are never any rickety or weak dogs in the kennels, 
whilst the development of the bones in the skull and limbs 
is most pronounced. 

Owing to their lethargic disposition, young Bulldogs are 
somewhat liable to indigestion, and during the period of 
puppyhood it is of advantage to give them a tablespoonful 
of lime water once a day in their milk food. 

Many novices are in doubt as to the best time to breed from 
a Bull bitch, seeing that oestrum is present before she is fully 
developed. It may be taken as practically certain that it is 
better for her to be allowed to breed at her first heat. Nature 
has so arranged matters that a Bull bitch is not firmly set in 
her bones until she reaches an age of from twelve to eighteen 
months, and therefore she will have less difficulty in giving 
birth to her offspring if she be allowed to breed at this time. 
Great mortality occurs in attempting to breed from maiden 
bitches exceeding three years of age, as the writer knows to 
his cost. 

It is desirable, in the case of a young bitch having her first 
litter, for her master or mistress to be near her at the time, 
in order to render any necessary assistance ; but such atten- 
tions should not be given unless actual necessity arises. 

Some bitches with excessive lay-back and shortness of face 
have at times a difficulty in releasing the puppy from the 
membrane in which it is born, and in such a case it is necessary 
for the owner to open this covering and release the puppy, 
gently shaking it about in the box until it coughs and begins 
to breathe. 


The umbilical cord should be severed from the afterbirth 
about four inches from the puppy, and this will dry up and 
fall away in the course of a couple of days. 

In general, it is true economy for the Bulldog breeder to 
provide a foster-mother in readiness for the birth of the ex- 
pected litter ; especially is this so in the case of a first litter, 
when the qualifications for nursing by the mother are un- 
known. Where there are more than five puppies it is also 
desirable to obtain a foster-mother in order that full nourish- 
ment may be given to the litter by both mothers. 

The best time of the year for puppies to be born is in the 
spring, when, owing to the approaching warm weather, they 
can lead an outdoor life. By the time they are six months 
old they should have sufficient stamina to enable them to 
withstand the cold of the succeeding winter. It has been 
ascertained that Bulldogs which have been reared out of doors 
are the least liable to suffer from indigestion, torpidity of the 
liver, asthma or other chest ailments, whilst they invariably 
have the hardiest constitution. 

Bulldogs generally require liberal feeding, and should have 
a meal of dry biscuit the first thing in the morning, whilst 
the evening meal should consist of a good stew of butcher's 
offal poured over broken biscuit, bread, or other cereal food. 
In the winter time it is advantageous to soak a tablespoonful 
of linseed in water overnight, and after the pods have opened 
to turn the resulting jelly into the stew pot. This ensures a 
fine glossy coat, and is of value in toning up the intestines. 
Care must, however, be taken not to follow this practice to 
excess in warm weather, as the heating nature of the linseed 
will eventually cause skin trouble. 

With these special points attended to, the novice should 
find no difficulty in successfully becoming a Bulldog fancier, 
owner, and breeder. 

In conclusion, it cannot be too widely known that the 
Bulldog is one of the very few breeds which can, with 
perfect safety, be trusted alone to the mercy of children, 


who, naturally, in the course of play, try the patience and 
good temper of the firmest friend of man. 


Fifty or sixty years ago, Toy or, rather, as a recent edict 
of the Kennel Club requires them to be dubbed, Miniature 
Bulldogs were common objects of the canine country-side. 
In fact, you can hardly ever talk for ten minutes to any 
Bulldog breeder of old standing without his telling you tall 
stories of the wonderful little Bulldogs, weighing about 
fifteen or sixteen pounds, he either knew or owned in those 
long-past days ! 

Prominent among those who made a cult of these " bantams " 
were the laceworkers of Nottingham, and many prints are 
extant which bear witness to the excellent little specimens 
they bred. But a wave of unpopularity overwhelmed them, 
and they faded across the Channel to France, where, if, as is 
asserted, our Gallic neighbours appreciated them highly, 
they cannot be said to have taken much care to preserve their 
best points. When, in 1898, a small but devoted band of 
admirers revived them in England, they returned most 
attractive, 'tis true, but hampered by many undesirable 
features, such as bat ears, froggy faces, waving tails, and a 
general lack of Bulldog character. However, the Toy Bull- 
dog Club then started, took the dogs vigorously in hand, and 
thanks to unceasing efforts, Toy Bulldogs have always 
since been catered for at an ever increasing number of shows. 
Their weight, after much heated discussion and sundry downs 
and ups, was finally fixed at twenty-two pounds and under. 

The original aim of Miniature Bulldogs i.e. to look like the 
larger variety seen through the wrong end of a telescope 
if not actually achieved, is being rapidly approached, and can 
no longer be looked upon as merely the hopeless dream of a 
few enthusiasts. 

To enumerate in detail the Miniature Bulldog scale of points 
is quite unnecessary, as it is simply that of the big ones 


writ small. In other words, " the general appearance of the 
Miniature Bulldog must as nearly as possible resemble that 
of the Big Bulldog " a terse sentence which comprises in 
itself all that can be said on the subject. 

As companions and friends Miniature Bulldogs are faithful, 
fond, and even foolish in their devotion, as all true friends 
should be. They are absolutely and invariably good-tem- 
pered, and, as a rule, sufficiently fond of the luxuries of this 
life not to say greedy to be easily cajoled into obedience. 
Remarkably intelligent, and caring enough for sport to be 
sympathetically excited at the sight of a rabbit without 
degenerating into cranks on the subject like terriers. Tak- 
ing a keen interest in all surrounding people and objects, 
without, however, giving way to ceaseless barking ; enjoying 
outdoor exercise, without requiring an exhausting amount, 
they are in every way ideal pets, and adapt themselves to 
town and country alike. 

As puppies they are delicate, and require constant care and 
supervision ; but that only adds a keener zest to the attrac- 
tive task of breeding them, the more so owing to the fact that 
as mothers they do not shine, being very difficult to manage, 
and generally manifesting a strong dislike to rearing their 
own offspring. In other respects they are quite hardy little 
dogs, and one great advantage they seldom have distemper. 
Cold and damp they particularly dislike, especially when 
puppies, and the greatest care should be taken to keep them 
thoroughly dry and warm. When very young indeed they 
can stand, and are the better for, an extraordinary amount 
of heat. 


There appears to be no doubt that the French Bulldog 
originated in England, and is an offshoot of the English 
miniature variety Bulldog, not the Bulldog one sees on the 
bench to-day, but of the tulip-eared and short underjawed 
specimens which were common in London, Nottingham, 


Birmingham, and Sheffield in the early 'fifties. There was at 
that time a constant emigration of laceworkers from Notting- 
ham to the coast towns of Normandy, where lace factories 
were springing into existence, and these immigrants frequently 
took a Bulldog with them to the land of their adoption. The 
converse method was also adopted. Prior to 1902 French 
Bulldogs were imported into this country with the object of 
resuscitating the strain of bantam Bulldogs, which in course 
of years had been allowed to dwindle in numbers, and were 
in danger of becoming extinct. 

There are superficial similarities between the English and 
the French toy Bulldog, the one distinguishing characteristic 
being that in the French variety the ears are higher on the 
head and are held erect. Until a few years ago the two were 
interbred, but disputes as to their essential differences led 
the Kennel Club to intervene and the types have since been 
kept rigidly apart, the smart little bat-eared Bulldogs of 
France receiving recognition under the breed name of Boul- 


THE history of the St. Bernard dog would not be complete 
without reference being made to the noble work that he has 
done in Switzerland, his native land : how the Hospice St. 
Bernard kept a considerable number of dogs which were 
trained to go over the mountains with small barrels round 
their necks, containing restoratives, in the event of their 
coming across any poor travellers who had either lost their 
way, or had been overcome by the cold. We have been told 
that the intelligent animals saved many lives in this way, 
the subjects of their deliverance often being found entirely 
buried in the snow. 

Handsome as the St. Bernard is, with his attractive colour 
and markings, he is a cross-bred dog. From the records of 
old writers it is to be gathered that to refill the kennels at the 
Hospice which had been rendered vacant from the combined 
catastrophes of distemper and the fall of an avalanche which 
had swept away nearly all their hounds, the monks were 
compelled to have recourse to a cross with the Newfoundland 
and the Pyrenean sheepdog, the latter not unlike the St. 
Bernard in size and appearance. Then, again, there is no 
doubt whatever that at some time the Bloodhound has been 
introduced, and it is known for a certainty that almost all 
the most celebrated St. Bernards in England at the present 
time are closely allied to the Mastiff. 

The result of all this intermixture of different breeds has 
been the production of an exceedingly fine race of dogs, which 
form one of the most attractive features at our dog shows, 



and are individually excellent guards and companions. As 
a companion, the St. Bernard cannot be surpassed, when a 
large dog is required for the purpose. Most docile in tempera- 
ment and disposition, he is admirably suited as the associate 
of a lady or a child. 

The St. Bernard is sensitive to a degree, and seldom forgets 
an insult, which he resents with dignity. Specimens of the 
breed have occasionally been seen that are savage, but when 
this is the case ill-treatment of some sort has assuredly been 
the provoking cause. 

The dogs at the Hospice of St. Bernard are small in com- 
parison with those that are seen in England belonging to the 
same race. The Holy Fathers were more particular about 
their markings than great size. The body colour should be 
brindle or orange tawny, with white markings ; the muzzle 
white, with a line running up between the eyes, and over the 
skull, joining at the back the white collar that encircles the 
neck down to the front of the shoulders. The colour round 
the eyes and on the ears should be of a darker shade in the 
red ; in the centre of the white line at the occiput there should 
be a spot of colour. These markings are said to represent 
the stole, chasuble and scapular which form part of the vest- 
ments worn by the monks ; but it is seldom that the markings 
are so clearly denned ; they are more often white, with 
brindle or orange patches on the body, with evenly-marked 

In England St. Bernards are either distinctly rough in coat 
or smooth, but the generality of the Hospice dogs are broken 
in coat, having a texture between the two extremes. The 
properties, however, of the rough and smooth are the same, 
so that the two varieties are often bred together, and, as a 
rule, both textures of coat will be the result of the alliance. 
The late M. Schumacher, a great authority on the breed in 
Switzerland, averred that dogs with very rough coats were 
found to be of no use for work on the Alps, as their thick 
covering became so loaded with snow and their feet so clogged 


that they succumbed under the weight and perished. On 
that account they were discarded by the monks. 

In connection with the origin of the St. Bernard, M. Schu- 
macher wrote in a letter to Mr. J. C. Macdona, who was the 
first to introduce the breed into Great Britain in any numbers : 
" According to the tradition of the Holy Fathers of the Great 
Saint Bernard, their race descends from the crossing of a 
bitch (a Bulldog species) of Denmark and a Mastiff (Shepherd's 
Dog) of the Pyrenees. The descendants of the crossing, 
who have inherited from the Danish dog its extraordinary 
size and bodily strength, and from the Pyrenean Mastiff the 
intelligence, the exquisite sense of smell, and, at the same 
time, the faithfulness and sagacity which characterise them, 
have acquired in the space of five centuries so glorious a 
notoriety throughout Europe that they well merit the name 
of a distinct race for themselves." 

From the same authority we learn that it is something 
like six hundred years since the St. Bernard came into exist- 
ence. It was not, however, till competitive exhibitions for 
dogs had been for some years established that the St. Bernard 
gained a footing in Great Britain. A few specimens had been 
imported from the Hospice before Mr. Gumming Macdona 
(then the Rev. Gumming Macdona) introduced us to the 
celebrated Tell, who, with others of the breed brought from 
Switzerland, formed the foundation of his magnificent kennel 
at West Kirby, in Cheshire. Albert Smith, whom some 
few that are now alive will remember as an amusing lecturer, 
brought a pair from the Hospice when returning from 
a visit to the Continent and made them take a part 
in his attractive entertainment ; but the associations of 
the St. Bernard with the noble deeds recorded in history 
were not then so widely known, and these two dogs 
passed away without having created any particular 

Later on, at a dog show at Cremorne held in 1863, two St. 
Bernards were exhibited, each of whom rejoiced in the name 


of Monk, and were, respectively, the property of the Rev. 
A. N. Bate and Mr. W. H. Stone. These dogs were exhibited 
without pedigrees, but were said to have been bred at the 
Hospice of St. Bernard. Three years later, at the National 
Show at Birmingham, a separate class was provided for the 
saintly breed, and Mr. Gumming Macdona was first and 
second with Tell and Bernard. This led to an immediate 
popularity of the St. Bernard. But Tell was the hero of 
the shows at which he appeared, and his owner was recognised 
as being the introducer into this country of the magnificent 
variety of the canine race that now holds such a prominent 
position as a show dog. 

The names of Tell and Bernard have been handed down 
to fame, the former as the progenitor of a long line of rough- 
coated offspring ; the latter as one of the founders of the 
famous Shefford Kennel, kept by Mr. Fred Gresham, who 
probably contributed more to the perfecting of the St. Bernard 
than any other breeder. His Birnie, Monk, Abbess, Grosvenor 
Hector, and Shah are names which appear in the pedigrees 
of most of the best dogs of more recent times. When Mr. 
Gresham drew his long record of success to a close there came 
a lull in the popularity of the breed until Dr. Inman, in partner- 
ship with Mr. B. Walmsley, established a kennel first at 
Barford, near Bath, and then at The Priory, at Bowden, in 
Cheshire, where they succeeded in breeding the finest kennel 
of St. Bernards that has ever been seen in the world. Dr. 
Inman had for several years owned good dogs, and set about 
the work on scientific principles. He, in conjunction with 
Mr. Walmsley, purchased the smooth-coated Kenilworth 
from Mr. Loft, bred that dog's produce with a brindle Mastiff 
of high repute, and then crossed back to his St. Bernards 
with the most successful results. Dr. Inman was instrumental 
in forming the National St. Bernard Club, which was soon 
well supported with members, and now has at its disposal 
a good collection of valuable challenge cups. The dogs 
bred at Bowden carried all before them in the show ring, 


and were continually in request for stud purposes, improving 
the breed to a remarkable extent. 

At the disposal of Messrs. Inman and Walmsley's kennel, 
there were such admirable dogs as the rough-coated Wolfram 
from whom were bred Tannhauser, Narcissus, Leontes 
and Klingsor the smooth-coated dogs, the King's Son and 
The Viking ; the rough-coated bitch, Judith Inman, and 
the smooth Viola, the last-named the finest specimen of her 
sex that has probably ever been seen. These dogs and bitches, 
with several others, were dispersed all over England, with 
the exception of Klingsor, who went to South Africa. 

Almost all the best St. Bernards in Great Britain at the 
present time have been bred or are descended from the Bowden 

The following is the description of the St. Bernard as 
drawn up by the members of the St. Bernard Club : 

Head The head should be large and massive, the circumference of 
the skull being more than double the length of the head from nose to 
occiput. From stop to tip of nose should be moderately short ; full 
below the eye and square at the muzzle ; there should be great depth 
from the eye to the lower jaw, and the lips should be deep throughout, 
but not too pendulous. From the nose to the stop should be straight, 
and the stop abrupt and well defined. The skull should be broad and 
rounded at the top, but not domed, with somewhat prominent brow. 
Ears The ears should be of medium size, lying close to the cheek, but 
strong at the base and not heavily feathered. Eyes The eyes should 
be rather small and deep set, dark in colour and not too close together ; 
the lower eyelid should droop, so as to show a fair amount of haw. 
Nose The nose should be large and black, with well developed nostrils. 
The teeth should be level. Expression The expression should betoken 
benevolence, dignity, and intelligence. Neck The neck should be 
lengthy, muscular, and slightly arched, with dewlap developed, and 
the shoulders broad and sloping, well up at the withers. General 
Description of Body The chest should be wide and deep, and the back 
level as far as the haunches, slightly arched over the loins ; the ribs 
should be well rounded and carried well back ; the loin wide and very 
muscular. Tall The tail should be set on rather high, long, and in the 
long-coated variety bushy ; carried low when in repose, and when 
excited or in motion slightly above the line of the back. Legs The 
fore-legs should be perfectly straight, strong in bone, and of good length ; 
and the hind-legs very muscular. The feet large, compact, with well- 
arched toes. Size A dog should be at least 30 inches in height at the 
shoulder, and a bitch 27 inches (the taller the better, provided the 
symmetry is maintained) ; thoroughly well proportioned, and of great 


substance. The general outline should suggest great power and 
capability of endurance. Coat In the long-coated variety the coat 
should be dense and flat ; rather fuller round the neck ; the thighs 
feathered but not too heavily. In the short-coated variety, the coat 
should be dense, hard, flat, and short, slightly feathered on thighs and 
tail. Colour and Markings The colour should be red, orange, various 
shades of brindle (the richer colour the better), or white with patches 
on body of one of the above named colours. The markings should be 
as follows : white muzzle, white blaze up face, white collar round neck ; 
white chest, forelegs, feet, and end of tail ; black shadings on face and 
ears. If the blaze be wide and runs through to the collar, a spot of the 
body colour on the top of the head is desirable. 

The weight of a dog should be from 170 Ibs. to 210 Ibs. ; of a bitch 
160 Ibs. to 190 Ibs. 

During the past twenty-five years St. Bernards have been 
bred in this country very much taller and heavier than they 
were in the days of Tell, Hope, Moltke, Monk, Hector, and 
Othman. Not one of these measured over 32 inches in height, 
or scaled over 180 Ibs., but the increased height and greater 
weight of the more modern production have been obtained 
by forcing them as puppies and by fattening them to such 
an extent that they have been injured in constitution, and 
in many cases converted into cripples behind. The prize- 
winning rough-coated St. Bernard, as he is seen to-day is 
a purely manufactured animal, handsome in appearance 
certainly, but so cumbersome that he is scarcely able to 
raise a trot, let alone do any tracking in the snow. Usefulness, 
however, is not a consideration with breeders, who have 
reared the dog to meet the exigencies of the show ring. There 
is still much left to be desired, and there is room for con- 
siderable improvement, as only a few of the more modern 
dogs of the breed approach the standard drawn up by the 
Clubs that are interested in their welfare. 


THE dogs which take their name from the island of New- 
foundland appeal to all lovers of animals, romance, and 
beauty. A Newfoundland formed the subject of perhaps 
the most popular picture painted by Sir Edwin Landseer ; a 
monument was erected by Byron over the grave of his New- 
foundland in proximity to the place where the poet himself 
hoped to be buried, at Newstead Abbey, and the inscription 
on his monument contains the lines so frequently quoted : 

"But the poor dog in life the firmest friend, 
The first to welcome, foremost to defend, 
Whose honest heart is still his master's own, 
Who labours, fights, lives, breathes for him alone. 

To mark a friend's remains these stones arise : 
I never knew but one, and here he lies." 

Robert Burns, also, in his poem, " The Twa Dogs," written 
in 1786, refers to a Newfoundland as being an aristocrat 
among dogs. Doubtless, other breeds of dogs have been 
the subjects of popular pictures and have had their praises 
sung by poets, but the Newfoundlands have yet a further 
honour, unique amongst dogs, in being the subject for a 
postage stamp of their native land. All these distinctions 
and honours have not been conferred without reason, for 
no breed of dogs has greater claim to the title of friend of 
man, and it has become famous for its known readiness and 
ability to save persons in danger, especially from drowning. 
It is strong and courageous in the water, and on land a properly 
trained Newfoundland is an ideal companion and guard. 



Innumerable are the accounts of Newfoundlands having 
proved their devotion to their owners, and of the many lives 
saved by them in river and sea ; and when Sir Edwin Landseer 
selected one of the breed as the subject of his picture entitled, 
" A Distinguished Member of the Humane Society," he was 
justified not only by the sentiment attaching to this re- 
markable race of dogs, but also by the deeds by which New- 
foundlands have made good their claim to such great distinc- 
tion, and the popular recognition of this, no doubt, in some 
degree added to the great esteem in which this painting has 
always been held. 

The picture was painted in 1838, and, as almost everyone 
knows, represents a white and black Newfoundland. The 
dog portrayed was typical of the breed, and after a lapse 
of over seventy years, the painting has now the added value 
of enabling us to make a comparison with specimens of the 
breed as it exists to-day. Such a comparison will show that 
among the best dogs now living are some which might have 
been the model for this picture. It is true that in the interval 
the white and black Newfoundlands have been coarser, 
heavier, higher on the legs, with an expression denoting 
excitability quite foreign to the true breed, but these de- 
partures from Newfoundland character are passing away 
it is to be hoped for good. The breed is rapidly returning 
to the type which Landseer's picture represents a dog of 
great beauty, dignity, and benevolence of character, showing 
in its eyes an almost human pathos. 

Some twenty-five to thirty years ago there was considerable 
discussion among owners of Newfoundlands in this country 
as to the proper colour of the true breed, and there were 
many persons who claimed, as some still claim, that the black 
variety is the only true variety, and that the white and black 
colouring indicates a cross-breed. Again Landseer's picture 
is of value, because, in the first place, we may be almost 
certain that he would have selected for such a picture a 
typical dog of the breed, and, secondly, because the picture 


shows, nearly half a century prior to the discussion, a white 
and black dog, typical in nearly every respect, except colour, 
of the black Newfoundland. There is no appearance of 
cross-breeding in Landseer's dog ; on the contrary, he reveals 
all the characteristics of a thoroughbred. Seventy years 
ago, therefore, the white and black variety may be fairly 
considered to have been established, and it is worthy of 
mention here that " Idstone " quoted an article written in 
1819 stating that back in the eighteenth century Newfound- 
lands were large, rough-coated, liver and white dogs. It is 
clear, also, that in 1832 Newfoundlands in British North 
America were of various colours. Additional evidence, 
too, is provided, in the fact that when selecting the type of 
head for their postage stamp the Government of Newfoundland 
chose the Landseer dog. Therefore, there are very strong 
arguments against the claim that the true variety is essentially 

However that may be, there are now two established 
varieties, the black and the white and black. There are also 
bronze-coloured dogs, but they are rare and are not favoured. 
It is stated, however, that puppies of that colour are generally 
the most promising in all other respects. 

The black variety of the Newfoundland is essentially black 
in colour ; but this does not mean that there may be no other 
colour, for most black Newfoundlands have some white marks, 
and these are not considered objectionable, so long as they 
are limited to white hairs on the chest, toes, or the tip of the 
tail. In fact, a white marking on the chest is said to be 
typical of the true breed. Any white on the head or body 
would place the dog in the other than black variety. The 
black colour should preferably be of a dull jet appearance 
which approximates to brown. In the other than black 
class, there may be black and tan, bronze, and white and 
black. The latter predominates, and in this colour, beauty 
of marking is very important. The head should be black 
with a white muzzle and blaze, and the body and legs should 


be white with large patches of black on the saddle and quarters, 
with possibly other small black spots on the body and legs. 

Apart from colour, the varieties should conform to the 
same standard. The head should be broad and massive, 
but in no sense heavy in appearance. The muzzle should 
be short, square, and clean cut, eyes rather wide apart, deep 
set, dark and small, not showing any haw ; ears small, with 
close side carriage, covered with fine short hair (there should 
be no fringe to the ears), expression full of intelligence, dignity, 
and kindness. 

The body should be long, square, and massive, loins strong 
and well filled ; chest deep and broad ; legs quite straight, 
somewhat short in proportion to the length of the body, and 
powerful, with round bone well covered with muscle ; feet large, 
round, and close. The tail should be only long enough to 
reach just below the hocks, free from kink, and never curled 
over the back. The quality of the coat is very important ; 
the coat should be very dense, with plenty of undercoat ; 
the outer coat somewhat harsh and quite straight. A curly 
coat is very objectionable. A dog with a good coat may be 
in the water for a considerable time without getting wet on 
the skin. 

The appearance generally should indicate a dog of great 
strength, and very active for his build and size, moving freely 
with the body swung loosely between the legs, which gives 
a slight roll in gait. This has been compared to a sailor's 
roll, and is typical of the breed. 

As regards size, the Newfoundland Club standard gives 
140 Ibs. to 120 Ibs. weight for a dog, and no Ibs. to 120 Ibs. 
for a bitch, with an average height at the shoulder of 27 inches 
and 25 inches respectively ; but it is doubtful whether dogs 
in proper condition do conform to both requirements. At 
any rate, the writer is unable to trace any prominent New- 
foundlands which do, and it would be safe to assume that for 
dogs of the weights specified, the height should be quite 
29 inches for dogs, and 27 inches for bitches. A dog weighing 


150 Ibs. and measuring 29 inches in height at the shoulder 
would necessarily be long in body to be in proportion, and 
would probably much nearer approach the ideal form of a 
Newfoundland than a taller dog. 

In that respect Newfoundlands have very much improved 
during the past quarter of a century. Twenty-five years ago, 
the most noted dogs were stated as a rule to be well over 
30 inches in height, but their weight for height would indicate 
legginess, which is an abomination in a Newfoundland. A 
29-inch Newfoundland is quite tall enough, and even that height 
should not be gained at the expense of type and symmetry. 

The white and black variety are, as a rule, slightly taller, 
smaller in loin and longer in head, but these differences in the 
two varieties are being rapidly removed, and at no distant 
date the white and black variety will probably be as correct 
in type and symmetry as the black variety now is. 

For very many years the black variety has been the better in 
type ; and in breeding, if blacks are desired, it will be safer 
as a general rule to insist upon the absence of white and black 
blood in any of the immediate ancestors of the sire and dam. 
But if, on the contrary, white and black dogs are required, 
the proper course is to make judicious crosses between the 
black and white, and black varieties, and destroy any black 
puppies, unless they are required for further crosses with 
white and black blood. In any case the first cross is likely 
to produce both black and mis-marked white and black 
puppies ; but the latter, if bred back to the white and black 
blood, would generally produce well-marked white and black 

In mating, never be guided solely by the good points of the 
dog and bitch. It is very desirable that they should both 
have good points, the more good ones the better, but it is 
more important to ensure that they are dissimilar in their 
defects, and, if possible, that in neither case is there a very 
objectionable defect, especially if such defect was also apparent 
in the animal's sire or dam. 


It is, therefore, important to study what were the good, 
and still more so the bad, points in the parents and grand- 
parents. If you do not know these, other Newfoundland 
breeders will willingly give information, and any trouble 
involved in tracing the knowledge required will be amply 
repaid in the results, and probably save great disappointment. 

When rearing puppies give them soft food, such as well- 
boiled rice and milk, as soon as they will lap, and, shortly 
afterwards, scraped lean meat. Newfoundland puppies 
require plenty of meat to induce proper growth. The puppies 
should increase in weight at the rate of 3 Ibs. a week, and this 
necessitates plenty of flesh, bone and muscle-forming food, 
plenty of meat, both raw and cooked. Milk is also good, 
but it requires to be strengthened with Plasmon, or casein. 
The secret of growing full-sized dogs with plenty of bone and 
substance is to get a good start from birth, good feeding, 
warm, dry quarters, and freedom for the puppies to move 
about and exercise themselves as they wish. Forced exercise 
may make them go wrong on their legs. Medicine should not 
be required except for worms, and the puppies should be 
physicked for these soon after they are weaned, and again 
when three or four months old, or before that if they are not 
thriving. If free from worms, Newfoundland puppies will 
be found quite hardy, and, under proper conditions of food 
and quarters, they are easy to rear. 


THE origin of the Great Dane, b'ke that of many other varie- 
ties of dogs, is so obscure that all researches have only resulted 
in speculative theories, but the undoubted antiquity of this 
dog is proved by the fact that representatives of a breed 
sufficiently similar to be considered his ancestors are found 
on some of the oldest Egyptian monuments. 

A few years ago a controversy arose on the breed's proper 
designation, when the Germans claimed for it the title 
" Deutsche Dogge." Germany had several varieties of big 
dogs, such as the Hatzriide, Saufanger, Ulmer Dogge, and 
Rottweiler Metzgerhund ; but contemporaneously with 
these there existed, as in other countries in Europe, another 
very big breed, but much nobler and more thoroughbred, 
known as the Great Dane. When after the war of 1870 
national feeling was pulsating very strongly in the veins of re- 
united Germany, the German cynologists were on the look- 
out for a national dog, and for that purpose the Great Dane 
was re-christened " Deutsche Dogge," and elected as the 
champion of German Dogdom. For a long time all these 
breeds had, no doubt, been indiscriminately crossed. 

The Great Dane was introduced into this country spas- 
modically some thirty-five years ago, when he was commonly 
referred to as the Boarhound, or the German Mastiff, and for 
a time the breed had to undergo a probationary period in the 
" Foreign Class " at dog shows, but it soon gained in public 
favour, and in the early 'eighties a Great Dane Club was 
formed, and the breed has since become one of the most 
popular of the larger dogs. 



The Kennel Club has classed the Great Dane amongst the 
Non-Sporting dogs, probably because with us he cannot 
find a quarry worthy of his mettle ; but, for all that, he has 
the instincts and qualifications of a sporting dog, and he has 
proved himself particularly valuable for hunting big game in 
hot climates, which he stands very well. 

Respecting the temperament of the Great Dane and his 
suitability as a companion writers have gone to extremes in 
praise and condemnation. In his favour it must be said that 
in natural intelligence he is surpassed by very few other 
dogs. He has a most imposing figure, and does not, like some 
other big breeds, slobber from his mouth, which is a parti- 
cularly unpleasant peculiarity when a dog is kept in the 
house. On the other hand, it must be admitted that with al- 
most the strength of a tiger he combines the excitability of a 
terrier, and no doubt a badly trained Great Dane is a very 
dangerous animal. It is not sufficient to teach him in the 
haphazard way which might be successful in getting a small 
dog under control, but even as a companion he ought to be 
trained systematically, and, considering his marked intelli- 
gence, this is not difficult of accomplishment. 

The Great Dane attains his full development in about a 
year and a half to two years, and, considering that puppies 
have to build up in that time a very big skeleton and straight 
limbs, special attention must be given to the rearing of them. 
The dam whelps frequently eight puppies, and sometimes 
even a few more. Mr. Larke's Princess Thor had a litter of 
seventeen, but even eight is too great a number for a bitch 
to suckle in a breed where great size is a desideratum. Not 
more than four, or at the outside five, should be left with the 
bitch ; the others should be put to a foster mother, or if they 
are weaklings or foul-marked, it is best to destroy them. 
After the puppies are weaned, their food should be of bone- 
making quality, and they require ample space for exercise 
and play. Nothing is worse than to take the youngsters for 
forced marches before their bones have become firm. 


Before giving the description and standard which have been 
adopted by the Great Dane Clubs, a few remarks on some of 
the leading points will be useful. The general characteristic 
of the Great Dane is a combination of grace and power, and 
therefore the lightness of the Greyhound, as well as the heavi- 
ness of the Mastiff, must be avoided. 

The head should be powerful, but at the same time show 
quality by its nice modelling. 

The eyes should be intelligent and vivacious, but not have 
the hard expression of the terrier. The distance between 
the eyes is of great importance ; if too wide apart they give 
the dog a stupid appearance, and if too close he has a treacher- 
ous look. 

Another very important point is the graceful carriage of 
the tail. When it is curled over the back it makes an other- 
wise handsome dog look mean, and a tail that curls at the 
end like a corkscrew is also very ugly. In former times 
" faking " was not infrequently resorted to to correct a faulty 
tail carriage, but it is easily detected. Great Danes sometimes 
injure the end of the tail by hitting it against a hard substance, 
and those with a good carriage of tail are most liable to this 
because in excitement they slash it about, whereas the faulty 
position of the tail, curled over the back, insures immunity 
from harm. 

Until recently British Great Dane breeders and exhibitors 
have paid very little attention to colour, on the principle that, 
like a good horse, a good Great Dane cannot be a bad colour. 
The English clubs, however, have now in this particular also 
adopted the German standard. The orthodox colours are 
brindle, fawn, blue, black, and harlequin. In the brindle 
dogs the ground colour should be any shade from light yellow 
to dark red-yellow on which the brindle appears in darker 
stripes. The harlequins have on a pure white ground fairly 
large black patches, which must be of irregular shape, broken 
up as if they had been torn, and not have rounded outlines. 
When brindle Great Danes are continuously bred together, 


it has been found that they get darker, and that the peculiar 
" striping " disappears, and in that case the introduction of a 
good fawn into the strain is advisable. The constant mating 
of harlequins has the tendency to make the black patches 
disappear, and the union with a good black Great Dane will 
prevent the loss of colour. 

The following is the official description issued by the 
Great Dane Club : 

General Appearance The Great Dane is not so heavy or massive 
as the Mastiff, nor should he too nearly approach the Greyhound type. 
Remarkable in size and very muscular, strongly though elegantly built ; 
the head and neck should be carried high, and the tail in line with the 
back, or slightly upwards, but not curled over the hind-quarters. 
Elegance of outline and grace of form are most essential to a Dane ; 
size is absolutely necessary ; but there must be that alertness of ex- 
pression and briskness of movement without which the Dane character 
is lost. He should have a look of dash and daring, of being ready to 
go anywhere and do anything. Temperament The Great Dane is 
good-tempered, affectionate, and faithful to his master, not demon- 
strative with strangers ; intelligent, courageous, and always alert. 
His value as a guard is unrivalled. He is easily controlled when well 
trained, but he may grow savage if confined too much, kept on chain, 
or ill treated. Height The minimum height of an adult dog should 
be 30 ins. ; that of a bitch, 28 ins. Weight The minimum weight of 
an adult dog should be 120 Ibs. ; that of a bitch, 100 Ibs. The greater 
height and weight to be preferred, provided that quality and proportion 
are also combined. Head Taken altogether, the head should give 
the idea of great length and strength of jaw. The muzzle, or foreface, 
is broad, and the skull proportionately narrow, so that the whole head, 
when viewed from above and in front, has the appearance of equal 
breadth throughout. Length of Head The entire length of head varies 
with the height of the dog, 13 ins. from the tip of the nose to the back 
of the occiput is a good measurement for a dog of 32 ins. at the shoulder. 
The length from the end of the nose to the point between the eyes should 
be about equal, or preferably of greater length than from this point 
to the back of the occiput. Skull The skull should be flat rather than 
domed, and have a slight indentation running up the centre, the 
occipital peak not prominent. There should be a decided rise or brow 
over the eyes, but no abrupt stop between them. Face The face 
should be chiselled well and foreface long, of equal depth throughout, 
and well filled in below the eyes with no appearance of being pinched. 
Muscles of the Cheek The muscles of the cheeks should be quite flat, 
with no lumpiness or cheek bumps, the angle of the jaw-bone well 
defined. Lips The lips should hang quite square in front, forming a 
right angle with the upper line of foreface. Underline The underline 
of the head, viewed in profile, runs almost in a straight line from the 
corner of the lip to the corner of the jawbone, allowing for the fold of the 


lip, but with no loose skin to hang down. Jaw The lower jaw should 
be about level, or at any rate not project more than the sixteenth of an 
inch. Nose and Nostrils The bridge of the nose should be very wide, 
with a slight ridge where the cartilage joins the bone. (This is quite 
a characteristic of the breed.) The nostrils should be large, wide, 
and open, giving a blunt look to the nose. A butterfly or flesh-coloured 
nose is not objected to in harlequins. Ears The ears should be small, 
set high on the skull, and carried slightly erect, with the tips falling 
forward. Neck Next to the head, the neck is one of the chief char- 
acteristics. It should be long, well arched, and quite clean and free 
from loose skin, held well up, snakelike in carriage, well set in the 
shoulders, and the junction of head and neck well defined. Shoulders 
The shoulders should be muscular but not loaded, and well sloped 
back, with the elbows well under the body, so that, when viewed in 
front, the dog does not stand too wide. Fore-legs and Feet The fore- 
legs should be perfectly straight, with big flat bone. The feet large 
and round, the toes well arched and close, the nails strong and curved. 
Body The body is very deep, with ribs well sprung and belly well 
drawn up. Back and Loins The back and loins are strong, the latter 
slightly arched, as in the Greyhound. Hind-Quarters The hind-quar- 
ters and thighs are extremely muscular, giving the idea of great strength 
and galloping power. The second thigh is long and well developed 
as in a Greyhound, and the hocks set low, turning neither out nor in. 
Tall The tail is strong at the root and ends in a fine point, reaching to 
or just below the hocks. It should be carried, when the dog is in 
action, in a straight line level with the back, slightly curved towards 
the end, but should not curl over the back. Coat The hair is short 
and dense, and sleek-looking, and in no case should it incline to coarse- 
ness. Gait or Action The gait should be lithe, springy, and free, 
the action high. The hocks should move very freely, and the head 
should be held well up. Colour The colours are brindle, fawn, blue, 
black, and harlequin. The harlequin should have jet black patches 
and spots on a pure white ground ; grey patches are admissible but 
not desired ; but fawn or brindle shades are objectionable. 


BEFORE the Kennel Club found it necessary to insist upon a 
precise definition of each breed, the Dalmatian was known as 
the Coach Dog, a name appropriately derived from his fond- 
ness for following a carriage, for living in and about the 
stable, and for accompanying his master's horses at exercise. 
As an adjunct to the carriage he is peculiarly suitable, for in 
fine weather he will follow between the wheels for long dis- 
tances without showing fatigue, keeping easy pace with the 
best horses. He appears almost to prefer equine to human 
companionship, and he is as fond of being among horses as 
the Collie is of being in the midst of sheep. Yet he is of 
friendly disposition, and it must be insisted that he is by 
no means so destitute of intelligence as he is often represented 
to be. On the contrary, he is capable of being trained into 
remarkable cleverness, as circus proprietors have discovered. 

The earliest authorities agree that this breed was first 
introduced from Dalmatia, and that he was brought into this 
country purely on account of his sporting proclivities. Of late 
years, however, these dogs have so far degenerated as to be 
looked upon simply as companions, or as exhibition dogs, 
for only very occasionally can it be found that any pains 
have been taken to train them systematically for gun-work. 

The first of the variety which appeared in the show ring 
was Mr. James Fawdry's Captain, in 1873. At that period 
they were looked upon as a novelty, and, though the generosity 
and influence of a few admirers ensured separate classes being 
provided for the breed at the leading shows, it did not necessi- 
tate the production of such perfect specimens as those which 
E 49 


a few years afterwards won prizes. At the first they were 
more popular in the North of England than in any other part 
of Great Britain. It was at Kirkby Lonsdale that Dr. James's 
Spotted Dick was bred, and an early exploiter of the breed who 
made his dogs famous was Mr. Newby Wilson, of Lakeside, 
Windermere. He was indebted to Mr. Hugo Droesse, of 
London, for the foundation of his stud, inasmuch as it was 
from Mr. Droesse that he purchased Ch. Acrobat and Ch. 
Berolina. At a later date the famed Coming Still and Prince 
IV. were secured from the same kennel, the latter dog being 
the progenitor of most of the best liver-spotted specimens that 
have attained notoriety as prize-winners down to the present 

In appearance the Dalmatian should be very similar to a 
Pointer except in head and marking. Still, though not so 
long in muzzle nor so pendulous in lip as a Pointer, there 
should be no coarseness or common look about the skull, a 
fault which is much too prevalent. Then, again, some judges 
do not attach sufficient importance to the eyelids, or rather 
sears, which should invariably be edged round with black 
or brown. Those which are flesh-coloured in this particular 
should be discarded, however good they may be in other re- 
spects. The density and pureness of colour, in both blacks 
and browns, is of great importance, but should not be per- 
mitted to outweigh the evenness of the distribution of spots 
on the body ; no black patches, or even mingling of the spots, 
should meet with favour, any more than a ring-tail or a clumsy- 
looking, heavy-shouldered dog should command attention. 

The darker-spotted variety usually prevails in a cross 
between the two colours, the offspring very seldom having the 
liver-coloured markings. The uninitiated may be informed 
that Dalmatian puppies are always born pure white. The 
clearer and whiter they are the better they are likely to be. 
There should not be the shadow of a mark or spot on them. 
When about a fortnight old, however, they generally develop 
a dark ridge on the belly, and the spots will then begin to 


show themselves ; first about the neck and ears, and after- 
wards along the back, until at about the sixteenth day the 
markings are distinct over the body, excepting only the tail, 
which frequently remains white for a few weeks longer. 

The standard of points as laid down by the leading club is 
sufficiently explicit to be easily understood, and is as follows : 

General Appearance The Dalmatian should represent a strong, 
muscular, and active dog, symmetrical in outline, and free from coarse- 
ness and lumber, capable of great endurance combined with a fair 
amount of speed. Head The head should be of a fair length ; the skull 
flat, rather broad between the ears, and moderately well defined at the 
temples i.e. exhibiting a moderate amount of stop and not in one 
straight line from the nose to the occiput bone as required in a Bull- 
terrier. It should be entirely free from wrinkle. Muzzle The muzzle 
should be long and powerful ; the lips clean, fitting the jaws moderately 
close. Eyes The eyes should be set moderately well apart, and of 
medium size, round, bright, and sparkling, with an intelligent ex- 
pression, their colour greatly depending on the markings of the dog. 
In the black spotted variety the eyes should be dark (black or dark 
brown), in the liver-spotted variety they should be light (yellow or 
light brown). The Rim round the Eyes in the black-spotted variety 
should be black, in the liver-spotted variety brown never flesh-colour 
in either. Ears The ears should be set on rather high, of moderate 
size, rather wide at the base, and gradually tapering to a round point. 
They should be carried close to the head, be thin and fine in texture, 
and always spotted the more profusely the better. Nose The nose 
in the black-spotted variety should always be black, in the liver- 
spotted variety always brown. Neck and Shoulders The neck should 
be fairly long, nicely arched, light and tapering, and entirely free from 
throatiness. The shoulders should be moderately oblique, clean, and 
muscular, denoting speed. Body, Back, Chest, and Loins The chest 
should not be too wide, but very deep and capacious, ribs moderately 
well sprung, never rounded like barrel hoops (which would indicate 
want of speed), the back powerful, loin strong, muscular, and slightly 
arched. Legs and Feet The legs and feet are of great importance. 
The fore-legs should be perfectly straight, strong, and heavy in bone ; 
elbows close to the body ; fore-feet round, compact with well-arched 
toes (cat-footed), and round, tough, elastic pads. In the hind-legs the 
muscles should be clean, though well-defined ; the hocks well let 
down. Nails The nails in the black-spotted variety should be black 
and white in the liver-spotted variety brown and white. Tail The tail 
should not be too long, strong at the insertion, and gradually tapering 
towards the end, free from coarseness. It should not be inserted too 
low down, but carried with a slight curve upwards, and never curled. 
It should be spotted, the more profusely the better. Coat The coat 
should be short, hard, dense and fine, sleek and glossy in appearance, 
but neither woolly nor silky. Colour and Markings These are most 
important points. The ground colour in both varieties should be 


pure white, very decided, and not intermixed. The colour of the spots 
of the black-spotted variety should be black, the deeper and richer 
the black the better ; in the liver-spotted variety they should be brown. 
The spots should not intermingle, but be as round and well-defined as 
possible, the more distinct the better ; in size they should be from that 
of a sixpence to a florin. The spots on head, face, ears, legs, tail, and 
extremities to be smaller than those on the body. Weight Dogs* 
55 Ibs. ; bitches, 50 Ibs. 


THE townsman who knows the shepherd's dog only as he is to 
be seen, out of his true element, threading his confined way 
through crowded streets where sheep are not, can have small 
appreciation of his wisdom and his sterling worth. To know 
him properly, one needs to see him at work in a country where 
sheep abound, to watch him adroitly rounding up his scattered 
charges on a wide-stretching moorland, gathering the wander- 
ing wethers into close order and driving them before him in 
unbroken company to the fold ; handling the stubborn pack 
in a narrow lane, or holding them in a corner of a field, im- 
mobile under the spell of his vigilant eye. He is at his best as 
a worker, conscious of the responsibility reposed in him ; 
a marvel of generalship, gentle, judicious, slow to anger, 
quick to action ; the priceless helpmeet of his master the 
most useful member of all the tribe of dogs. 

Few dogs possess the fertile, resourceful brain of the Collie. 
He can be trained to perform the duties of other breeds. 
He makes an excellent sporting dog, and can be taught to do 
the work of the Pointer and the Setter, as well as that of the 
Water Spaniel and the Retriever. He is clever at hunting, 
having an excellent nose, is a good vermin-killer, and a most 
faithful watch, guard, and companion. Major Richardson, 
who for some years has been successful in training dogs to 
ambulance work on the field of battle, has carefully tested 
the abilities of various breeds in discovering wounded soldiers, 
and he gives to the Collie the decided preference. 

It is, however, as an assistant to the flock-master, the 



farmer, the butcher, and the drover that the Collie takes his 
most appropriate place in every-day life. The shepherd 
on his daily rounds, travelling over miles of moorland, could 
not well accomplish his task without his Collie's skilful aid. 
One such dog, knowing what is expected of him, can do 
work which would otherwise require the combined efforts 
of a score of men. 

Little is known with certainty of the origin of the Collie, 
but his cunning and his outward appearance would seem to 
indicate a relationship with the wild dog. Buffon was of 
opinion that he was the true dog of nature, the stock and 
model of the whole canine species. He considered the 
Sheepdog superior in instinct and intelligence to all other 
breeds, and that, with a character in which education has 
comparatively little share, he is the only animal born perfectly 
trained for the service of man. 

One of the most perfect working Collies in Scotland to-day 
is the old-fashioned black and white type, which is the most 
popular among the shepherds of Scotland. At the shows 
this type of dog is invariably at the top of the class. He is 
considered the most tractable, and is certainly the most agile. 
Second to this type in favour is the smooth-coated variety, 
a very hard, useful dog, well adapted for hill work and usually 
very fleet of foot. He is not so sweet in temper as the black 
and white, and is slow to make friends. In the Ettrick 
and Yarrow district the smooth is a popular sheepdog. The 
shepherds maintain that he climbs the hills more swiftly 
than the rough, and in the heavy snowstorms his clean, 
unfeathered legs do not collect and carry the snow. He has 
a fuller coat than the show specimens usually carry, but he 
has the same type of head, eye, and ears, only not so well 

Then there is the Scottish bearded, or Highland Collie, 
less popular still with the flock-master, a hardy-looking dog 
in outward style, but soft in temperament, and many of them 
make better cattle than sheep dogs. This dog and the Old 


English Sheepdog are much alike in appearance, but that 
the bearded is a more racy animal, with a head resembling 
that of the Dandie Dinmont rather than the square head of the 
Bobtail. The strong-limbed bearded Collie is capable of 
getting through a good day's work, but is not so steady nor 
so wise as the old-fashioned black and white, or even the 
smooth coated variety. He is a favourite with the butcher 
and drover who have sometimes a herd of troublesome cattle 
to handle, and he is well suited to rough and rocky ground, 
active in movement, and as sure-footed as the wild goat. 
He can endure cold and wet without discomfort, and can live 
on the Highland hills when others less sturdy would suc- 
cumb. In the standard adopted for judging the breed, many 
points are given for good legs and feet, bone, body, and coat, 
while head and ears are not of great importance. Movement, 
size, and general appearance have much weight. The colour 
is varied in this breed. Cream-coloured specimens are not 
uncommon, and snow white with orange or black markings 
may often be seen, but the popular colour is grizzly grey. 
Unfortunately the coats of many are far too soft and the 
undercoat is frequently absent. 

Working trials to test the skill of the sheepdog have become 
frequent fixtures among shepherds and farmers within recent 
years, and these competitions have done much towards the 
improvement of the working qualities of the Collie. In 
general the excelling competitors at working trials are the 
rough-coated black and white Collies. The smooth-coated 
variety and the Beardie are less frequent winners. The 
handsome and distinguished gentlemen of the Ch. Wishaw 
Leader type are seldom seen on the trial field, although former- 
ly such a dog as Ch. Ormskirk Charlie might be successfully 
entered with others equally well bred from the kennels of that 
good trainer and fancier, Mr. Piggin, of Long Eaton. A 
good working Collie, however, is not always robed in elegance. 
What is desirable is that the shepherd and farmer should fix 
a standard of points, and breed as near as possible to that 


standard, as the keepers of the show Collie breed to an ac- 
knowledged type of perfection. Nevertheless, from a bad 
worker of good descent many an efficient worker might be 
produced by proper mating, and those of us skilled in the 
breeding of Collies know the importance of a well-considered 
process of selection from unsullied strains. 

It is a pity that the hard-working dog of the shepherd does 
not receive the attention in the way of feeding and groom- 
ing that is bestowed on the ornamental show dog. He is 
too often neglected in these particulars. Notwithstanding 
this neglect, however, the average life of the working dog is 
longer by a year or two than that of his more beautiful cousin. 
Pampering and artificial living are not to be encouraged ; 
but, on the other hand, neglect has the same effect of shorten- 
ing the span of life, and bad feeding and inattention to clean- 
liness provoke the skin diseases which are far too prevalent. 

There is not a more graceful and physically beautiful dog 
to be seen than the show Collie of the present period. Produced 
from the old working type, he is now practically a distinct 
breed. His qualities in the field are not often tested, but 
he is a much more handsome and attractive animal, and his 
comeliness will always win for him many admiring friends. 
The improvements in his style and appearance have been 
alleged to be due to an admixture with Gordon Setter blood. 
In the early years of exhibitions he showed the shorter head, 
heavy ears, and much of the black and tan colouring which 
might seem to justify such a supposition ; but there is no evi- 
dence that the cross was ever purposely sought. Gradually 
the colour was lightened to sable and a mingling of black, 
white, and tan came into favour. The shape of the head was 
also improved. These improvements in beauty of form and 
colour have been largely induced by the many Collie clubs 
now in existence not only in the United Kingdom and America, 
but also in South Africa and Germany, by whom the standards 
of points have been perfected. Type has been enhanced, 
the head with the small ornamental ears that now prevail is 


more classical ; and scientific cultivation and careful selec- 
tion of typical breeding stock have achieved what may be 
considered the superlative degree of quality, without appre- 
ciable loss of stamina, size, or substance. 

Twenty years or so ago, when Collies were becoming fashion- 
able, the rich sable coat with long white mane was in highest 
request. In 1888 Ch. Metchley Wonder captivated his 
admirers by these rich qualities. He was the first Collie for 
which a very high purchase price was paid, Mr. Sam Bodding- 
ton having sold him to Mr. A. H. Megson, of Manchester, for 
530. High prices then became frequent. Mr. Megson paid as 
much as 1,600 to Mr. Tom Stretch for Ormskirk Emerald. 
No Collie has had a longer or more brilliant career than 
Emerald, and although he was not esteemed as a successful 
sire, yet he was certainly the greatest favourite among our 
show dogs of recent years. 

Mr. Megson has owned many other good specimens of the 
breed, both rough and smooth. In the same year that he 
bought Metchley Wonder, he gave 350 for a ten-months' 
puppy, Caractacus. Sable and white is his favourite com- 
bination of colour, a fancy which was shared some years ago 
by the American buyers, who would have nothing else. 
Black, tan, and white became more popular in England, and 
while there is now a good market for these in the United 
States the sable and white remains the favourite of the 
American buyers and breeders. 

The best Collie of modern times was undoubtedly Ch. 
Squire of Tytton, which went to America for 1,250. A 
golden sable with quality, nice size, and profuse coat, he had 
an unbeaten record in this country. Another of our best 
and most typical rough Collies was Ch. Wishaw Leader. 
This beautiful dog, who had a most distinguished show 
career, was a well-made black, tan, and white, with an enor- 
mous coat and beautiful flowing white mane ; one of the most 
active movers, displaying quality all through, and yet having 
plenty of substance. He had that desirable distinction of 


type which is so often lacking in our long-headed Collies. 
Ormskirk Emerald's head was of good length and well bal- 
anced, the skull sufficiently flat ; his eye was almond-shaped 
and dark-brown in colour, his expression keen and wise, 
entirely free from the soft look which we see on many of the 
faces to-day. Historical examples of the show Collie have 
also been seen in Champions Christopher, Anfield Model, 
Sappho of Tytton, Parbold Piccolo, and Woodmanstern 

In recent years the smooth Collie has gained in popularity 
quite as certainly as his more amply attired relative. Origin- 
ally he was a dog produced by mating the old-fashioned black 
and white with the Greyhound. But the Greyhound type, 
which was formerly very marked, can scarcely be discerned 
to-day. Still, it is not infrequent that a throw-back is dis- 
covered in a litter producing perhaps a slate-coloured, a pure, 
white, or a jet black individual, or that an otherwise perfect 
smooth Collie should betray the heavy ears or the eye of a 
Greyhound. At one time this breed of dog was much culti- 
vated in Scotland, but nowadays the breeding of smooths is 
almost wholly confined to the English side of the Border. 

The following is the accepted description of the Perfect 
Collie : 

The Skull should be flat, moderately wide between the ears, and 
gradually tapering towards the eyes. There should only be a slight 
depression at stop. The width of skull necessarily depends upon 
combined length of skull and muzzle ; and the whole must be 
considered in connection with the size of the dog. The cheek should 
not be full or prominent. The Muzzle should be of fair length, 
tapering to the nose, and must not show weakness or be snipy or 
lippy. Whatever the colour of the dog may be, the nose must be 
black. The Teeth should be of good size, sound and level ; very slight 
unevenness is permissible. The Jaws Clean cut and powerful. The 
Eyes are a very important feature, and give expression to the dog ; 
they should be of medium size, set somewhat obliquely, of almond 
shape, and of a brown colour except in the case of merles, when the 
eyes are frequently (one or both) blue and white or china ; expression 
full of intelligence, with a quick alert look when listening. The Ears 
should be small and moderately wide at the base, and placed not too 
close together but on the top of the skull and not on the side of the 
head. When in repose they should be usually carried thrown back. 

I I C 
C v 

t * fct 


but when on the alert brought forward and carried semi-erect, with 
tips slightly drooping in attitude of listening. The Neck should be 
muscular, powerful and of fair length, and somewhat arched. The 
Body should be strong, with well sprung ribs, chest deep, fairly broad 
behind the shoulders, which should be sloped, loins very powerful. 
The dog should be straight in front. The Fore-Legs should be straight 
and muscular, neither in nor out at elbows, with a fair amount of bone ; 
the forearm somewhat fleshy, the pasterns showing flexibility without 
weakness. The Hind-Legs should be muscular at the thighs, clean and 
sinewy below the hocks, with well bent stifles. The Feet should be 
oval in shape, soles well padded, and the toes arched and close together. 
The hind feet less arched, the hocks well let down and powerful. The 
Brush should be moderately long carried low when the dog is quiet* 
with a slight upward " swirl " at the end, and may be gaily carried 
when the dog is excited, but not over the back. The Coat should be 
very dense, the outer coat harsh to the touch, the inner or under coat 
soft, furry, and very close, so close as almost to hide the skin. The 
mane and frill should be very abundant, the mask or face smooth, as 
also the ears at the tips, but they should carry more hair towards the 
base ; the fore-legs well feathered, the hind-legs above the hocks 
profusely so ; but below the hocks fairly smooth, although all heavily 
coated Collies are liable to grow a slight feathering. Hair on the brush 
very profuse. Colour in the Collie is immaterial. In General Character 
he is a lithe active dog, his deep chest showing lung power, his neck 
strength, his sloping shoulders and well bent hocks indicating speed, 
and his expression high intelligence. He should be a fair length on 
the leg, giving him more of a racy than a cloddy appearance. In a 
few words, a Collie should show endurance, activity, and intelligence, 
with free and true action. In height dogs should be 22 ins. to 24 ins. 
at the shoulders, bitches 20 ins. to 22 ins. The weight for dogs is 45 
to 65 Ibs., bitches 40 to 55 Ibs. The Smooth Collie only differs from 
the rough in its coat, which should be hard, dense and quite smooth. 
The Main Faults to be avoided are a domed skull, high peaked occipital 
bone, heavy, pendulous or pricked ears, weak jaws, snipy muzzle, 
full staring or light eyes, crooked legs, large, flat or hare feet, curly or 
soft coat, cow hocks, and brush twisted or carried right over the back,, 
under or overshot mouth. 


INTELLIGENT and picturesque, workmanlike and affectionate, 
the Old English Sheepdog combines, in his shaggy person, the 
attributes at once of a drover's drudge and of an ideal com- 
panion. Although the modern dog is seen less often than of 
old performing his legitimate duties as a shepherd dog, there 
is no ground whatever for supposing that he is a whit less 
sagacious than the mongrels which have largely supplanted 
him. The instincts of the race remain unchanged; but the 
mongrel certainly comes cheaper. 

Carefully handled in his youth, the bob-tail is unequalled as 
a stock dog, and he is equally at home and efficient in charge 
of sheep, of cattle, and of New Forest ponies. So deep-rooted 
is the natural herding instinct of the breed that it is a thousand 
pities that the modern shepherd so frequently puts up with an 
inferior animal in place of the genuine article. 

Nor is it as a shepherd dog alone that the bob-tail shines in 
the field. His qualifications as a sporting dog are excellent, 
and he makes a capital retriever, being usually under excellent 
control, generally light-mouthed, and taking very readily to 
water. His natural inclination to remain at his master's heel 
and his exceptional sagacity and quickness of perception will 
speedily develop him, in a sportsman's hands, into a first-rate 
dog to shoot over. 

These points in his favour should never be lost sight of, 
because his increasing popularity on the show bench is apt to 
mislead many of his admirers into the belief that he is an 
ornamental rather than a utility dog. Nothing could be 



further from the fact. Nevertheless, he has few equals as a 
house dog, being naturally cleanly in his habits, affectionate 
in his disposition, an admirable watch, and an extraordinarily 
adaptable companion. 

As to his origin, there is considerable conflict of opinion, 
owing to the natural difficulty of tracing him back to that 
period when the dog-fancier, as he flourishes to-day, was all 
unknown, and the voluminous records of a watchful Kennel 
Club were still undreamed of. From time immemorial a 
sheepdog, of one kind or another, has presided over the welfare 
of flocks and herds in every land. Probably, in an age less 
peaceable than ours, this canine guardian was called upon, 
in addition to his other duties, to protect his charges from 
wolves and bears and other marauders. In that case it is very 
possible that the early progenitors of the breed were built upon 
a larger and more massive scale than is the sheepdog of to- 

The herd dogs of foreign countries, such as the Calabrian of 
the Pyrenees, the Himalayan drover's dog, and the Russian 
Owtchah, are all of them massive and powerful animals, far 
larger and fiercer than our own, though each of them, and 
notably the Owtchah, has many points in common with the 
English bob-tail. It is quite possible that all of them may 
trace their origin, at some remote period, to the same ancestral 
strain. Indeed, it is quite open to argument that the founders 
of our breed, as it exists to-day, were imported into England at 
some far-off date when the duties of a sheepdog demanded 
of him fighting qualities no longer necessary. 

Throughout the nineteenth century, one finds conclusive 
evidence that the breed was very fairly represented in many 
parts of England, notably in Suffolk, Hampshire, and Dorset- 
shire, and also in Wales. Youatt writes of it in 1845, Richard- 
son in 1847, and " Stonehenge " in 1859. Their descriptions 
vary a little, though the leading characteristics are much the 
same, but each writer specially notes the exceptional sagacity 
of the breed. 


The dog was well known in Scotland, too, under the title of 
the Bearded Collie, for there is little doubt that this last is 
merely a variant of the breed. He differs, in point of fact, 
chiefly by reason of possessing a tail, the amputation of which 
is a recognised custom in England. 

With regard to this custom, it is said that the drovers origin- 
ated it. Their dogs, kept for working purposes, were immune 
from taxation, and they adopted this method of distinguish- 
ing the animals thus exempted. It has been argued, by 
disciples of the Darwinian theory of inherited effects from 
continued mutilations, that a long process of breeding from 
tailless animals has resulted in producing puppies naturally 
bob-tailed, and it is difficult, on any other hypothesis, to 
account for the fact that many puppies are so born. It is 
certainly a fact that one or two natural bob-tails are frequently 
found in a litter of which the remainder are duly furnished with 
well-developed tails. 

From careful consideration of the weight of evidence, it 
seems unlikely that the breed was originally a tailless one, but 
the modern custom undoubtedly accentuates its picturesque- 
ness by bringing into special prominence the rounded shaggy 
quarters and the characteristic bear-like gait which dis- 
tinguish the Old English Sheepdog. 

Somewhere about the 'sixties there would appear to have 
been a revival of interest in the bob-tail's welfare, and attempts 
were made to bring him into prominence. In 1873 his ad- 
mirers succeeded in obtaining for him a separate classification 
at a recognised show, and at the Curzon Hall, at Birmingham, 
in that year three temerarious competitors appeared to under- 
go the ordeal of expert judgment. It was an unpromising 
beginning, for Mr. M. B. Wynn, who officiated found their 
quality so inferior that he contented himself with awarding a 
second prize. 

But from this small beginning important results were to 
spring, and the Old English Sheepdog has made great strides 
in popularity since then. At Clerkenwell, in 1905, the entries 


in his classes reached a total of over one hundred, and there 
was no gainsaying the quality. 

This satisfactory result is due in no small measure to the 
initiative of the Old English Sheepdog Club, a society founded 
in 1888, with the avowed intention of promoting the breeding 
of the old-fashioned English Sheepdog, and of giving prizes at 
various shows held under Kennel Club Rules. 

The pioneers of this movement, so far as history records 
their names, were Dr. Edwardes-Ker, an enthusiast both in 
theory and in practice, from whose caustic pen dissentients 
were wont to suffer periodical castigation ; Mr. W. G. Weager, 
who has held office in the club for some twenty years ; Mrs. 
Mayhew, who capably held her own amongst her fellow- 
members of the sterner sex ; Mr. Freeman Lloyd, who wrote 
an interesting pamphlet on the breed in 1889 ; and Messrs. J. 
Thomas and Parry Thomas. 

Theirs can have been no easy task at the outset, for it 
devolved upon them to lay down, in a succinct and practical 
form, leading principles for the guidance of future enthusiasts. 
It runs thus : 

General Appearance A strong, compact-looking dog of great sym- 
metry, absolutely free from legginess, profusely coated all over, very 
elastic in its gallop, but in walking or trotting he has a characteristic 
ambling or pacing movement, and his bark should be loud, with a 
peculiar pot casse ring in it. Taking him all round, he is a thick-set, 
muscular, able-bodied dog, with a most intelligent expression, free 
from all Poodle or Deerhound character. Skull Capacious, and rather 
squarely formed, giving plenty of room for brain power. The parts 
over the eyes should be well arched and the whole well covered with 
hair. Jaw Fairly long, strong, square and truncated ; the stop should 
be defined to avoid a Deerhound face. The attention of fudges is particu- 
larly called to the above properties, as a long, narrow head is a deformity. 
Eyes Vary according to the colour of the dog, but dark or wall eyes 
are to be preferred. Nose Always black, large, and capacious. 
Teeth Strong and large, evenly placed, and level in opposition. Ears 
Small, and carried flat to side of head, coated moderately. Legs 
The fore-legs should be dead straight, with plenty of bone, removing the 
body to a medium height from the ground, without approaching 
legginess ; well coated all round. Feet Small, round ; toes well 
arched and pads thick and hard. Tail Puppies requiring docking 
must have an appendage left of one and a half to two inches and the 
operation performed when not older than four days. Neck and Shoulders 


The neck should be fairly long, arched gracefully, and well coated 
with hair ; the shoulders sloping and narrow at the points, the dog 
standing lower at the shoulder than at the loin. Body Rather short 
and very compact, ribs well sprung, and brisket deep and capacious. 
The loin should be very stout and gently arched, while the hind- 
quarters should be round and muscular, and with well let down hocks, 
and the hams densely coated with a thick long jacket in excess of any 
other part. Coat Profuse, and of good hard texture, not straight but 
shaggy and free from curl. The undercoat should be a waterproof 
pile, when not removed by grooming or season. Colour Any shade 
of grey, grizzle, blue or blue-merled, with or without white markings, 
or in reverse ; any shade of brown or sable to be considered distinctly 
objectionable and not to be encouraged. Height Twenty-two inches 
and upwards for dogs, slightly less for bitches. Type, character, and 
symmetry are of the greatest importance, and on no account to be 
sacrificed to size alone. 

Turning to the questions of care and kennel management, 
we may start with the puppy. It is obvious that where bone 
and substance are matters of special desirability, it is essential 
to build up in the infant what is to be expected of the adult. 
For this reason it is a great mistake to allow the dam to bring 
up too many by herself. To about six or seven she can do 
justice, but a healthy bitch not infrequently gives birth to a 
dozen or more. Under such circumstances the services of a 
foster-mother are a cheap investment. By dividing the litter 
the weaklings may be given a fair chance in the struggle for 
existence, otherwise they receive scant consideration from 
their stronger brethren. 

At three or four days old the tails should be removed, as 
near the rump as possible. The operation is easy to perform, 
and if done with a sharp, clean instrument there is no danger 
of after ill effects. 

If the mother be kept on a very liberal diet, it will usually be 
found that she will do all that is necessary for her family's 
welfare for the first three weeks, by which time the pups have 
increased prodigiously in size. They are then old enough to 
learn to lap for themselves, an accomplishment which they 
very speedily acquire. Beginning with fresh cow's milk for a 
week, their diet may be gradually increased to Mellin's or 
Benger's food, and later to gruel and Quaker Oats, their 


steadily increasing appetites being catered for by the simple 
exercise of commonsense. Feed them little and often, about 
five times a day, and encourage them to move about as much 
as possible ; and see that they never go hungry, without allow- 
ing them to gorge. Let them play until they tire, and sleep 
until they hunger again, and they will be found to thrive and 
grow with surprising rapidity. At six weeks old they can fend 
for themselves, and shortly afterwards additions may be made 
to their diet in the shape of paunches, carefully cleaned and 
cooked, and Spratt's Puppy Rodnim. A plentiful supply of 
fresh milk is still essential. Gradually the number of their 
meals may be decreased, first to four a day, and later on to 
three, until at six months old they verge on adolescence, and 
may be placed upon the rations of the adult dog, two meals a 

Meanwhile, the more fresh air and sunshine, exercise, and 
freedom they receive, the better will they prosper, but care 
must be taken that they are never allowed to get wet. Their 
sleeping-place especially must be thoroughly dry, well venti- 
lated, and scrupulously clean. 

As to the adult dog, his needs are three : he must be well fed, 
well housed, and well exercised. Two meals a day suffice him, 
but he likes variety, and the more his fare can be diversified 
the better will he do justice to it. Biscuits, Rodnim, Flako, 
meat, vegetables, paunches, and sheep's heads, with an occa- 
sional big bone to gnaw, provide unlimited change, and the 
particular tastes of individuals should be learned and catered 

As to the bob-tail's kennel, there is no need whatever for a 
high-priced fancy structure. Any weatherproof building will 
do, provided it be well ventilated and free from draughts. In 
very cold weather a bed of clean wheat straw is desirable, in 
summer the bare boards are best. In all weathers cleanliness 
is an absolute essential, and a liberal supply of fresh water 
should be always available. 

Grooming is an important detail in a breed whose pictur- 


esqueness depends so largely on the profuseness of their shaggy 
coats, but there is a general tendency to overdo it. A good 
stiff pair of dandy brushes give the best results, but the coats 
must not be allowed to mat or tangle, which they have a 
tendency to do if not properly attended to. Mats and tangles, 
if taken in time, can generally be teased out with the fingers, 
and it is the greatest mistake to try and drag them out with 
combs. These last should be used as little as possible, and only 
with the greatest care when necessary at all. An over- 
groomed bob-tail loses half his natural charm. Far preferable 
is a muddy, matted, rough-and-tumble-looking customer, with 
his coat as Nature left it. 


THE Chow Chow is a dog of great versatility. He is a born 
sportsman and loves an open-air life a warrior, always ready 
to accept battle, but seldom provoking it. He has a way of his 
own with tramps, and seldom fails to induce them to continue 
their travels. Yet withal he is tender-hearted, a friend of 
children, an ideal companion, and often has a clever gift for 
parlour tricks. In China, his fatherland, he is esteemed for 
another quality his excellence as a substitute for roast 

Though in his own country he is regarded as plebeian, just a 
common cur, he is by no means a mongrel. That he is of 
ancient lineage is proved by the fact that he always breeds true 
to type. He yields to the Pekinese Spaniel the claim to be 
the Royal dog of China, yet his blood must be of the bluest. 
If you doubt it, look at his tongue. 

Outwardly, the Chow worthily embodies the kind, faithful 
heart and the brave spirit within. His compact body (weigh- 
ing 40 Ibs. or more), with the beautiful fur coat and ruff, the 
plume tail turned over on his back and almost meeting his 
neck-ruff, the strong, straight legs and neat, catlike feet, gives 
an impression of symmetry, power, and alertness. His hand- 
some face wears a " scowl." This is the technical term for the 
" no nonsense " look which deters strangers from undue 
familiarity, though to friends his expression is kindness itself. 

Though the Chow has many perfections, the perfect Chow 
has not yet arrived. He nearly came with Ch. Chow VIII. 
long since dead, alas ! and with Ch. Fu Chow, the best Chow 



now living, his light coloured eyes being his only defect. 
With many judges, however, this dog's black coat handicaps 
him sadly in competition with his red brethren. Chow VIII. 
is considered the best and most typical dog ever benched, not- 
withstanding his somewhat round eyes. Almond eyes are of 
course correct in Chinamen. Ch. Red Craze owns the head 
which is perfect with the correct ear-carriage and broad muzzle, 
and the scowl and characteristic expression of a good Chow. 

Dark red is the accepted colour of the Chow. Modern 
judges will not look twice at a light or parti -coloured dog, and 
it is to be feared that if even Ch. Chow VIII. could revisit the 
scenes of his bygone triumphs, his beautiful light markings 
would prove a fatal bar to his success. The judges would be 
quite wrong, but if you want a dog for show you must be sure 
to get a good whole-coloured dark red. If, on the other hand, 
you have a Chow as a companion and friend, do not be at all 
troubled if his ruff, yoke, culottes and tail are white or cream- 
coloured. These are natural, correct and typical marks, though 
present-day fanciers are trying to " improve " them away. 

A list of points as drawn up by the Chow Chow Club some 
years ago is added. The points are fairly right, but the tongue 
of a live Chow is never black. It should be blue, such a colour 
as might result from a diet of bilberries. 

POINTS OF THE CHOW CHOW : Head Skull flat and broad, with 
little stop, well filled out under the eyes. Muzzle Moderate in length, 
and broad from the eyes to the point (not pointed at the end like a 
fox). Nose Black, large and wide. (In cream or light-coloured 
specimens, a pink nose is allowable.) Tongue Black. Eyes Dark 
and small. (In a blue dog light colour is permissible.) Ears Small, 
pointed, and carried stiffly erect. They should be placed well forward 
over the eyes, which gives the dog the peculiar characteristic ex- 
pression of the breed viz., a sort of scowl. Teeth Strong and level. 
Neck Strong, full, set well on the shoulders, and slightly arched. 
Shoulders Muscular and sloping. Chest Broad and deep. Back 
Short, straight, and strong. Loins Powerful. Tail Curled tightly 
over the back. Fore-legs Perfectly straight, of moderate length, and 
with great bone. Hind-legs Same as fore-legs, muscular and with hocks 
well let down. Feet Small, round and catlike, standing well on the 
toes. Coat Abundant, dense, straight, and rather coarse in texture, 
with a soft woolly undercoat. Colour Whole-coloured black, red, 
yellow, blue, white, etc., not hi patches (the under part of tail and back 


of thighs frequently of a lighter colour). General Appearance A 
lively, compact, short coupled dog, well-knit in frame, with tail curled 
well over the back. Disqualifying Points Drop ears, red tongue, 
tail not curled over back, white spots on coat, and red nose, except in 
yellow or white specimens. 

N.B. Smooth Chows are governed by the same scale of points, except 
that the coat is smooth. 

As to the weight, bitches scale about 30 Ibs., but dogs are 
heavier. Ch. Shylock weighed 47 J Ibs., and Red Craze 38 Ibs. 


THE Poodle is commonly acknowledged to be the most wisely 
intelligent of all members of the canine race. He is a scholar 
and a gentleman ; but, in spite of his claims of long descent 
and his extraordinary natural cleverness, he has never been 
widely popular in this country as the Collie and the Fox- 
Terrier are popular. There is a general belief that he is a fop, 
whose time is largely occupied in personal embellishment, 
and that he requires a great deal of individual attention in 
the matter of his toilet. It may be true that to keep him 
in exhibition order and perfect cleanliness his owner has need 
to devote more consideration to him than is necessary in the 
case of many breeds ; but in other respects he gives very 
little trouble, and all who are attached to him are consistent 
in their opinion that there is no dog so intensely interesting 
and responsive as a companion. His qualities of mind and 
his acute powers of reasoning are indeed so great that there 
is something almost human in his attractiveness and his 
devotion. His aptitude in learning is never denied, and many 
are the stories told of his marvellous talent and versatility. 

Not merely as a showman's dog has he distinguished himself. 
He is something more than a mountebank of the booths, 
trained to walk the tight rope and stand on his head. He is 
an adept at performing tricks, but it is his alertness of brain 
that places him apart from other animals. There is the 
example of the famous Munito, who in 1818 perplexed the 
Parisians by his cleverness with playing cards and his intricate 
arithmetical calculations. Paris was formerly the home of 



most of the learned Poodles, and one remembers the instance 
of the Poodle of the Pont Neuf , who had the habit of dirtying 
the boots of the passers-by in order that his master a shoe- 
black stationed half-way across the bridge might enjoy the 
profit of cleaning them. In Belgium Poodles were systematic- 
ally trained to smuggle valuable lace, which was wound round 
their shaven bodies and covered with a false skin. These 
dogs were schooled to a dislike of all men in uniform, and con- 
sequently on their journey between Mechlin and the coast 
they always gave a wide berth to the Customs officers. On 
the Continent Poodles of the larger kind are often used for 
draught work. 

There can be little doubt that the breed originated in Ger- 
many, where it is known as the Pudel, and classed as the Canis 
familiaris Aquaticus. In form and coat he would seem to be 
closely related to the old Water-dog, and the resemblance 
between a brown Poodle and an Irish Water Spaniel is re- 
markable. The Poodle is no longer regarded as a sporting 
dog, but at one period he was trained to retrieve waterfowl, 
and he still on occasion displays an eager fondness for the 

Throughout Europe and in the United States wherever 
these dogs are kept it is usual to clip the coat on the face, 
the legs, and the hinder part of the body, leaving tufts of hair 
on the thighs and a ring of hair on the pasterns. The origin 
and purpose of the custom are not apparent, but now that 
Poodles are almost always kept as house dogs, this mode of 
ornamentation at least commends itself by reducing the 
labour of daily grooming if the coat is to be maintained in 
good condition and the dog to be a pleasant associate. 

The profuse and long coat of this dog has the peculiarity 
that if not kept constantly brushed out it twists up into little 
cords which increase in length as the new hair grows and 
clings about it. The unshed old hair and the new growth 
entwined together thus become distinct rope-like cords. 
Eventually, if these cords are not cut short, or accidentally 


torn off, they drag along the ground, and so prevent the poor 
animal from moving with any degree of comfort or freedom. 
Some few owners, who admire and cultivate these long cords, 
keep them tied up in bundles on the dog's back, but so un- 
natural and unsightly a method of burdening the animal 
is not to be commended. 

Corded Poodles are very showy, and from the remarkable 
appearance of the coat, attract a great deal of public attention 
when exhibited at shows ; but they have lost popularity 
among most fanciers, and have become few in number owing 
to the obvious fact that it is impossible to make pets of them 
or keep them in the house. The reason of this is that the coat 
must, from time to time, be oiled in order to keep the cords 
supple and prevent them from snapping, and, of course, as 
their coats cannot be brushed, the only way of keeping the 
dog clean is to wash him, which with a corded Poodle is a 
lengthy and laborious process. Further, the coat takes hours 
to dry, and unless the newly washed dog be kept in a warm 
room he is very liable to catch cold. The result is, that the 
coats of corded Poodles are almost invariably dirty, and 
somewhat smelly. 

At one time it was suggested that cordeds and non-cordeds 
were two distinct breeds, but it is now generally accepted 
that the coat of every well-bred Poodle will, if allowed, develop 

Curly Poodles, on the other hand, have advanced con- 
siderably in favour. Their coats should be kept regularly 
brushed and combed and, if washed occasionally, they will 
always be smart and clean, and pleasant companions in the 

The four colours usually considered correct are black, white, 
brown, and blue. White Poodles are considered the most 
intelligent, and it is certain that professional trainers of per- 
forming dogs prefer the white variety. The black come next in 
the order of intelligence, and easily surpass the brown and 
blue, which are somewhat lacking in true Poodle character. 


No strict lines are drawn as regards brown, and all shades 
ranging from cream to dark brown are classed as brown. 
Mrs. Robert Long a few years ago startled her fellow-enthus- 
iasts by exhibiting some parti-coloured specimens ; but 
they were regarded as freaks, and did not become popular. 

The points to be looked for in choosing a Poodle are, that 
he should be a lively, active dog, with a long, fine head, a 
dark oval eye, with a bright alert expression, short in the back, 
not leggy, but by no means low on the ground, with a good 
loin, carrying his tail well up ; the coat should be profuse, 
all one colour, very curly, and rather wiry to the touch. 

If you buy a Poodle puppy you will find it like other in- 
telligent and active youngsters, full of mischief. The great 
secret in training him is first to gain his affection. With 
firmness, kindness, and perseverance, you can then teach him 
almost anything. The most lively and excitable dogs are 
usually the easiest to train. It is advantageous to teach your 
dog when you give him his meal of biscuit, letting him have 
the food piece by piece as a reward when each trick is duly 
performed. Never attempt to teach him two new tricks at 
a time, and when instructing him in a new trick let him 
always go through his old ones first. Make it an invariable 
rule never to be beaten by him. If as frequently is the case 
with your dogs he declines to perform a trick, do not pass 
it over or allow him to substitute another he likes better ; 
but, when you see he obstinately refuses, punish him by 
putting away the coveted food for an hour or two. If he 
once sees he can tire you out you will have no further authority 
over him, while if you are firm he will not hold out against you 
long. It is a bad plan to make a dog repeat too frequently 
a trick which he obviously dislikes, and insistence on your 
part may do great harm. The Poodle is exceptionally sensitive, 
and is far more efficiently taught when treated as a sensible 
being rather than as a mere quadrupedal automaton. He 
will learn twice as quickly if his master can make him under- 
stand the reason for performing a task. The whip is of little 


use when a lesson is to be taught, as the dog will probably 
associate his tasks with a thrashing and go through them in 
that unwilling, cowed, tail-bet ween-legs fashion which too 
often betrays the unthinking hastiness of the master, and is 
the chief reason why the Poodle has sometimes been regarded 
as a spiritless coward. 

The Poodle bitch makes a good mother, rarely giving trouble 
in whelping, and the puppies are not difficult to rear. Their 
chief dangers are gastritis and congestion of the lungs, which 
can be avoided with careful treatment. It should be remem- 
bered that the dense coat of the Poodle takes a long time 
to dry after being wetted, and that if the dog has been out 
in the rain, and got his coat soaked, or if he has been washed 
or allowed to jump into a pond, you must take care not to 
leave him in a cold place or to lie inactive before he is perfectly 

Most Poodles are kept in the house or in enclosed kennels, 
well protected from draught and moisture, and there is no 
difficulty in so keeping them, as they are naturally obedient 
and easily taught to be clean in the house and to be regular 
in their habits. 

The coat of a curly Poodle should be kept fleecy and free 
from tangle by being periodically combed and brushed. The 
grooming keeps the skin clean and healthy, and frequent 
washing, even for a white dog, is not necessary. The dog 
will, of course, require clipping from time to time. In Paris 
at present it is the fashion to clip the greater part of the body 
and hind-quarters, but the English Poodle Club recommends 
that the coat be left on as far down the body as the last rib, 
and it is also customary with us to leave a good deal of coat 
on the hind-quarters. 

Probably the best-known Poodle of his day in this country 
was Ch. The Model, a black corded dog belonging to Mr. H. A. 
Dagois, who imported him from the Continent. Model was 
a medium-sized dog, very well proportioned, and with a 
beautifully moulded head and dark, expressive eyes, and I 


believe was only once beaten in the show ring. He died some 
few years ago at a ripe old age, but a great many of the best- 
known Poodles of the present day claim relationship to him. 
One of his most famous descendants was Ch. The Joker, 
also black corded, who was very successful at exhibitions. 
Another very handsome dog was Ch. Vladimir, again a 
black corded, belonging to Miss Haulgrave. 

Since 1905 the curly Poodles have very much improved, 
and the best specimens of the breed are now to be found in their 
ranks. Ch. Orchard Admiral, the property of Mrs. Crouch, 
a son of Ch. The Joker and Lady Godiva, is probably the best 
specimen living. White Poodles, of which Mrs. Crouch's 
Orchard White Boy is a notable specimen, ought to be more 
widely kept than they are, but it must be admitted that the 
task of keeping a full-sized white Poodle's coat clean in a 
town is no light one. 

Toy White Poodles, consequently, are very popular. The 
toy variety should not exceed fifteen inches in height at the 
shoulder, and in all respects should be a miniature of the full- 
sized dog, with the same points. 

POINTS OF THE PERFECT POODLE : General AppearanceThat 
of a very active, intelligent, and elegant-looking dog, well built, and 
carrying himself very proudly. Head Long, straight, and fine, 
the skull not broad, with a slight peak at the back. Muzzle Long 
(but not snipy) and strong not full in cheek ; teeth white, strong, 
and level ; gums black, lips black and not showing lippiness. Eyes 
Almond shaped, very dark, full of fire and intelligence. Nose Black 
and sharp. Ears The leather long and wide, low set on, hanging 
close to the face. Neck Well proportioned and strong, to admit of 
the head being carried high and with dignity. Shoulders Strong and 
muscular, sloping well to the back. Chest Deep and moderately wide. 
Back Short, strong, and slightly hollowed, the loins broad and muscu- 
lar, the ribs well sprung and braced up. Feet Rather small, and of 
good shape, the toes well arched, pads thick and hard. Legs Fore- 
legs set straight from shoulder, with plenty of bone and muscle. Hind- 
legs very muscular and well bent, with the hocks well let down. Tail 
Set on rather high, well carried, never curled or carried over back. 
Coat Very profuse, and of good hard texture ; if corded, hanging in 
tight, even cords ; if non-corded, very thick and strong, of even length, 
the curls close and thick, without knots or cords. Colours All black, 
all white, all red, all blue. The White Poodle should have dark eyes, 
black or very dark liver nose, lips, and toe-nails. The Red Poodle should 


have dark amber eyes, dark liver nose, lips, and toe-nails. The Blue 
Poodle should be of even colour, and have dark eyes, lips, and toe-nails. 
All the other points of White, Red, and Blue Poodles should be the 
same as the perfect Black Poodle. 

N.B. It is strongly recommended that only one-third of the body 
be"clipped or shaved, and that the hair on the forehead be left on. 


THE Schipperke may fitly be described as the Paul Pry of 
canine society. His insatiate inquisitiveness induces him to 
poke his nose into everything ; every strange object excites 
his curiosity, and he will, if possible, look behind it ; the 
slightest noise arouses his attention, and he wants to investi- 
gate its cause. There is no end to his liveliness, but he moves 
about with almost catlike agility without upsetting any 
objects in a room, and when he hops he has a curious way of 
catching up his hind legs. The Schipperke's disposition is 
most affectionate, tinged with a good deal of jealousy, and 
even when made one of the household he generally attaches 
himself more particularly to one person, whom he " owns," 
and whose protection he deems his special duty. 

These qualities endear the Schipperke as a canine com- 
panion, with a quaint and lovable character; and he is also 
a capital vermin dog. When properly entered he cannot 
be surpassed as a " ratter." 

Schipperkes have always been kept as watch-dogs on the 
Flemish canal barges, and that, no doubt, is the origin of the 
name, which is the Flemish for " Little Skipper," the syllable 
" ke " forming the diminutive of " schipper." 

The respectable antiquity of this dog is proved by the 
result of the researches Mr. Van der Snickt and Mr. Van 
Buggenhoudt made in the archives of Flemish towns, which 
contain records of the breed going back in pure type over a 
hundred years. 

The first Schipperke which appeared at a show in this coun- 
try was Mr. Berne's Flo. This was, however, such a mediocre 
specimen that it did not appeal to the taste of the English 



dog-loving public. In 1888 Dr. Seelig brought over Skip, 
Drieske, and Mia. The first-named was purchased by Mr. 
E. B. Joachim, and the two others by Mr. G. R. Krehl. Later 
on Mr. Joachim became the owner of Mr. Green's Shtoots, 
and bought Fritz of Spa in Belgium, and these dogs formed 
the nucleus of the two kennels which laid the foundation of 
the breed in England. 

It was probably the introduction of the Schipperke to 
England that induced Belgian owners to pay greater attention 
to careful breeding, and a club was started in 1888 in Brussels, 
whose members, after " long and earnest consideration," 
settled a description and standard of points for the breed. 

Not long afterwards the Schipperke Club (England) was 
inaugurated, and drew up the following standard of points, 
which was adopted in December, 1890, and differed only very 
slightly from the one acknowledged by the Belgian society 
and later by the St. Hubert Schipperke Club. 

Head Foxy in type ; skull should not be round, but broad, and 
with little stop. The muzzle should be moderate in length, fine but 
not weak, should be well filled out under the eyes. Nose Black and 
small. Eyes Dark brown, small, more oval than round, and not 
full ; bright, and full of expression. Ears Shape : Of moderate 
length, not too broad at the base, tapering to a point. Carriage : 
Stiffly erect, and when in that position the inside edge to form as near 
as possible a right angle with the skull and strong enough not to be bent 
otherwise than lengthways. Teeth Strong and level. Neck Strong 
and full, rather short, set broad on the shoulders and slightly arched. 
Shoulders Muscular and sloping. Chest Broad and deep in brisket. 
Back Short, straight, and strong. Loins Powerful, well drawn up 
from the brisket. Fore-Legs Perfectly straight, well under the body, 
with bone in proportion to the body. Hind-Legs Strong, muscular, 
hocks well let down. Feet Small, catlike, and standing well on the 
toes. Nails Black. Hind-quarters Fine compared to the fore-parts, 
muscular and well-developed thighs, tailless, rump well rounded. 
Coat Black, abundant, dense, and harsh, smooth on the head, ears 
and legs, lying close on the back and sides, but erect and thick round 
the neck, forming a mane and frill, and well feathered on back of thighs. 
Weight About twelve pounds. General Appearance A small cobby 
animal with sharp expression, intensely lively, presenting the appear- 
ance of being always on the alert. Disqualifying Points Drop, or 
semi-erect ears.^ Faults White hairs are objected to, but are not 


The back of the Schipperke is described as straight, but it 
should round off at the rump, which should be rotund and full, 
guinea-pig-like. The continued straight line of a terrier's 
back is not desirable, but it will frequently be found in speci- 
mens that have been docked. The Belgian standard requires 
the legs to be " fine," and not have much bone. The bone of a 
terrier is only met with in coarse Schipperkes. As to size, it need 
only be noted that the maximum of the small size, viz., 12 Ibs., 
is that generally preferred in England, as well as in Belgium. 
Further, it is only necessary to remark that the Schipperke 
is a dog of quality, of distinct characteristics, cobby in appear- 
ance, not long in the back, nor high on the leg ; the muzzle 
must not be weak and thin, nor short and blunt ; and, finally, 
he is not a prick-eared, black wire-haired terrier. 

The Schipperke 's tail, or rather its absence, has been the 
cause of much discussion, and at one time gave rise to con- 
siderable acrimonious feeling amongst fanciers. On the 
introduction of this dog into Great Britain it arrived from 
abroad with the reputation of being a tailless breed, but 
whether Belgian owners accidentally conveyed that im- 
pression or did it purposely to give the breed an additional 
distinction is difficult to say. Anyhow the Schipperke is no 
more " tailless " than the old English Sheepdog. That is 
to say a larger number of individuals are born without any 
caudal appendage or only a stump of a tail than in any other 
variety of dogs. It is said that a docked dog can be told 
from one that has been born tailless in this way ; when 
the docked animal is pleased, a slight movement at the end 
of the spine where the tail was cut off is discernible, but the 
naturally tailless dog sways the whole of its hind-quarters. 


THE Bloodhound was much used in olden times in hunting 
and in the pursuit of fugitives ; two services for which his 
remarkable acuteness of smell, his ability to keep to the 
particular scent on which he is first laid, and the intelligence 
and pertinacity with which he follows up the trail, admirably 
fit him. The use and employment of these dogs date back 
into remote antiquity. We have it on the authority of Strabo 
that they were used against the Gauls, and we have certain 
knowledge that they were employed not only in the frequent 
feuds of the Scottish clans, and in the continuous border forays 
of those days, but also during the ever-recurring hostilities 
between England and Scotland. 

Indeed, the very name of the dog calls up visions of feudal 
castles, with their trains of knights and warriors and all the 
stirring panorama of these brave days of old, when the only 
tenure of life, property, or goods was by the strong hand. 

This feudal dog is frequently pictured by the poet in his 
ballads and romances, and in " The Lady of the Lake " we 
find the breed again mentioned as 

" dogs of black St. Hubert's breed, 
Unmatched for courage, breath, and speed." 

These famous black Bloodhounds, called St. Huberts, are 
supposed to have been brought by pilgrims from the Holy 
Land. Another larger breed, also known by the same name, 
were pure white, and -another kind were greyish-red. The 
dogs of the present day are probably a blend of all these 






The Bloodhound, from the nobler pursuit of heroes and 
knights, came in later years to perform the work of the more 
modern detective ; but in this also his services were in time 
superseded by the justice's warrant and the police officer. 
We find it recorded about 1805, however, that " the Thrapston 
Association for the Prevention of Felons in Northamptonshire 
have provided and trained a Bloodhound for the detection of 

The reputation it obtained for sagacity and fierceness in the 
capture of runaway slaves, and the cruelties attributed to it in 
connection with the suppression of the various negro risings, 
especially that of the Maroons, have given the animal an 
evil repute, which more probably should attach to those 
who made the animal's courage and sagacity a means for the 
gratification of their own revolting cruelty of disposition. It 
has been justly remarked that if entire credence be given to 
the description that was transmitted through the country 
of this extraordinary animal, it might be supposed that the 
Spaniards had obtained the ancient and genuine breed of 
Cerberus himself. 

Coming again to this country, we find the Bloodhound 
used from time to time in pursuit of poachers and criminals, 
and in many instances the game recovered and the man 

There is no doubt that the police in country districts, 
and at our convict prisons, could use Bloodhounds to ad- 
vantage ; but public sentiment is decidedly against the idea, 
and although one of His Majesty's prisons has been offered 
a working hound for nothing, the authorities have refused 
to consider the question or give the hound a trial. 

Half a century ago the Bloodhound was so little esteemed 
in this country that the breed was confined to the kennels 
of a very few owners ; but the institution of dog shows induced 
these owners to bring their hounds into public exhibition, 
when it was seen that, like the Mastiff, the Bloodhound claimed 
the advantage of having many venerable ancestral trees to 


branch from. At the first Birmingham show, in 1860, Lord 
Bagot brought out a team from a strain which had been in 
his lordship's family for two centuries, and at the same ex- 
hibition there was entered probably one of the best Blood- 
hounds ever seen, in Mr. T. A. Jenning's Druid. Known now 
as " Old " Druid, this dog was got by Lord Faversham's 
Raglan out of Baron Rothschild's historic bitch Fury, and 
his blood goes down in collateral veins through Mr. L. G. 
Morrel's Margrave, Prince Albert Solm's Druid, and Mr. 
Edwin Brough's Napier into the pedigrees of many of the 
celebrated hounds of the present day. 

Another famous Druid grandsire of Colonel Co wen's 
hound of the name was owned by the Hon. Grantley Berke- 
ley. This typical dog was unsurpassed in his time, and his 
talent in following a line of scent was astonishing. His only 
blemish was one of character ; for, although usually as 
good-tempered as most of the breed are, he was easily aroused 
to uncontrollable fits of savage anger. 

Queen Victoria at various times was the possessor of 
one or more fine specimens of the Bloodhound, procured for 
her by Sir Edwin Landseer, and a capital hound from the 
Home Park Kennels at Windsor was exhibited at the London 
Show in 1869, the judge on the occasion being the Rev. Thomas 
Pearce, afterwards known as " Idstone." Landseer was 
especially fond of painting the majestic Bloodhound, and he 
usually selected good models for his studies. The model 
for the hound in his well-known picture, " Dignity and Im- 
pudence," was Graf ton, who was a collateral relative of 
Captain J. W. Clayton's celebrated Luath XI. 

Four superlative Bloodhounds of the past stand out in 
unmistakable eminence as the founders of recognised strains. 
They are Mr. Jenning's Old Druid, Colonel Co wen's Druid, 
Mr. Reynold Ray's Roswell, and Captain Clayton's Luath XL ; 
and the owner of a Bloodhound which can be traced back in 
direct line of descent to any one of these four patriarchs may 
pride himself upon possessing a dog of unimpeachable pedigree. 


Among breeders within recent years Mr. Edwin Brough, of 
Scarborough, is to be regarded as the most experienced and 
successful. No record of the breed would be complete without 
some acknowledgment of the great services he has rendered 
to it. Bloodhounds of the correct type would to-day have 
been very few and far between if it had not been for his en- 
thusiasm and patient breeding. Mr. Brough bred and produced 
many hounds, which all bore the stamp of his ideal, and there 
is no doubt that for all-round quality his kennel stands first 
in the history of the Bloodhound. His most successful cross 
was, perhaps, Beckford and Bianca, and one has only to 
mention such hounds as Burgundy, Babbo, Benedicta, and 
Bardolph to recall the finest team of Bloodhounds that has 
ever been benched. 

Mrs. G. A. Oliphant, of Shrewton, Wilts, whose kennels 
include Chatley Blazer and Chatley Beaufort, has of late 
years been a keen supporter of the breed. Mrs. Oliphant, 
who is the president of the ladies' branch of the Kennel Club, 
is a great believer in hounds being workers first and show 
hounds second, and her large kennels have produced many 
hounds of a robust type and of good size and quality. There 
is no doubt that as far as hunting is concerned at the present 
moment this kennel stands easily first. But admirable Blood- 
hounds have also given distinction to the kennels of Mr. S. H. 
Mangin, Dr. Sidney Turner, Mr. Mark Beaufoy, Mr. F. W. 
Cousens, Mr. A. O. Mudie, Lord Decies, Mr. Hood Wright, 
Mr. A. Croxton Smith, Dr. C. C. Garfit, Dr. Semmence, and 
Mrs. C. Ashton Cross, to mention only a few owners and 
breeders who have given attention to this noble race of dog. 

The description of a perfect type of dog, as defined by the 
Association of Bloodhound breeders, is as follows : 

General Character The Bloodhound possesses, in a most marked 
degree, every point and characteristic of those dogs which hunt to- 
gether by scent (Sagaces). He is very powerful and stands over more 
ground than is usual with hounds of other breeds. The skin is thin to 
the touch and extremely loose, this being more especially noticeable 
about the head and neck, where it hangs in deep folds. Height The 


mean average height of adult dogs is 26 inches and of adult bitches 24 
inches. Dogs usually vary from 25 inches to 27 inches and bitches 
from 23 inches to 25 inches ; but in either case the greater height is 
to be preferred, provided that character and quality are also com- 
bined. Weight The mean average weight of adult dogs in fair con- 
dition is 90 pounds and of adult bitches 80 pounds. Dogs attain the 
weight of 110 pounds, bitches 100 pounds. The greater weights are 
to be preferred, provided (as in the case of height) that quality and 
proportion are also combined. Expression The expression is noble 
and dignified and characterised by solemnity, wisdom and power. 
Temperament In temperament he is extremely affectionate, quarrel- 
some neither with companions nor with other dogs. His nature is 
somewhat shy, and equally sensitive to kindness or correction by his 
master. Head The head is narrow in proportion to its length and long 
in proportion to the body, tapering but slightly from the temples 
to the end of the muzzle thus (when viewed from above and in front) 
having the appearance of being flattened at the sides and of being nearly 
equal in width throughout its entire length. In profile the upper 
outline of the skull is nearly in the same plane as that of the foreface. 
The length from end of nose to stop (midway between the eyes) should 
be not less than that from stop to back of occipital protuberance (peak). 
The entire length of head from the posterior part of the occipital pro- 
tuberance to the end of the muzzle should be 12 inches, or more, in dogs* 
and 11 inches, or more, in bitches. Skull The skull is long and 
narrow, with the occipital peak very pronounced. The brows are not 
prominent, although, owing to the deep-set eyes, they may have that 
appearance. Foreface The foreface is long, deep, and of even width 
throughout, with square outline when seen in profile. Eyes The eyes 
are deeply sunk in the orbits, the lids assuming a lozenge or diamond 
shape, in consequence of the lower lids being dragged down and everted 
by the heavy flews. The eyes correspond with the general tone of 
colour of the animal, varying from deep hazel to yellow. The hazel 
colour is, however, to be preferred, although very seldom seen in red- 
and-tan hounds. Ears The ears are thin and soft to the touch, 
extremely long, set very low, and fall in graceful folds, the lower parts 
curling inwards and backwards. Wrinkle The head is furnished with 
an amount of loose skin which in nearly every position appears super- 
abundant, but more particularly so when the head is carried low ; 
the skin then falls into loose, pendulous ridges and folds, especially 
over the forehead and sides of the face. Nostrils The nostrils are large 
and open. Lips, Flews, and Dewlap In front the lips fall squarely, 
making a right-angle with the upper line of the foreface, whilst behind 
they form deep, hanging flews, and, being continued into the pendent 
folds of loose skin about the neck, constitute the dewlap, which is very 
pronounced. These characters are found, though in a less degree, in 
the bitch. Neck, Shoulders, and Chest The neck is long, the shoulders 
muscular and well sloped backwards ; the ribs are well sprung, and 
the chest well let down between the forelegs, forming a deep keel. 
Legs and Feet The fore-legs are straight and large in bone, with elbows 
squarely set ; the feet strong and well knuckled up ; the thighs and 
second thighs (gaskins) are very muscular ; the hocks well bent and 


let down and squarely set. Back and Loins The back and loins are 
strong, the latter deep and slightly arched. Stern The stern is long 
and tapering and set on rather high, with a moderate amount of hair 
underneath. Gait The gait is elastic, swinging, and free the stern 
being carried high, but not too much curled over the back. Colour 
The colours are black-and-tan, red-and-tan, and tawny the darker 
colours being sometimes interspersed with lighter or badger-coloured 
hair and sometimes flecked with white. A small amount of white is 
permissible on chest, feet, and tip of stern. 


THE Otterhound is a descendant of the old Southern Hound, 
and there is reason to believe that all hounds hunting their 
quarry by nose had a similar source. Why the breed was first 
called the Southern Hound, or when his use became practical 
in Great Britain, must be subjects of conjecture ; but that 
there was a hound good enough to hold a line for many hours 
is accredited in history that goes very far back into past 
centuries. The hound required three centuries ago even was 
all the better esteemed for being slow and unswerving on a 
line of scent, and in many parts of the Kingdom, up to within 
half that period, the so-called Southern Hound had been 
especially employed. In Devonshire and Wales the last 
sign of him in his purity was perhaps when Captain Hopwood 
hunted a small pack of hounds very similar in character on the 
fitch or pole-cat ; the modus operandi being to find the 
foraging grounds of the animal, and then on a line that might 
be two days old hunt him to his lair, often enough ten or twelve 
miles off. 

When this sort of hunting disappeared, and improved 
ideas of fox-hunting came into vogue, there was nothing 
left for the Southern Hound to do but to hunt the otter. He 
may have done this before at various periods, but history 
rather tends to show that otter-hunting was originally asso- 
ciated with a mixed pack, and some of Sir Walter Scott's 
pages seem to indicate that the Dandie Dinmont and kindred 
Scottish terriers had a good deal to do with the sport. It is 
more than probable that the rough-coated terrier is identical 



with the now recognised Otterhound as an offshoot of the 
Southern Hound ; but be that as it may, there has been a 
special breed of Otterhound for the last eighty years, very 
carefully bred and gradually much improved in point of appear- 
ance. They are beautiful hounds to-day, with heads as 
typical as those of Bloodhounds, legs and feet that would 
do for Foxhounds, a unique coat of their own, and they 
are exactly suitable for hunting the otter, as everyone knows 
who has had the enjoyment of a day's sport on river or 

The greatest otter hunter of the last century may have been 
the Hon. Geoffrey Hill, a younger brother of the late Lord 
Hill. A powerful athlete of over six feet, Major Hill was an 
ideal sportsman in appearance, and he was noted for the long 
distances he would travel on foot with his hounds. They 
were mostly of the pure rough sort, not very big ; the dogs he 
reckoned at about 23^ inches, bitches 22 : beautiful Blood- 
hound type of heads, coats of thick, hard hair, big in ribs and 
bones, and good legs and feet. 

Major Hill seldom exhibited his hounds. They were seen 
now and then at Birmingham ; but, hunting as hard as they 
did through Shropshire, Staffordshire, Cheshire, and into 
Wales, where they got their best water, there was not much 
time for showing. Their famous Master has been dead now 
many years, but his pack is still going, and shows great sport 
as the Hawkstone under the Mastership of Mr. H. P. Wardell, 
the kennels being at Ludlow race-course, Bromfield. 

The leading pack in the Kingdom for the last sixty years, at 
any rate, has been the Carlisle when in the hands of Mr. J. C. 
Carrick, who was famous both for the sport he showed and 
for his breed of Otterhound, so well represented at all the 
important shows. Such hounds as Lottery and Lucifer were 
very typical specimens ; but of late years the entries of 
Otterhounds have not been very numerous at the great exhi- 
bitions, and this can well be explained by the fact that they 
are wanted in greater numbers for active service, there being 


many more packs than formerly in all, twenty-one for the 
United Kingdom. 

The sport of otter-hunting is decidedly increasing, as there 
have been several hunts started within the last six years. 
There can well be many more, as, according to the opinion of 
that excellent authority, the late Rev. " Otter " Davies, as 
he was always called, there are otters on every river ; but, 
owing to the nocturnal and mysterious habits of the animals, 
their whereabouts or existence is seldom known, or even 
suspected. Hunting them is a very beautiful sport, and the 
question arises as to whether the pure Otterhounds should not 
be more generally used than they are at present. It is often 
asserted that their continued exposure to water has caused a 
good deal of rheumatism in the breed, that they show age 
sooner than others, and that the puppies are difficult to rear. 
There are, however, many advantages in having a pure breed, 
and there is much to say for the perfect work of the Otterhound. 
The scent of the otter is possibly the sweetest of all trails left 
by animals. One cannot understand how it is that an animal 
swimming two or three feet from the bottom of a river-bed and 
the same from the surface should leave a clean line of burning 
scent that may remain for twelve or eighteen hours. The 
supposition must be that the scent from the animal at first 
descends and is then always rising. At any rate, the oldest 
Foxhound or Harrier that has never touched otter is at once 
in ravishing excitement on it, and all dogs will hunt it. The 
terrier is never keener than when he hits on such a line. 

The Foxhound, so wonderful in his forward dash, may have 
too much of it for otter hunting. The otter is so wary. His 
holt can very well be passed, his delicious scent may be over- 
run ; but the pure-bred Otterhound is equal to all occasions. 
He is terribly certain on the trail when he finds it. Nothing 
can throw him off it, and when his deep note swells into a 
sort of savage howl, as he lifts his head towards the roots of 
some old pollard, there is a meaning in it no mistake has been 
made. In every part of a run it is the same ; the otter dodges 


up stream and down, lands for a moment, returns to his holt ; 
but his adversaries are always with him, and as one sees their 
steady work the impression becomes stronger and stronger 
that for the real sport of otter-hunting there is nothing as 
good as the pure-bred Otterhound. There is something 
so dignified and noble about the hound of unsullied strain 
that if you once see a good one you will not soon forget him. 
He is a large hound, as he well needs to be, for the " varmint " 
who is his customary quarry is the wildest, most vicious, and, 
for its size, the most powerful of all British wild animals, 
the inveterate poacher of our salmon streams, and consequently 
to be mercilessly slaughtered, although always in sporting 
fashion. To be equal to such prey, the hound must have a 
Bulldog's courage, a Newfoundland's strength in water, 
a Pointer's nose, a Retriever's sagacity, the stamina of the 
Foxhound, the patience of a Beagle, the intelligence of a 

THE PERFECT OTTERHOUND : Head The head, which has 
been described as something between that of a Bloodhound and that 
of a Foxhound, is more hard and rugged than either. With a narrow 
forehead, ascending to a moderate peak. Ban The ears are long and 
sweeping, but not feathered down to the tips, set low and lying flat to 
the cheeks. Eyes The eyes are large, dark and deeply set, having 
a peculiarly thoughtful expression. They show a considerable amount 
of the haw. Nose The nose is large and well developed, the nostrils 
expanding. Muzzle The muzzle well protected from wiry hair. The 
jaw very powerful with deep flews. Neck The neck is strong and 
muscular, but rather long. The dewlap is loose and folded. Chest 
The chest, deep and capacious, but not too wide. Back The back is 
strong, wide and arched. Shoulders The shoulders ought to be 
sloping, the arms and thighs substantial and muscular. Feet The feet, 
fairly large and spreading, with firm pads and strong nails to resist 
sharp rocks. Stern The stern when the hound is at work is carried 
gaily, like that of a rough Welsh Harrier. It is thick and well covered, 
to serve as a rudder. Coat The coat is wiry, hard, long and close 
at the roots, impervious to water. Colour Grey, or buff, or yellowish, 
or black, or rufus red, mixed with black or grey. Height 22 to 24 


IT is now some thirty years since an important controversy 
was carried on in the columns of The Live Stock Journal 
on the nature and history of the great Irish Wolfhound. 
The chief disputants in the discussion were Captain G. A. 
Graham, of Dursley, Mr. G. W. Hickman, Mr. F. Adcock, and 
the Rev. M. B. Wynn, and the main point as issue was whether 
the dog then imperfectly known as the Irish Wolfdog was 
a true descendant of the ancient Cam's graius Hibernicus, 
or whether it was a mere manufactured mongrel, owing its 
origin to an admixture of the Great Dane and the dog of the 
Pyrenees, modified and brought to type by a cross with the 
Highland Deerhound. It was not doubted indeed, history 
and tradition clearly attested that there had existed in 
early times in Ireland a very large and rugged hound of Grey- 
hound form, whose vocation it was to hunt the wolf, the red 
deer, and the fox. It was assuredly known to the Romans, 
and there can be little doubt that the huge dog Samr, which 
Jarl Gunnar got from the Irish king Myrkiarton in the tenth 
century and took back with him to Norway, was one of this 
breed. But it was supposed by many to have become extinct 
soon after the disappearance of the last wolf in Ireland, and it 
was the endeavour of Captain Graham to demonstrate that 
specimens, although admittedly degenerate, were still to be 
found, and that they were capable of being restored to a 
semblance of the original type. 

At the time when he entered into the controversy, Captain 
Graham had been actively interesting himself for something 
like a score of years in the resuscitation of the breed, and his 



patience had been well rewarded. By the year 1881 the 
Irish Wolfhound had been practically restored, although it has 
taken close upon a quarter of a century to produce the mag- 
nificent champions Cotswold and Cotswold Patricia, those 
brilliant examples of the modern breed a brace of 
Wolfhounds who bear testimony to the vast amount 
of energy and perseverance which Captain Graham and his 
enthusiastic colleague Major Gamier displayed in evolving from 
rough material the majestic breed that holds so prominent 
a position to-day. 

There is little to be gathered from ancient writings con- 
cerning the size and appearance of the Irish Wolfhounds in 
early times. Exaggerated figures are given as to height and 
weight ; but all authorities agree that they were impressively 
large and imposing dogs, and that they were regarded as the 
giants of the canine race. 

It seems extraordinary that so little should have been 
accurately known and recorded of a dog which at one time 
must have been a familiar figure in the halls of the Irish kings. 
It was no mere mythical animal like the heraldic griffin, but 
an actual sporting dog which was accepted as a national 
emblem of the Emerald Isle, associated with the harp and the 

As regards the origin of the Irish Wolfhound, more than one 
theory is advanced. By some authorities it is suggested that 
it was the dog which we now know as the Great Dane. Others 
hold that as there were rough-coated Greyhounds in Ireland, 
it is this dog, under another name, which is now accepted. 
But probably the late Captain Graham was nearer the truth 
when he gave the opinion that the Irish hound that was 
kept to hunt wolves has never become extinct at all, but is 
now represented in the Scottish Deerhound, only altered a 
little in size and strength to suit the easier work required of 
it that of hunting the deer. This is the more probable, 
as the fact remains that the chief factor in the resuscitation of 
the Irish Wolfhound has been the Scottish Deerhound. 


The result of Captain Graham's investigations when seek- 
ing for animals bearing some relationship to the original 
Irish " Wolfe Dogge " was that three strains were to be found 
in Ireland, but none of the representatives at that time was 
anything like so large as those mentioned in early writings, 
and they all appeared to have deteriorated in bone 
and substance. Sir J. Power, of Kilfane, was responsible for 
one line, Mr. Baker, of Ballytobin, for another, and Mr. 
Mahoney, of Dromore, for the remaining strain. From bitches 
obtained from two of these kennels, Captain Graham, by 
crossing them with the Great Dane and Scottish Deerhound, 
achieved the first step towards producing the animal that he 
desired. Later on the Russian Wolfhound, better known 
as the Borzoi, an exceedingly large hound, was introduced, 
as also were one or two other large breeds of dogs. 

The intermixture of these canine giants, however, was not 
at first very satisfactory, as although plenty of bone was 
obtained, many were most ungainly in appearance and ill- 
shaped animals that had very little about them to attract 
attention. Captain Graham, however, stuck to his work, 
and very soon the specimens that he brought forward began 
to show a fixity of type both in head and in general outline. 
Brian was one of his best dogs, but he was not very large, as 
he only stood just over thirty inches at the shoulder. Banshee 
and Fintragh were others, but probably the best of Captain 
Graham's kennel was the bitch Sheelah. It was not, however, 
until towards the end of the last century that the most 
perfect dogs were bred. These included O'Leary, the property 
of Mr. Crisp, of Playford Hall. O'Leary is responsible for 
many of the best dogs of the present day, and was the sire of 
Mrs. Percy ShewelTs Ch. Cotswold, who is undoubtedly the 
grandest Irish Wolfhound ever bred. In height Cotswold 
stands 34$ inches and is therefore perhaps the largest dog of 
any breed now alive. 

In 1900 Mr. Crisp bred Kilcullen from O'Leary, this dog 
winning the championship at the Kennel Club Show at the 


Crystal Palace in 1902 under Captain Graham. This was 
the year the Irish Wolfhound Club presented the hound 
Rajah of Kidnal as a regimental pet to the newly formed Irish 

Rajah of Kidnal, who was bred and exhibited by Mrs. A. 
Gerard, of Malpas, was the selection of Captain Graham and 
two other judges. This dog, which has been renamed Brian 
Boru, is still hearty and well, and was at his post on St. 
Patrick's Day, 1909, when the shamrock that had been 
sent by Her Majesty Queen Alexandra was handed to the 

Mrs. Gerard owned one of the largest kennels of Irish Wolf- 
hounds in England, and amongst her many good dogs and 
bitches was Cheevra, who was a wonderful brood bitch, and 
included amongst her stock were several that worked their 
way up to championship honours ; she was the dam of Rajah 
of Kidnal. 

Besides Ballyhooley, Mr. W. Williams owned a good dog 
in Finn by Brian II. Finn produced Miss Packe's Wickham 
Lavengro, a black and tan dog that has won several prizes. 
Some judges are opposed to giving prizes to Irish Wolfhounds 
of this colour, but Captain Graham did not object to it. Finn 
was a very heavy dog, and weighed 148 Ibs. 

A hound that has been of great benefit to the breed in Ire- 
land is Ch. Marquis of Donegal, the property of Mr. Martin. 

Amongst the bitches that have been instrumental in build- 
ing up the breed to its present high state of excellence is 
Princess Patricia of Connaught who is by Dermot Astore out 
of Cheevra, and is the dam of Ch. Cotswold Patricia. She is 
one of the tallest of her race, her height being 33 inches ; 
another bitch that measures the same number of inches at 
the shoulder being Dr. Pitts-Tucker's Juno of the Fen, a 
daughter of Ch. Wargrave. 

Mr. Everett, of Felixstowe, is now one of the most successful 
breeders. He exhibited at the 1908 Kennel Club show a 
most promising young dog in Felixstowe Kilronan, with which 


he was second to Mrs. ShewelTs Ch. Cotswold, of whom he 
is now kennel companion. At the same show Miss Clifford, of 
Ryde, exhibited a good hound in Wildcroft, another of 
Dermot Astore's sons, and other supporters of the breed are 
Lady Kathleen Pilkington, Mr. T. Hamilton Adams, Mr. G. H. 
Thurston, Mr. Bailey, Mrs. F. Marshall, Mr. J. L. T. Dobbin, 
and Miss Ethel McCheane. 

The following is the description of the variety as drawn 
up by the Club : 

General Appearance The Irish Wolfhound should not be quite so 
heavy or massive as the Great Dane, but more so than the Deerhound, 
which in general type he should otherwise resemble. Of great size 
and commanding appearance, very muscular, strongly though grace- 
fully built ; movements easy and active ; head and neck carried high ; 
the tail carried with an upward sweep, with a slight curve towards 
the extremity. The minimum height and weight of dogs should be 
31 inches and 120 pounds, of bitches 28 inches and 90 pounds. Any- 
thing below this should be debarred from competition. Great size, 
including height at shoulder and proportionate length of body, is the 
desideratum to be aimed at, and it is desired firmly to establish a race 
that shall average from 32 inches to 34 inches in dogs, showing the 
requisite power, activity, courage, and symmetry. Head Long, the 
frontal bones of the forehead very slightly raised and very little in- 
dentation between the eyes. Skull not too broad ; muzzle long and 
moderately pointed ; ears small and Greyhound-like in carriage. 
Neck Rather long, very strong and muscular, well arched, without 
dewlap and loose skin about the throat. Chest Very deep, breast 
wide. Back Rather long than short. Loins arched. Tall Long 
and slightly curved, of moderate thickness, and well covered with hair. 
Belly Well drawn up. Fore-quarters Shoulders muscular, giving 
breadth of chest, set sloping, elbows well under, neither turned inwards 
nor outwards. Leg Forearm muscular and the whole leg strong and 
quite straight. Hind-quarters Muscular thighs, and second thigh 
long and strong as in the Greyhound, and hocks well let down and 
turning neither in nor out. Feet Moderately large and round, neither 
turned inwards nor outwards ; toes well arched and closed, nails very 
strong and curved. Hair Rough and hard on body, legs, and head ; 
especially why and long over eyes and under jaw. Colour and Mark- 
ings The recognised colours are grey, brindle, red, black, pure white, 
fawn, or any colour that appears in the Deerhound. Faults Too light 
or heavy in head, too highly arched frontal bone, large ears and hanging 
flat to the face ; short neck ; full dewlap ; too narrow or too broad 
a chest ; sunken and hollow or quite level back ; bent fore-legs ; over- 
bent fetlocks ; twisted feet ; spreading toes ; too curly a tail ; weak 
hind-quarters, cow hocks, and a general want of muscle; too short 
in body. 


THE Deerhound is one of the most decorative of dogs, im- 
pressively stately and picturesque wherever he is seen, whether 
it be amid the surroundings of the baronial hall, reclining at 
luxurious length before the open hearth in the fitful light of 
the log fire that flickers on polished armour and tarnished 
tapestry ; out in the open, straining at the leash as he scents 
the dewy air, or gracefully bounding over the purple of his 
native hills. Grace and majesty are in his every movement 
and attitude, and even to the most prosaic mind there is 
about him the inseparable glamour of feudal romance and 
poetry. He is at his best alert in the excitement of the chase ; 
but all too rare now is the inspiring sight that once was com- 
mon among the mountains of Morven and the glens of Argyll 
of the deep-voiced hound speeding in pursuit of his antlered 
prey, racing him at full stretch along the mountain's ridge, or 
baying him at last in the fastness of darksome corrie or deep 
ravine. Gone are the good romantic days of stalking beloved 
by Scrope. The Highlands have lost their loneliness, and the 
inventions of the modern gunsmith have robbed one of the 
grandest of hunting dogs of his glory, relegating him to the life 
of a pedestrian pet, whose highest dignity is the winning of a 
pecuniary prize under Kennel Club rules. 

Historians of the Deerhound associate him with the original 
Irish Wolfdog, of whom he is obviously a close relative, and it 
is sure that when the wolf still lingered in the land it was the 
frequent quarry of the Highland as of the Hibernian hound. 
Legend has it that Prince Ossian, son of Fingal, King of 
Morven, hunted the wolf with the grey, long-bounding dogs. 



"Swift-footed Luath " and "White-breasted Bran" are 
among the names of Ossian's hounds. I am disposed to 
affirm that the old Irish Wolfhound and the Highland Deer- 
hound are not only intimately allied in form and nature, but 
that they are two strains of an identical breed, altered only 
in size by circumstance and environment. 

Whatever the source of the Highland Deerhound, and at 
whatever period it became distinct from its now larger Irish 
relative, it was recognised as a native dog in Scotland in very 
early times, and it was distinguished as being superior in 
strength and beauty to the hounds of the Picts. 

From remote days the Scottish nobles cherished their strains 
of Deerhound, seeking glorious sport in the Highland forests. 
The red deer belonged by inexorable law to the kings of 
Scotland, and great drives, which often lasted for several days, 
were made to round up the herds into given neighbourhoods 
for the pleasure of the court, as in the reign of Queen Mary. 
But the organised coursing of deer by courtiers ceased during 
the Stuart troubles, and was left in the hands of retainers, 
who thus replenished their chief's larder. 

The revival of deerstalking dates back hardly further than 
a hundred years. It reached its greatest popularity in the 
Highlands at the time when the late Queen and Prince Albert 
were in residence at Balmoral. Solomon, Hector, and Bran 
were among the Balmoral hounds. Bran was an especially 
fine animal one of the best of his time, standing over thirty 
inches in height. 

Two historic feats of strength and endurance illustrate the 
tenacity of the Deerhound at work. A brace of half-bred 
dogs, named Percy and Douglas, the property of Mr. Scrope, 
kept a stag at bay from Saturday night to Monday morning ; 
and the pure bred Bran by himself pulled down two un- 
wounded stags, one carrying ten and the other eleven tines. 
These, of course, are record performances, but they demon- 
strate the possibilities of the Deerhound when trained to his 
natural sport. 


Driving was commonly resorted to in the extensive forests, 
but nowadays when forests are sub-divided into limited shoot- 
ings the deer are seldom moved from their home preserves, 
whilst with the use of improved telescopes and the small-bore 
rifle, stalking has gone out of fashion. With guns having a 
muzzle velocity of 2,500 feet per second, it is no longer necess- 
ary for sportsmen stealthily to stalk their game to come within 
easy range, and as for hounds, they have become a doubtful 
appendage to the chase. 

Primarily and essentially the Deerhound belongs to the 
order Agaseus, hunting by sight and not by scent, and although 
he may indeed occasionally put his nose to the ground, yet his 
; powers of scent are nol remarkable. His vocation, therefore, 
has undergone a change, and it was recently ascertained that 
of sixty deer forests there were only six upon which Deerhounds 
were kept for sporting purposes. 

Happily the Deerhound has suffered no decline in the 
favour bestowed upon him for his own sake. The contrary is 
rather the case, and he is still an aristocrat among dogs, 
valued for his good looks, the symmetry of his form, his 
grace and elegance, and even more so for his faithful and 
affectionate nature. Sir Walter Scott declared that he was 
" a most perfect creature of heaven," and when one sees 
him represented in so beautiful a specimen of his noble race 
as St. Ronan's Rhyme, for example, or Talisman, or Ayrshire, 
one is tempted to echo this high praise. 

Seven-and-twenty years ago Captain Graham drew up a list 
of the most notable dogs of the last century. Among these 
j were Sir St. George Gore's Gruim (1843-44), Black Bran 
(1850-51) ; the Marquis of Breadalbane's King of the Forest, 
said to stand 33 inches high ; Mr. Beaseley's Alder (1863-67), 
bred by Sir John McNeill of Colonsay ; Mr. Donald Cameron's 
Torrum (1869), and his two sons Monzie and Young Torrum ; 
and Mr. Dadley's Hector, who was probably the best-bred 
dog living in the early eighties. Torrum, however, appears 
to have been the most successful of these dogs at stud. He was 


an exceedingly grand specimen of his race, strong framed, 
with plenty of hair of a blue brindle colour. Captain Graham 's 
own dog Keildar, who had been trained for deerstalking in 
Windsor Park, was perhaps one of the most elegant and 
aristocratic-looking Deerhounds ever seen. His full height 
was 30 inches, girth 33$ inches, and weight, 95 Ibs., his colour 
bluish fawn, slightly brindled, the muzzle and ears being blue. 
His nearest competitor for perfection was, after Hector, 
probably Mr. Hood Wright's Bevis, a darkish red brown 
brindle of about 29 inches. Mr. Wright was the breeder of 
Champion Selwood Morven, who was the celebrity of his race 
about 1897, and who became the property of Mr. Harry 
Rawson. This stately dog was a dark heather brindle, stand- 
ing 3 2 t inches at the shoulder, with a chest girth of 34^ 

A few years ago breeders were inclined to mar the beauty of 
the Deerhound by a too anxious endeavour to obtain great 
size rather than to preserve the genuine type ; but this error 
has been sufficiently corrected, with the result that symmetry 
and elegance conjoined with the desired attributes of speed are 
not sacrificed. The qualities aimed at now are a height of 
something less than 30 inches, and a weight not greater than 
105 Ibs., with straight fore-legs and short, cat-like feet, a 
deep chest, with broad, powerful loins, slightly arched, and 
strength of hind-quarters, with well-bent stifles, and the hocks 
well let down. Straight stifles are objectionable, giving a 
stilty appearance. Thick shoulders are equally a blemish to 
be avoided, as also a too great heaviness of bone. The 
following is the accepted standard of merit. 

Head The head should be broadest at the ears, tapering slightly 
to the eyes, with the muzzle tapering more decidedly to the nose. 
The muzzle should be pointed, but the teeth and lips level. The head 
should be long, the skull flat rather than round, with a very slight rise 
over the eyes, but with nothing approaching a stop. The skull should 
be coated with moderately long hair which is softer than the rest 
of the coat. The nose should be black (though in some blue-fawns 
the colour is blue) and slightly aquiline. In the lighter-coloured dogs 
a black muzzle is preferred. There should be a good moustache* of 


rather silky hair, and a fair beard. Ears The ears should be set on high, 
and, in repose, folded back like the Greyhound's, though raised above 
the head in excitement without losing the fold, and even, in some cases, 
semi-erect. A prick ear is bad. A big, thick ear, hanging flat to the 
head, or heavily coated with long hair, is the worst of faults. The ear 
should be soft, glossy, and like a mouse's coat to the touch, and the 
smaller it is the better. It should have no long coat or long fringe, 
but there is often a silky, silvery coat on the body of the ear and the 
tip. Whatever the general colour, the ears should be black or dark- 
coloured. Neck and Shoulders The neck should be long that is, 
of the length that befits the Greyhound character of the dog. An 
over-long neck is not necessary, nor desirable, for the dog is not required 
to stoop in his work like a Greyhound, and it must be remembered 
that the mane, which every good specimen should have, detracts from 
the apparent length of neck. Moreover, a Deerhound requires a very 
strong neck to hold a stag. The nape of the neck should be very 
prominent where the head is set on, and the throat should be clean-cut 
at the angle and prominent. The shoulders should be well sloped, 
the blades well back, with not too much width between them. Loaded 
and straight shoulders are very bad faults. Stern Stern should be 
tolerably long, tapering, and reaching to within 1$ inches of the ground, 
and about 1$ inches below the hocks. When the dog is still, dropped 
perfectly straight down, or curved. Wien in motion it should be 
curved when excited, in no case to be lifted out of the line of the back. 
It should be well covered with hair, on the inside thick and wiry, under- 
side longer, and towards the end a slight fringe is not objectionable. 
A curl or ring tail is very undesirable. Eyes The eyes should be dark : 
generally they are dark brown or hazel. A very light eye is not liked. 
The eye is moderately full with a soft look in repose, but a keen, far- 
away gaze when the dog is roused. The rims of the eyelids should be 
black. Body The body and general formation is that of a Greyhound 
of larger size and bone. Chest deep rather than broad, but not too 
narrow and flat-sided. The loin well arched and drooping to the tail. 
A straight back is not desirable, this formation being unsuitable for 
going uphill, and very unsightly. Legs and Feet The legs should be 
broad and flat, a good broad forearm and elbow being desirable. Fore- 
legs, of course, as straight as possible. Feet close and compact, with 
well-arched toes. The hind-quarters drooping, and as broad and 
powerful as possible, the hips being set wide apart. The hind-legs 
should be well bent at the stifle, with great length from the hip to the 
hock, which should be broad and flat. Cow hocks, weak pasterns, 
straight stifles, and splay feet are very bad faults. Coat The hair 
on the body, neck, and quarters should be harsh and wiry, and about 
3 inches or 4 inches long ; that on the head, breast, and belly is much 
softer. There should be a slight hairy fringe on the inside of the fore 
and hind-legs, but nothing approaching to the feathering of a Collie. 
The Deerhound should be a shaggy dog, but not over coated. A woolly 
coat is bad. Some good strains have a slight mixture of silky coat 
with the hard, which is preferable to a woolly coat, but the proper 
covering is a thick, close-lying, ragged coat, harsh or crisp to the touch. 
Colour Colour is much a matter of fancy. But there is no manner of 


doubt that the dark blue-grey is the most preferred. Next come 
the darker and lighter greys or brindles, the darkest being generally 
preferred. Yellow and sandy-red or red-fawn, especially with black 
points i.e., ears and muzzle are also in equal estimation, this being 
the colour of the oldest known strains, the McNeil and the Chesthill 
Menzles. White is condemned by all the old authorities, but a white 
chest and white toes, occurring as they do in a great many of the 
darkest-coloured dogs, are not so greatly objected to, but the less the 
better, as the Deerhound is a self-coloured dog. A white blaze on the 
head or a white collar should entirely disqualify. In other cases, 
though passable, an attempt should be made to get rid of white 
markings. The less white the better, but a slight white tip to the 
stern occurs in the best strains. Height of Dogs From 28 inches to 
30 inches, or even more if there be symmetry without coarseness, which, 
however, is rare. Height of Bitches From 26 inches upwards. There 
can be no objection to a bitch being large, unless she is too coarse, 
as even at her greatest height she does not approach that of the dog, 
and, therefore, could not well be too big for work, as over-big dogs are. 
Besides, a big bitch is good for breeding and keeping up the size. 
Weight From 85 pounds to 105 pounds in dogs ; from 65 pounds to 
80 pounds in bitches. 

Among the more prominent owners of Deerhounds at the 
present time are Mrs. H. Armstrong, Mrs. W. C. Grew, Mrs. 
Janvrin Dickson, Miss A. Doxford, Mr. Harry Rawson, and 
Mr. H. McLauchin. Mrs. Armstrong is the breeder of two 
beautiful dog hounds in Talisman and Laird of Abbotsford, 
and of- two typically good bitches in Fair Maid of Perth 
and Bride of Lammermoor. Mrs. Grew owns many 
admirable specimens, among them being Blair Athol, Ayr- 
shire, Kenil worth, and Ferraline. Her Ayrshire is considered 
by some judges to be the most perfect Deerhound exhibited 
for some time past. He is somewhat large, perhaps, but he is 
throughout a hound of excellent quality and character, having 
a most typical head, with lovely eyes and expression, perfect 
front, feet and hind-quarters. Other judges would give the 
palm to Mr. Harry Rawson 's St. Ronan's Ranger, who is 
certainly difficult to excel in all the characteristics most 
desirable in the breed. 


OF the many foreign varieties of the dog that have been 
introduced into this country within recent years, there is not 
one among the larger breeds that has made greater headway 
in the public favour than the Borzoi, or Russian Wolfhound. 
Nor is this to be wondered at. The most graceful and elegant 
of all breeds, combining symmetry with strength, the wearer 
of a lovely silky coat that a toy dog might envy, the length of 
head, possessed by no other breed all go to make the Borzoi 
the favourite he has become. 

He is essentially what our American cousins would call a 
" spectacular " dog. Given, for example, the best team of 
terriers and a fifth-rate team of Borzois, which attracts the 
more attention and admiration from the man in the street ? 
Which does he turn again to look at ? Not the terriers ! Add 
to this that the Borzoi makes a capital house dog, is, as a rule, 
affectionate and a good companion, it is not to be wondered at 
that he has attained the dignified position in the canine world 
which he now holds. 

In his native country the Borzoi is employed, as his English 
name implies, in hunting the wolf and also smaller game, in- 
cluding foxes and hares. 

Several methods of hunting the larger game are adopted, one 
form being as follows. Wolves being reported to be present 
in the neighbourhood, the hunters set out on horseback, each 
holding in his left hand a leash of three Borzois, as nearly 
matched as possible in size, speed, and colour. Arrived at the 
scene of action, the chief huntsman stations the hunters at 



separate points every hundred yards or so round the wood. 
A pack of hounds is sent in to draw the quarry, and on the 
wolves breaking cover the nearest hunter slips his dogs. These 
endeavour to seize their prey by the neck, where they hold him 
until the hunter arrives, throws himself from his horse, and 
with his knife puts an end to the fray. 

Another method is to advance across the open country at 
intervals of about two hundred yards, slipping the dogs at 
any game they may put up. 

Trials are also held in Russia. These take place in a large 
railed enclosure, the wolves being brought in carts similar to 
our deer carts. In this case a brace of dogs is loosed on the 
wolf. The whole merit of the course is when the hounds can 
overtake the wolf and pin him to the ground, so that the 
keepers can secure him alive. It follows, therefore, that in 
this case also the hounds must be of equal speed, so that they 
reach the wolf simultaneously ; one dog would, of course, be 
unable to hold him. 

Naturally, the dogs have to be trained to the work, for 
which purpose the best wolves are taken alive and sent to the 
kennels, where the young dogs are taught to pin him in such 
a manner that he cannot turn and use his teeth. There seems 
to be no reason why the Borzoi should not be used for coursing 
in this country. 

One of the first examples of the breed exhibited in England 
was owned by Messrs. Hill and Ashton, of Sheffield, about 
1880, at which time good specimens were imported by the 
Rev. J. C. Macdona and Lady Emily Peel, whose Sandringham 
and Czar excited general admiration. It was then known as 
the Siberian Wolfhound. Some years later the Duchess of 
Newcastle obtained several fine dogs, and from this stock Her 
Grace founded the kennel which has since become so famous. 
Later still, Queen Alexandra received from the Czar a gift 
of a leash of these stately hounds, one of them being Alex, who 
quickly achieved honours as a champion. 

The breed has become as fashionable in the United States as 


in Great Britain, and some excellent specimens are to be seen 
at the annual shows at Madison Square Gardens. 

To take the points of the breed in detail, the description of 
the perfect Borzoi is as follows : 

Head This should be long, lean, and well balanced, and the length, 
from the tip of the nose to the eyes, must be the same as *m the eyes 
to the occiput. A dog may have a long head, but the length may be 
an in front of the eyes The heads of this breed have greatly improved 
the last few years ; fewer " apple-headed " specimens, and more of the 
desired triangular heads being seen. The skull should be flat and 
narrow, the stop not perceptible, the muzzle long^ and tapering Too 
much stress cannot be laid on the importance of the head being well 
filled up before the eyes. The head, from forehead to nose, should be 
so fine that the direction of the bones and principal veins can be seen 
clearly, and in profile should appear rather Roman nosed. Bitches 
should be even narrower in head than dogs. The Eyes should be dark 
expressive, almond shaped, and not too far apart. The Ears like those 
of a Greyhound, small, thin, and placed well back on the head, with the 
tips, when thrown back, almost touching behind the occiput It is 
not a fault if the dog can raise his ears erect when excited or looking 
after game, although some English judges dislike this frequent char- 
acteristic. The head should be carried somewhat low, with the neck 
continuing the line of the back. Shoulders-Clean and sloping well 
back, i.e., the shoulder blades should almost touch one another. Chest 
Deep and somewhat narrow. It must be capacious, but the capacity 
must be got from depth, and not from " barrel " ribs a bad fault in 
^running hound. Back-Rather bony, and free from any cavity m the 
spinal column, the arch in the back being more marked in the dog than 
in the bitch. Loins Broad and very powerful showing plenty of 
muscular development. Thighs-Long and well ^eloped, wto 
good second thigh. The muscle in the Borzoi is longer than in t 
Greyhound. Ribs Slightly sprung, very deep, reaching to the elbow. 
Fore-legs-Lean and straight. Seen from the front they should be 
narrow and from the side broad at the shoulder and narrowing graduaUy 
down to the foot, the bone appearing flat and not round as in th 
Foxhound. Hind-legs The least thing under the body when standing 
still, not straight, and the stifle slightly bent. They should, of course 
be straight as regards each other, and not " cow-hocked," but straight 
hfnd legfimply I want of speed. Feet-Like those of the Deerhound, 
rather long. The toes close together and well arched Coat-Long 
silky, not woolly ; either flat, wavy, or curly. On the head ears, ai 
front-legs it should be short and smooth; on the neck the frill should 
be profuse and rather curly ; on the chest and the rest of the body, the 
tail and hind-quarters, it should be long; the fore- egs being well 
feathered. Tali-Long, well feathered, and not gaily earned tt 
should be carried well down, almost touching the ground. Height- 
Docs from 29 inches upwards at shoulder, bitches from 27 inches 
upwards. (Originally 27 inches and 26 inches. Altered at a general 
merttag of the Borzoi Club, held February, 1906.) Faults Head short 


and thick ; too much stop ; parti-coloured nose ; eyes too wide apart ; 
heavy ears ; heavy shoulders ; wide chest ; " barrel " ribbed ; dew- 
claws ; elbows turned out ; wide behind. Also light eyes and over or 
undershot jaws. Colour The Club standard makes no mention of 
colour. White, of course, should predominate; fawn, lemon, orange, 
brindle, blue, slate and black markings are met with. Too much 
of the latter, or black and tan markings, are disliked. Whole coloured 
dogs are also seen. 

The foregoing description embodies the standard of points 
as laid down and adopted by the Borzoi Club, interpolated 
with some remarks for the further guidance of the novice. 

The Borzoi Club was founded in 1892, and now consists of 
about fifty members, with the Duke and Duchess of Newcastle 
as joint-presidents. It does much good work for the breed, 
guaranteeing classes at shows, where otherwise few or none 
would be given, encouraging the breeding of high-class Borzois 
by offering its valuable challenge cups and other special prizes, 
and generally looking after the interests of the breed. 

Although the Club standard of height has been raised from 
27 and 26 inches to 29 and 27 inches for dogs and bitches 
respectively, it must be borne in mind that the best dogs of to- 
day far exceed these measurements, and, unless exceptionally 
good in other points, a dog of 29 inches at shoulder would 
stand little or no chance in the showing under the majority of 
English judges ; indeed, bitches of 29 to 30 inches are by no 
means uncommon. 

Not many of us can afford to start at the top of the tree, and, 
except for the favoured few to whom money is no object, 
and who can buy ready-made champions, there is no better 
way of starting a kennel than to purchase a really good bitch, 
one, say, capable of winning at all but the more important 
shows. She must be of good pedigree, strong, and healthy ; 
such an one ought to be obtained for 15 upwards. Mate her 
to the best dog whose blood " nicks " suitably with hers, but 
do not waste time and money breeding from fourth-rate stud 
dogs, for if you do it is certain you will only meet with disap- 
pointment. On the other hand, if you have had little or no 
experience of dogs, you may possibly prefer to start with 


a puppy. If so, place yourself in the hands of a breeder 
with a reputation at stake (unless you have a friend 
who understands the breed). It is a fact that even a " cast 
off " from a good strain that has been bred for certain points 
for years is more likely to turn out a better dog than a pup 
whose dam has been mated " haphazard " to some dog who 
may or may not have been a good one. Big kennels also gener- 
ally possess the best bitches and breed from them, and the 
bitch is quite as important a factor as the sire. If, however, 
you prefer to rely on your own judgment, and wish to choose 
a puppy yourself from a litter, select the one with the longest 
head, biggest bone, smallest ears, and longest tail, or as many 
of these qualities as you can find combined in one individual. 
Coat is a secondary matter in quite a young pup ; here one 
should be guided by the coat of the sire and dam. Still, choose 
a pup with a heavy coat, if possible, although when this puppy 
coat is cast, the dog may not grow so good as one as some of 
the litter who in early life were smoother. 

As regards size, a Borzoi pup of three months should 
measure about 19 inches at the shoulder, at six months about 
25 inches, and at nine months from 27 to 29 inches. After ten 
or twelve months, growth is very slow, although some con- 
tinue adding to their height until they are a year and a half 
old. They will, of course, increase in girth of chest and 
develop muscle until two years old ; a Borzoi may be con- 
sidered in its prime at from three to four years of age. As 
regards price, from 5 to 10 is not too much to pay for a really 
good pup of about eight to ten weeks old ; if you pay less you 
will probably get only a second-rate one. Having purchased 
your puppy, there are three principal items to be considered 
if you intend to rear him well ; firstly, his diet must be varied ; 
secondly, the pup must have unlimited exercise, and never be 
kept on the chain ; thirdly, internal parasites must be kept 
in check. For young puppies " Ruby " Worm Cure is most 
efficacious, and does not distress the patient. 

Food should be given at regular intervals not less fre- 


quently than five times a day to newly weaned puppies and 
may consist of porridge, bread and milk, raw meat minced 
fine, and any table scraps, with plenty of new milk. Well- 
boiled paunch is also greatly appreciated, and, being easily 
digested, may be given freely. 

One important part of the puppy's education that must by 
no means be neglected is to accustom him to go on the collar 
and lead. Borzoi pups are, as a rule extremely nervous, and 
it requires great patience in some cases to train them to the 
lead. Short lessons should be given when about four months 
old. If you can induce the puppy to think it is a new game, 
well and good he will take to it naturally ; but once he looks 
upon it as something to be dreaded, it means hours of patient 
work to break him in. 

If you decide on commencing with a brood bitch, see that 
she is dosed for worms before visiting the dog ; that she is in 
good hard condition not fat, however ; and, if possible, 
accompany her yourself and see her mated. For the first week 
rather less than her usual quantity of food should be given ; 
afterwards feed as her appetite dictates, but do not let her get 
too fat, or she may have a bad time when whelping. For two 
days before the puppies are due give sloppy but nourishing 
diet, and this should be continued, given slightly warm, for 
four or five days after the pups are born. Borzois as a rule 
make excellent mothers, but to rear them well they should not 
be allowed to suckle more than five or, if a strong, big bitch, 
six pups. If the litter is larger, it is better to destroy the 
remainder, or use a foster mother. 

Whatever they may be in their native land and the first 
imported specimens were perhaps rather uncertain in temper 
the Borzoi, as we know him in this country, is affectionate, 
devoted to his owner, friendly with his kennel companions 
and makes a capital house dog. As a lady's companion he is 
hard to beat ; indeed, a glance at any show catalogue will 
prove that the majority of Borzois are owned by the gentle sex. 
No one need be deterred from keeping a Borzoi by a remark 


the writer has heard hundreds of times at shows : " Those 
dogs are so delicate." This is not the case. Once over 
distemper troubles and the breed certainly does suffer badly 
if it contracts the disease the Borzoi is as hardy as most 
breeds, if not hardier. Given a good dry kennel and plenty of 
straw, no weather is too cold for them. Damp, of course, 
must be avoided, but this applies equally to other breeds. 

The adult hound, like the puppy, should never be kept on 
chain ; a kennel with a railed-in run should be provided, or a 
loose box makes a capital place for those kept out of doors, 
otherwise no different treatment is required from that of other 
large breeds. 


THE Greyhound is the oldest and most conservative of all 
dogs, and his type has altered singularly little during the 
seven thousand years in which he is known to have been 
cherished for his speed, and kept by men for running down the 
gazelle or coursing the hare. The earliest references to him 
are far back in the primitive ages, long before he was beauti- 
fully depicted by Assyrian artists, straining at the leash or 
racing after his prey across the desert sands. The Egyptians 
loved him and appreciated him centuries before the pyramids 
were built. In those days he wore a feathered tail, and his ears 
were heavy with a silken fringe of hair. His type was that of 
the modern Arabian Slughi, who is the direct and unaltered 
descendant of the ancient hound. The glorious King Solomon 
referred to him (Proverbs xxx. 31) as being one of the four 
things which " go well and are comely in going a lion, which 
is strongest among beasts, and turneth not away from any ; 
a Greyhound ; an he goat also ; and a king against whom there 
is no rising up." 

That the Greyhound is " comely in going," as well as in 
repose, was recognised very early by the Greeks, whose artists 
were fond of introducing this graceful animal as an ornament 
in their decorative workmanship. In their metal work, their 
carvings in ivory and stone, and more particularly as parts 
in the designs on their terra-cot ta oil bottles, wine coolers, 
and other vases, the Greyhound is frequently to be seen, some- 
times following the hare, and always in remarkably character- 
istic attitudes. Usually these Greek Greyhounds are repre- 



sented with prick ears, but occasionally the true rose ear is 

All writings in connection with Greyhounds point to the 
high estimation in which the dog has always been held. Dr. 
Caius, when referring to the name, says " The Greyhound hath 
his name of this word gre ; which word soundeth gradus in 
Latin, in Englishe degree, because among all dogges these are 
the most principall, occupying the chiefest place, and being 
simply and absolutely the best of the gentle kinde of Houndes." 

It was not until the reign of Queen Elizabeth that coursing 
in England was conducted under established rules. These 
were drawn up by the then Duke of Norfolk. The sport 
quickly grew in favour, and continued to increase in popu- 
larity until the first coursing club was established at Swaffham 
in 1776. Then in 1780 the Ashdown Park Meeting came into 
existence. The Newmarket Meeting in 1805 was the next 
fixture that was inaugurated, and this now remains with the 
champion stakes as its most important event. Afterwards 
came the Amesbury Meeting in 1822, but Amesbury, like 
Ashdown, although for many years one of the most celebrated 
institutions of the description, has fallen from its high estate. 
Three years later came the Altcar Club. But it was not until 
eleven years after this period that the Waterloo Cup was in- 
stituted (in 1836), to win which is the highest ambition of 
followers of the leash. 

At the present time the run for the Waterloo Cup, which at 
the commencement was an eight dog stake, is composed of 
sixty-four nominations, the entry fee for which is 25. The 
winner takes 500, and the cup, value 100, presented by the 
Earl of Sefton, the runner up 200, the third and fourth 50 
each, four dogs 36 each, eight dogs 20 each, and sixteen dogs 
10 each. The thirty-two dogs beaten in the first round of 
the Cup compete for the Waterloo Purse, value 215, and the 
sixteen dogs run out in the second round for the Waterloo 
Plate, value 145. The winner in each case taking 75, and 
the runner up 30, the remainder being divided amongst the 


most forward runners in the respective stakes. The Waterloo 
Cup holds the same position in coursing circles as the Derby 
does in horse racing. 

The National Coursing Club was established in 1858, when 
a stud book was commenced, and a code of laws drawn up for 
the regulation of coursing meetings. This is recognised in 
Australia and other parts of the world where coursing meetings 
are held. The Stud Book, of which Mr. W. F. Lamonby is 
the keeper, contains particulars of all the best-known Grey- 
hounds in the United Kingdom, and a dog is not allowed to 
compete at any of the large meetings held under Coursing Club 
rules unless it has been duly entered with its pedigree com- 
plete. In fact, the National Coursing Club is more particular 
in connection with the pedigrees of Greyhounds being correctly 
given, than the Kennel Club is about dogs that are exhibited ; 
and that is saying a great deal. It holds the same position 
in coursing matters as the Jockey Club does in racing. It is 
in fact, the supreme authority on all matters connected with 

Various opinions have been advanced as to the best size 
and weight for a Greyhound. Like horses, Greyhounds 
run in all forms, and there is no doubt that a really good big 
one will always have an advantage over the little ones ; but 
it is so difficult to find the former, and most of the chief 
winners of the Waterloo Cup have been comparatively small. 
Coomassie was the smallest Greyhound that ever won the blue 
ribbon of the leash ; she drew the scale at 42 Ibs., and was 
credited with the win of the Cup on two occasions. Bab at 
the Bowster, who is considered by many good judges to have 
been the best bitch that ever ran, was 2 Ibs. more ; she 
won the Cup once, and many other stakes, as she was run all 
over the country and was not kept for the big event. Master 
McGrath was a small dog, and only weighed 53 Ibs., but he 
won the Waterloo Cup three times. Fullerton, who was a 
much bigger dog, and was four times declared the winner of 
the Cup, was 56 Ibs. in weight. 


There are very few Greyhounds that have won the Waterloo 
Cup more than once, but Cerito was credited with it three 
times, namely, in 1850, 1852, and 1853, when it was a thirty- 
two dog stake. Canaradzo, Bit of Fashion, Miss Glendine, 
Herschel, Thoughtless Beauty, and Fabulous Fortune, are 
probably some of the best Greyhounds that ever ran besides 
those already alluded to. Bit of Fashion was the dam of 
Fullerton, who shares with Master McGrath the reputation 
of being the two best Greyhounds that ever ran. But Master 
McGrath came first. During his remarkable career in public 
he won thirty-six courses out of thirty-seven, the only time 
that he was defeated being the 1870 at his third attempt to 
win the Waterloo Cup, and the flag went up in favour of Mr. 
Trevor's Lady Lyons. He, however, retrieved his good 
fortune the following year, when he again ran through the 

Fullerton, who, when he won all his honours, was the pro- 
perty of Colonel North, was bred by Mr. James Dent in North- 
umberland. Colonel North gave 850 guineas for him, which 
was then stated to be the highest price ever paid for a Grey- 
hound. He ran five times altogether for the Waterloo Cup, 
and was declared the winner on four occasions. The first 
time was in 1889, when he divided with his kennel companion 
Troughend. Then he won the Cup outright the three follow- 
ing years. In 1893, however, after having been put to the 
stud, at which he proved a failure, he was again trained for 
the Cup, but age had begun to tell its tale, and after winning 
one course he was beaten by Mr. Keating's Full Captain, in 
the second. This was one of the two occasions upon which 
out of thirty-three courses he failed to raise the flag. On the 
other he was beaten by Mr. Gladstone's Greengage, when 
running the deciding course at Haydock Park. 

It appears like descending from the sublime to the ridicu- 
lous to mention the Greyhound as a show dog, after the many 
brilliant performances that have been recorded of him in the 
leash, but there are many dogs elegant in outline with fine 


muscular development that are to be seen in the judging ring. 
Mr. George Raper's Roasting Hot is one of the most prominent 
winners of the day ; he is a fawn and white, as handsome as a 
peacock and, moreover, is a good dog in the field. On one 
occasion after competing successfully at the Kennel Club 
Show at the Crystal Palace, he was taken to a coursing meeting 
where he won the stake in which he was entered. A brace of 
very beautiful bitches are Mr. F. Eyer's Dorset Girl and Miss 
W. Easton's Okeford Queen. 

Although, as a rule, the most consistent winners in the leash 
have not been noted for their good looks, there have been ex- 
ceptions in which the opposite has been the case. Fullerton 
was a good-looking dog, if not quite up to the form required in 
the show ring. Mr. Harding Cox has had several specimens 
that could run well and win prizes as show dogs, and the 
same may be said of Miss Maud May's fine kennel of Grey- 
hounds in the North of England. In the South of England 
Mrs. A. Dewe* keeps a number of longtails that when not 
winning prizes at the Crystal Palace and elsewhere are running 
at Plumpton and other meetings in Sussex. 

The following is the standard by which Greyhounds should 
be judged. 

Head Long and narrow, slightly wider in skull, allowing for plenty 
of brain room ; lips tight, without any flew, and eyes bright and in- 
telligent and dark in colour. Ears Small and fine in texture, and semi- 
pricked. Teeth Very strong and level, and not decayed or cankered. 
Neck Lengthy, without any throatiness, but muscular. Shoulders 
Placed well back in the body, and fairly muscular, without being loaded. 
Fore-legs Perfectly straight, set well into the shoulders, with strong 
pasterns and toes set well up and close together. Body Chest very 
deep, with fairly well-sprung ribs ; muscular back and loins, and well 
cut up in the flanks. Hind-quarters Wide and well let down, with 
hocks well bent and close to the ground, with very muscular haunches, 
showing great propelling power, and tail long and fine and tapering with 
a slight upward curve. Coat Fairly fine in texture. Weight The 
ideal weight of a dog is from 60 pounds to 65 pounds, of a bitch from 55 
pounds to 60 pounds. 


FOR elegance of style, cleanliness of habit, and graceful 
movement, few dogs can equal the Whippet, for which reason 
his popularity as a companion has increased very greatly 
within the past decade. No more affectionate creature is to be 
found, yet he possesses considerable determination and 
pluck, and on occasion will defend himself in his own way. 

Too fragile in his anatomy for fighting, in the ordinary sense 
of the word, when molested, he will " snap " at his opponent 
with such celerity as to take even the most watchful by 
surprise ; while his strength of jaw, combined with its com- 
paratively great length, enables him to inflict severe punish- 
ment at the first grab. It was probably owing to this habit, 
which is common to all Whippets, that they were orginally 
known as Snap-Dogs. 

The Whippet existed as a separate breed long before dog 
shows were thought of, and at a time when records of pedigrees 
were not officially preserved ; but it is very certain that the 
Greyhound had a share in his genealogical history, for not 
only should his appearance be precisely that of a Greyhound 
in miniature, but the purpose for which he was bred is very 
similar to that for which his larger prototype is still used, the 
only difference being that rabbits were coursed by Whippets, 
and hares by Greyhounds. 

This sport has been mainly confined to the working classes, 
the colliers of Lancashire, Yorkshire, Durham, and North- 
umberland being particularly devoted to it. As a rule the 
contests are handicaps, the starting point of each competitor 
i 113 


being regulated by its weight ; but the winners of previous 
important events are penalised in addition, according to their 
presumed merit, by having a certain number of yards deducted 
from the start to which weight alone would otherwise have 
entitled them. Each dog is taken to its stipulated mark 
according to the handicap, and there laid hold of by the nape 
of the neck and hind-quarters ; the real starter stands behind 
the lot, and after warning all to be ready, discharges a pistol, 
upon which each attendant swings his dog as far forward as 
he can possibly throw him, but always making sure that he 
alights on his feet. The distance covered in the race is 
generally 200 yards, minus the starts allotted, and some idea 
of the speed at which these very active little animals can 
travel may be gleaned from the fact that the full distance has 
been covered in rather under 12 seconds. 

In order to induce each dog to do its best, the owner, or 
more probably the trainer stands beyond the winning post, 
and frantically waves a towel or very stout rag. Accompanied 
by a babel of noise, the race is started, and in less time than it 
takes to write it the competitors reach the goal, one and all 
as they finish taking a flying leap at their trainer's towel, to 
which they hold on with such tenacity that they are swung 
round in the air. The speed at which they are travelling makes 
this movement necessary in many cases to enable the dog to 
avoid accident, particularly where the space beyond the 
winning mark is limited. For racing purposes there is a wide 
margin of size allowed to the dogs, anything from 8 Ibs. to 
23 Ibs., or even more, being eligible ; but in view of the handi- 
cap terms those dogs which possess speed, and scale 9 to 12 Ibs. 
amongst the light-weights, and over 17 Ibs. in the heavy 
ones, are considered to have the best chance. 

Probably there is no locality where the pastime has main- 
tained such a firm hold as in and around Oldham, one of the 
most famous tracks in the world being at Higginshaw, where 
not infrequently three hundred dogs are entered in one handi- 
cap. The Borough grounds at Oldham and the Wellington 


grounds at Bury are also noted centres for races. It is a 
remarkable but well recognised fact that bitches are faster than 
dogs, and in consequence the terms upon which they are 
handicapped are varied. The general custom is to allow a 
dog 2\ to 3 yards advantage for every pound difference 
in weight between it and the gentle sex. 

One of the fastest dogs that ever ran was Collier Lad, 
but he was almost a Greyhound as regards size. Whitefoot, 
whose owner challenged the world, and was considered to be 
quite unbeatable, was a Whippet in every sense of the word, 
and was a nice medium weight, though probably Capplebank's 
time of ii \ seconds stands alone. The best of the present-day 
racing dogs are Polly fro' Astley (15 Ibs.) and Dinah (nj Ibs), 
and of those which promise well for the future, Eva, whose 
weight is only g| Ibs., is most prominent. 

The training of Whippets is by no means easy work, and is 
more expensive than most people imagine. The very choicest 
food is deemed absolutely necessary, in fact a Whippet 
undergoing preparation for an important race is provided 
with the most wholesome fare. Choice mutton-chops, beef- 
steaks and similar dainties comprise their daily portion. Of 
course exercise is a necessity, but it is not considered good 
policy to allow a dog in training to gambol about either on the 
roads or in the fields. Indeed, all dogs which are undergoing 
preparation for a race are practically deprived of their free- 
dom, in lieu of which they are walked along hard roads 
secured by a lead ; and for fear of their picking up the least 
bit of refuse each is securely muzzled by a box-like leather 
arrangement which completely envelops the jaws, but which is 
freely perforated to permit proper breathing. Any distance 
between six and a dozen miles a day, according to the stamina 
and condition of the dog, is supposed to be the proper amount 
of exercise, and scales are brought into use every few days to 
gauge the effect which is being produced. In addition 
to this private trials are necessary in the presence of someone 
who is accustomed to timing races by the aid of a stop-watch 


a by no means easy task, considering that a slight particle of a 
second means so many yards, and the average speed working 
out at about 16 yards per second nearly twice as fast as the 
fastest pedestrian sprinter, and altogether beyond the power 
of the fleetest race-horse. 

Colour in the Whippet is absolutely of no importance to a 
good judge, though possibly what is known as the peach fawn 
is the favourite among amateur fanciers. , Red fawns, blue or 
slate coloured, black, brindled of various shades, and these 
colours intermingled with white, are most to be met with, 
however. In some quarters the idea is prevalent that Whip- 
pets are delicate in their constitution, but this is a popular 
error. Probably their disinclination to go out of doors on 
their own initiative when the weather is cold and wet may 
account for the opinion, but given the opportunity to roam 
about a house the Whippet will find a comfortable place, and 
will rarely ail anything. In scores of houses Whippets go to 
bed with the children, and are so clean that even scrupulous 
housewives take no objection to their finding their way under 
the clothes to the foot of the bed, thereby securing their own 
protection and serving as an excellent footwarmer in the 
winter months. 

Probably in no other breed, except the Greyhound, do 
judges attach so little importance to the shape of the head ; 
so long as the jaws are fairly long and the colour of the eyes 
somewhat in keeping with that of the body, very little else 
is looked for in front of the ears. As in the case of racing 
competitors, really good dogs for show purposes are much 
more difficult to find than bitches. The best of the males are 
not so classical in outline as the females, though some of them 
are as good in legs and feet points which are of the greatest 
importance. Though it is not quite in accordance with the 
standard laid down by the club, it will be found that most 
judges favour dogs which are about 17 Ibs. weight, and bitches 
which are between 15 Ibs. and 16 Ibs., the 20 Ibs. mentioned 
in the standard of points, without variation for sex being 


considered altogether too heavy. Appearances are sometimes 
deceptive, but these dogs are rarely weighed for exhibition 
purposes, the trained eye of the judge being sufficient guide 
to the size of the competitors according to his partiality for 
middle-size, big, or little animals. 

The South Durham and Yorkshire Show at Darlington has 
the credit for first introducing classes for Whippets into the 
prize ring. Previous to this it had not long been generally 
recognised as a distinct breed, and it is within the last twenty 
years that the Kennel Club has placed the breed on its 
recognised list. 

The following is the standard of points adopted by the 
Whippet Club : 

Head Long and lean, rather wide between the eyes and flat on the 
top ; the jaw powerful yet cleanly cut ; the teeth level and white. 
Eyes Bright and fiery. Ears Small, fine in texture and rose shape. 
Neck Long and muscular, elegantly arched and free from throatiness. 
Shoulders Oblique and muscular. Chest Deep and capacious. 
Back Broad and square, rather long and slightly arched over the loin, 
which should be strong and powerful. Fore-legs Rather long, well 
set under the dog, possessing a fair amount of bone. Hind-quarters 
Strong and broad across stifles, well bent thighs, broad and muscular ; 
hocks well let down. Feet Round, well split up, with strong soles. 
Coat Fine and close. Colour Black, red, white, brindle, fawn, blue, 
and the various mixtures of each. Weight Twenty pounds. 


THERE is plenty of proof that Foxhounds were the very first 
of the canine races in Great Britain to come under the domina- 
tion of scientific breeding. There had been hounds of more 
ancient origin, such as the Southern Hound and the Blood- 
hound ; but something different was wanted towards the end 
of the seventeenth century to hunt the wild deer that had 
become somewhat scattered after Cromwell's civil war. The 
demand was consequently for a quicker hound than those 
hitherto known, and people devoted to the chase began to 
breed it. Whether there were crosses at first remains in dis- 
pute, but there is more probability that the policy adopted 
was one of selection ; those exceptionally fast were bred with 
the same, until the slow, steady line hunter was improved out 
of his very character and shape. At any rate, there are 
proofs that in 1710 hounds were to be found in packs, carefully 
bred, and that at that time some of the hunts in question 
devoted attention to the fox. 

The first known kennel of all was at Wardour Castle, and 
was said to have been established in 1696 ; but more reliable 
is the date of the Brocklesby, commenced in 1713. The first 
record of a pack of hounds being sold was in 1730, when a 
Mr. Fownes sold his pack to a Mr. Bowles. The latter gentle- 
man showed great sport with them in Yorkshire. At that 
time Lord Hertford began to hunt the Cotswold country, in 
Gloucestershire, and was the first to draw coverts for fox in the 
modern style. Very soon after this it became the fashion 
of the day to breed hounds. Many of the nobility and large 



landowners devoted much of their time and money to it, and 
would take long journeys to get fresh blood. It was the rule 
to breed hounds on the most scientific principles, and by 1750 
there were fifty such breeders, including the fifth Duke of 
Beaufort, Lord Lincoln, Lord Stamford, Lord Percival, Lord 
Granby, Lord Ludlow, Lord Vernon, Lord Carlisle, Lord Mex- 
bro, Sir Walter Vavasour, Sir Roland Winns, Mr. Noel, Mr. 
Stanhope, Mr. Meynell, Mr. Barry, and Mr. Charles Pelham. The 
last-named gentleman, afterward the first Lord Yarborough, 
was perhaps the most indefatigable of all, as he was the first 
to start the system of walking puppies amongst his tenantry, 
on the Brocklesby estates, and of keeping lists of hound pedi- 
grees and ages. By 1760 all the above-named noblemen 
and gentlemen had been breeding from each other's kennels. 
The hounds were registered, as can be seen now in Lord Middle- 
ton's private kennel stud book, through which his lordship 
can trace the pedigrees of his present pack for a hundred and 
sixty years to hounds that were entered in 1760, got by Ray tor, 
son of Merryman and grandson of Lord Granby's Ranter. 
Another pedigree was that of Ruby, who is credited with a 
numerous progeny, as she was by Raytor out of Mr. Stapleton's 
Cruel by Sailor, a son of Lord Granby's Sailor by Mr. Noel's 
Victor. This shows well how seriously Foxhound breeding 
was gone into before the middle of the eighteenth century. 
Portraits prove also that a hound approaching very closely 
to those of modern times had been produced at this early 
period. By such evidence the Foxhound had outstripped the 
Harrier in size by nearly five inches, as the latter does not 
appear to have been more than eighteen inches, and the early 
Foxhound would have been twenty- three inches. Then the 
heavy shoulder, the dewlap, and jowl of the Southern Hound 
had been got rid of, and the coat had been somewhat altered 
The old school of breeders had evidently determined upon 
great speed and the ability to stay, through the medium of deep 
ribs, heart room, wide loins, length of quarter, quality of bone, 
straightness of fore-leg, and round strong feet ; the slack loined, 


loosely built, and splayfooted hound of former generations 
had been left behind. To such perfection, indeed, had the 
Foxhound attained, that long before the close of the eighteenth 
century sportsmen were clamouring as to what a Foxhound 
could do. 

With so much prominence given to the Foxhound in the 
comparatively short period of forty or fifty years, it is no 
wonder that individual hounds became very celebrated in 
almost every part of the country. Mr. Pelham's Rockwood 
Tickler and Bumper were names well known in Yorkshire, and 
Lord Ludlow's Powerful and Growler were talked of both in 
Lincolnshire and Warwickshire. From the first, indeed, it 
appeared that certain hounds were very much better than 
others, and old huntsmen have generally declared for one 
which was in the whole length of their careers (sometimes 
extending to fifty years) immeasurably superior to all others 
they had hunted. Harry Ayris, who was for just half a 
century with Lord FitzHardinge, declared to the day of his 
death that nothing had equalled Cromwell ; Osbaldeston said 
the same of Furrier, and Frank Gillard never falters from the 
opinion that Weathergage was quite by himself as the best 
hound he ever hunted. The Foxhound Kennel Stud Book 
abounds in the strongest proofs that hereditary merit in their 
work has been transmitted from these wonderful hounds, 
and they really make the history of the Foxhound. 

There have been many great hounds ; but there must be 
the greatest of the great, and the following twelve 
hounds are probably the best England has ever seen : 
Mr. Corbet's Trojan (1780), Lord Middle ton's Vanguard 
(1815), Mr.Osbaldeston's Furrier (1820), Lord Henry Bentinck's 
Contest (1848), Lord FitzHardinge's Cromwell (1855), Mr. 
Drake's Duster (1844), Sir Richard Sutton's Dryden (1849), 
the Duke of Rutland's Senator (1862), Duke of Rutland's 
Weathergage (1874), the Earl of Coventry's Rambler (1874), 
Mr. E. P. Rawnsley's Freeman (1884), and the Graf ton 
Woodman (1892). 


Breeding Foxhounds is one of the most fascinating of all the 
pleasures of animal culture, as the above list, so full of extreme 
merit, can be traced for nearly a hundred and thirty years. 

It cannot be said that the prices paid for Foxhounds in very 
recent times have greatly exceeded those of the past. In 1790 
Colonel Thornton sold Merkin for four hogsheads of claret, and 
the seller to have two couples of the whelps. Then in 1808 Mr. 
John Warde sold a pack of hounds to Lord Althorpe for 1,000 
guineas, and the same gentleman sold another pack for the 
same sum a few years later. In 1838 Lord Suffield offered 3,000 
guineas for Mr. Lambton's pack, and afterwads sold it to Sir 
Matthew White Ridley for 2,500. In 1834 Osbaldeston sold 
ten couples of bitches, all descendants of Furrier, for 2,000 
sovereigns, or 100 a hound a record that was almost eclipsed 
at the sale of Lord Politmore's hounds in 1870, when twenty- 
two couples of dog-hounds sold for 3,365 guineas. 

Of late years there has been the sale of the Quorn for, it was 
said, 3,000, and the late Lord Willoughby de Broke valued 
the North Warwickshire for the county to purchase at 2,500. 
In 1903 the Atherstone was valued by Mr. Rawlence, the 
well-known representative of Tattersall's, at 3,500, or some- 
thing like 50 a hound, and that has been considered very 
cheap. If, therefore, modern prices have not greatly exceeded 
those of the far past, there has not been any particular diminu- 
tion, and there is no doubt about it that if certain packs could 
be purchased the prices would far exceed anything ever 
reached before. 

Foxhounds have very much improved in looks during the 
past five-and-twenty years, and unquestionably they are quite 
as good in the field or better. Whenever hounds have good 
foxes in front of them, and good huntsmen to assist or watch 
over them, they are as able as ever, notwithstanding that the 
drawbacks to good sport are more numerous now than they 
used to be. The noble hound will always be good enough, 
and ever and anon this is shown by a run of the Great Wood 
order, to hunt over five-and-twenty to thirty miles at a pace 


to settle all the horses, and yet every hound will be up. There 
has been a slight tendency to increase size of late years. The 
Belvoir dog-hound is within very little of 24 inches instead of 
23^, the standard of twenty years ago, and this increase has 
become very general. In elegance of form nothing has been 
lost, and there can be no other to possess beauty combined 
with power and the essential points for pace and endurance in 
the same degree as a Foxhound. 
A detailed description of the Foxhound is here given : 

Head Somewhat broad, not peaked like the Bloodhound, but long 
from the apex to the frontal bones, eyebrows very prominent, cheeks 
cut clean from the eye to the nostril, ears set low and in their natural 
condition thin and shapely, but not large, nose large, jaw strong and 
level, and small dewlaps, expression fierce, and with the best often 
repellent. Eyes Very bright and deeply set, full of determination, 
and with a very steady expression. The look of the Foxhound is very 
remarkable. Neck Should be perfectly clean, no skin ruflle whatever, 
or neck cloth, as huntsmen call it. The length of neck is of importance, 
both for stooping and giving an air of majesty. Shoulders The blades 
should be well into the back, and should slant, otherwise be wide and 
strong, to meet the arms, that should be long and powerful. Legs and 
Feet The bone should be perfectly straight from the arm downward, 
and descend in the same degree of size to the ankles, or, as the saying 
is, " down to his toes." The knee should be almost flat and level ; 
there should be no curve until coming to the toes, which should be very 
strong, round, cat-shaped, and every toe clean set as it were. Fore- 
ribs and Brisket Deep, fine ribs are very essential, and the brisket 
should be well below the elbows. Back and Loins Back should be 
straight. A hollow back offends the eye much, and a roach back is 
worse. The loin wide, back ribs deep and long, a slight prominence 
over the croup. Quarters and Hocks The quarters cannot be too long, 
full, showing a second thigh, and meeting a straight hock low down, the 
shank bone short, and meeting shapely feet. Coat The coat is hard 
hair, but short and smooth, the texture is as stiff as bristles, but beau- 
tifully laid. Colour Belvoir tan, which is brown and black, perfectly 
intermixed, with white markings of various shapes and sizes. The 
white should be very opaque and clear. Black and white, with tan 
markings on head and stifles. Badger pied a kind of grey and white. 
Lemon pied, light yellow and white. Hare pied, a darker yellow and 
white. Stern Long and carried gaily, but not curled ; often half white. 
Height Dogs from 23 i to 24 inches ; bitches from 22 to 22 i inches. 


THE Harrier is a distinct breed of hound used for hunting the 
hare or rather it should be said the Association of Masters of 
Harriers are doing their utmost to perpetuate this breed ; the 
Harrier Stud Book bearing witness thereto : and it is to be 
deplored that so many Masters of Harriers ignore this fact, and 
are content to go solely to Foxhound kennels to start their packs 
of Harriers, choosing, maybe, 20 inch to 22 inch Foxhounds, 
and thenceforth calling them Harriers. It is, indeed, a 
common belief that the modern Harrier is but a smaller edition 
of the Foxhound, employed for hunting the hare instead of the 
fox, and it is almost useless to reiterate that it is a distinct 
breed of hound that can boast of possibly greater antiquity 
than any other, or to insist upon the fact that Xenophon 
himself kept a pack of Harriers over two thousands years ago. 
Nevertheless, in general appearance the Harrier and the 
Foxhound are very much alike, the one obvious distinction 
being that of size. 

Opinions differ as to what standard of height it is advisable 
to aim at. If you want to hunt your Harriers on foot, 16 
inches is quite big enough almost too big to run with ; 
but if you are riding to them, 20 inches is a useful height, or 
even 19 inches. Either is a good workable size, and such 
hounds should be able to slip along fast enough for most people. 
Choose your hounds with plenty of bone, but not too clumsy 
or heavy ; a round, firm neck, not too short, with a swan-like 
curve ; a lean head with a long muzzle and fairly short ears ; 
a broad chest with plenty of lung room, fore-legs like gun 



barrels, straight and strong ; hind-legs with good thighs and 
well let down hocks ; feet, round like cats' feet, and a well-set- 
on, tapering stern. Such a make and shape should see many 
seasons through, and allow you to be certain of pace and 
endurance in your pack. It is useless to lay down any hard 
and fast rule as to colour. It is so much a matter of individual 
taste. Some Masters have a great fancy for the dark colour- 
ing of the old Southern Hound, but nothing could look much 
smarter than a good combination of Belvoir tan with black and 
white. Puppies, as a rule, a week or two after they are whelped, 
show a greater proportion of dark marking than any other, 
but this as they grow older soon alters, and their white 
marking becomes much more conspicuous. As in the case of the 
Foxhound, the Harrier is very seldom kept as a companion 
apart from the pack. But puppies are usually sent out to walk, 
and may easily be procured to be kept and reared until they 
are old enough to be entered to their work. Doubtless the 
rearing of a Harrier puppy is a great responsibility, but it is 
also a delight to many who feel that they are helping in the 
advancement of a great national sport. 

There is nothing to surpass the beauty of the Beagle either 
to see him on the flags of his kennel or in unravelling 
a difficulty on the line of a dodging hare. In neat- 
ness he is really the little model of a Foxhound. He is, 
of course, finer, but with the length of neck so perfect in the 
bigger hound, the little shoulders of the same pattern, and 
the typical quarters and second thighs. Then how quick 
he is in his casts ! and when he is fairly on a line, of course 
he sticks to it, as the saying is, " like a beagle." 

Beagles have been carefully preserved for a great many 
years, and in some cases they have been in families for almost 
centuries. In the hereditary hunting establishments they 
have been frequently found, as the medium of amusement 
and instruction in hunting for the juvenile members of the 
house ; and there can be nothing more likely to instil the 


right principles of venery into the youthful mind than to 
follow all the ways of these little hounds. 

Dorsetshire used to be the great county for Beagles. The 
downs there were exactly fitted for them, and years ago, 
when roe-deer were preserved on the large estates, Beagles 
were used to hunt this small breed of deer. Mr. Cranes' 
Beagles were noted at the time, and also those of a Colonel 
Harding. It is on record that King George IV. had a 
strong partiality for Beagles, and was wont to see them 
work on the downs round about Brighton. The uses 
of the Beagle in the early days of the last century, 
however, were a good deal diversified. They were hunted 
in big woodlands to drive game to the gun, and perhaps the 
ordinary Beagle of from 12 inches to 14 inches was not big 
enough for the requirements of the times. It is quite possible, 
therefore, that the Beagle was crossed with the Welsh, Southern 
or Otterhound, to get more size and power, as there certainly 
was a Welsh rough-coated Beagle of good 18 inches, and an 
almost identical contemporary that was called the Essex 
Beagle. Sixty years ago such hounds were common enough, 
but possibly through the adoption of the more prevalent plan 
of beating coverts, and Spaniels being in more general use, 
the vocation of the Beagle in this particular direction died out, 
and a big rough-coated Beagle is now very rarely seen. 

That a great many of the true order were bred became very 
manifest as soon as the Harrier and Beagle Association was 
formed, and more particularly when a section of the Peter- 
borough Hound Show was reserved for them. Then they 
seemed to spring from every part of the country. In 1896 
one became well acquainted with many packs that had 
apparently held aloof from the dog shows. There was the 
Cheshire, the Christ Church (Oxford), Mr. T. Johnson's, the 
Royal Rock, the Thorpe Satchville, the Worcestershire, etc., 
and of late there have been many more that are as well known 
as packs of Foxhounds. One hears now of the Chauston, the 
Halstead Place very noted indeed the Hulton, the Leigh 


Park, the Stoke Place, the Edinburgh, the Surbiton, the 
Trinity Foot, the Wooddale, Mrs. G. W. Hilliard's, Mrs. 
Price's, and Mrs. Turner's. 

Beagle owners, like the masters of Foxhound kennels, have 
never been very partial to the ordinary dog shows, and so 
the development of the up-to-date Beagle, as seen at recent 
shows, is somewhat new. It is just as it should be, and if 
more people take up " beagling " it may not be in the least 
surprising. They are very beautiful little hounds, can give 
a vast amount of amusement, and, for the matter of that, 
healthy exercise. If a stout runner can keep within fairly 
easy distance of a pack of well-bred Beagles on the line of 
a lively Jack hare, he is in the sort of condition to be generally 

DESCRIPTION OF THE BEAGLE: Head Fair length, powerful 
without being coarse ; skull domed, moderately wide, with an indication 
of peak, stop well defined, muzzle not snipy, and lips well flewed. Nose 
Black, broad, and nostrils well expanded. Eyes Brown, dark hazel 
or hazel, not deep set nor bulgy, and with a mild expression. Ears 
Long, set on low, fine in texture, and hanging in a graceful fold 
close to the cheek. Neck Moderately long, slightly arched, the throat 
showing some dewlap. Shoulders Clean and slightly sloping. Body 
Short between the couplings, well let down in chest, ribs fairly well 
sprung and well ribbed up, with powerful and not tucked-up loins. 
Hind-quarters Very muscular about the thighs, stifles and hocks well 
bent, and hocks well let down. Fore-legs Quite straight, well under 
the dog, of good substance and round in the bone. Feet Round, well 
knuckled up, and strongly padded. Stern Moderate length, set on 
high, thick and carried gaily, but not curled over the back. Colour 
Any recognised hound colour. Coat Smooth variety : Smooth, 
very dense and not too fine or short. Rough variety : Very dense 
and wiry. Height Not exceeding 16 inches. Pocket Beagles must 
not exceed 10 inches. General Appearance A compactly-built hound, 
without coarseness, conveying the impression of great stamina and 


IT has never been made quite clear in history why the Spaniards 
had a dog that was very remarkable for pointing all kinds of 
game. They have always been a pleasure-loving people, 
certainly, but more inclined to bull-fighting than field-craft, 
and yet as early as 1600 they must have had a better dog for 
game-finding than could have been found in any other part of 
the world. Singularly enough, too, the most esteemed breeds 
in many countries can be traced from the same source, such 
as the Russian Pointer, the German Pointer, the French 
double-nosed Griffon, and, far more important still, the English 
Pointer. A view has been taken that the Spanish double- 
nosed Pointer was introduced into England about two hundred 
years ago, when fire-arms were beginning to be popular 
for fowling purposes. Setters and Spaniels had been used to 
find and drive birds into nets, but as the Spanish Pointer 
became known it was apparently considered that he alone had 
the capacity to find game for the gun. This must have been 
towards the end of the seventeenth century, and for the next 
fifty years at least something very slow was wanted to meet 
the necessities of the old-fashioned flintlock gun, which 
occupied many minutes in loading and getting into position. 
Improvements came by degrees, until they set in very rapidly, 
but probably by 1750, when hunting had progressed a good 
deal, and pace was increased in all pastimes, the old-fashioned 
Pointer was voted a nuisance through his extreme caution and 
tortoise-like movements. 

There is evidence, through portraits, that Pointers had been 



altogether changed by the year 1800, but it is possible that 
the breed then had been continued by selection rather than 
by crossing for a couple of decades, as it is quite certain that 
by 1815 sportsmen were still dissatisfied with the want of pace 
in the Pointer, and many sportsmen are known to have 
crossed their Pointers with Foxhounds at about that time. 
By 1835 the old Spanish Pointer had been left behind, and the 
English dog was a perfect model for pace, stamina, resolution, 
and nerve. The breed was exactly adapted to the require- 
ments of that day, which was not quite as fast as the present. 
Men shot with good Joe Mantons, did their own loading, and 
walked to their dogs, working them right and left by hand 
and whistle. The dogs beat their ground methodically, their 
heads at the right level for body scent, and when they came 
on game, down they were ; the dog that had got it pointing, 
and the other barking or awaiting developments. There was 
nothing more beautiful than the work of a well-bred and well- 
broken brace of Pointers, or more perfect than the way a 
man got his shots from them. There was nothing slow about 
them, but on the contrary they went a great pace, seemed to 
shoot into the very currents of air for scent, and yet there was 
no impatience about them such as might have been expected 
from the Foxhound cross. The truth of it was that the 
capacity to concentrate the whole attention on the object 
found was so intense as to have lessened every other propensity. 
The rush of the Foxhound had been absorbed by the additional 
force of the Pointer character. There has been nothing at all 
like it in canine culture, and it came out so wonderfully after 
men had been shooting in the above manner for about forty 

It was nearing the end of this period that field trials began 
to occupy the attention of breeders and sportsmen, and 
although Setters had been getting into equal repute for the 
beauty of their work, there was something more brilliant about 
the Pointers at first. Brockton's Bounce was a magnificent 
dog, a winner on the show bench, and of the first Field Trial 


in England. Newton's Ranger was another of the early per- 
formers, and he was very staunch and brilliant, but it was in 
the next five years that the most extraordinary Pointer merit 
was seen, as quite incomparable was Sir Richard Garth's 
Drake, who was just five generations from the Spanish Pointer. 
Drake was rather a tall, gaunt dog, but with immense depth 
of girth, long shoulders, long haunches, and a benevolent, 
quiet countenance. There was nothing very attractive about 
him when walking about at Stafford prior to his trial, but the 
moment he was down he seemed to paralyse his opponent, 
as he went half as fast again. It was calculated that he went 
fifty miles an hour, and at this tremendous pace he would stop 
as if petrified, and the momentum would cover him with earth 
and dust. He did not seem capable of making a mistake, 
and his birds were always at about the same distance from 
him, to show thereby his extraordinary nose and confidence. 
Nothing in his day could beat him in a field. He got some 
good stock, but they were not generally show form, the bitches 
by him being mostly light and small, and his sons a bit high 
on the leg. None of them had his pace, but some were capital 
performers, such as Sir Thomas Lennard's Mallard, Mr. 
George Pilkington's Tory, Mr. Lloyd Price's Luck of Edenhall, 
winner of the Field Trial Derby, 1878 ; Lord Downe's Mars 
and Bounce, and Mr. Barclay Field's Riot. When Sir Richard 
Garth went to India and sold his kennel of Pointers at Tatter- 
sail's, Mr. Lloyd Price gave 150 guineas for Drake. 

The mid-century owners and breeders had probably all the 
advantages of what a past generation had done, as there were 
certainly many wonderful Pointers in the 'fifties, 'sixties, and 
'seventies, as old men living to-day will freely allow. They 
were produced very regularly, too, in a marvellous type of 

Mr. William Arkwright, of Sutton Scarsdale, Derbyshire, 

has probably the best kennel in England at the present time. 

He discovered and revived an old breed of the North of England 

that was black, and bred for a great many years by Mr. Pape, 



of Carlisle, and his father before him. With these Mr. Arkwright 
has bred to the best working strains, with the result that 
he has had many good field trial winners. For a good many 
years now Elias Bishop, of Newton Abbot, has kept up the old 
breeds of Devon Pointers, the Ch. Bangs, the Mikes, and the 
Brackenburg Romps, and his have been amongst the best at 
the shows and the field trials during the past few years. 
There are, of course, exceptions to the rule that many of the 
modern Pointers do not carry about them the air of their 
true business ; but it would appear that fewer people keep 
them now than was the case a quarter of a century ago, owing 
to the advance of quick-shooting, otherwise driving, and the 
consequent falling away of the old-fashioned methods, both 
for the stubble and the moor. However, there are many still 
who enjoy the work of dogs, and it would be a sin indeed in 
the calendar of British sports if the fine old breed of Pointer 
were allowed even to deteriorate. The apparent danger is 
that the personal or individual element is dying out. In 
the 'seventies the name of Drake, Bang, or Garnet were like 
household words. People talked of the great Pointers. They 
were spoken of in club chat or gossip ; written about ; and 
the prospects of the moors were much associated with the up- 
to-date characters of the Pointers and Setters. There is 
very little of this sort of talk now-a-days. Guns are more 
critically spoken of. There is, however, a wide enough world 
to supply with first-class Pointers. In England's numerous 
colonies it may be much more fitting to shoot over dogs. It 
has been tried in South Africa with marvellous results. 
Descendants of Bang have delighted the lone colonist on Cape 
partridge and quails, and Pointers suit the climate, whereas 
Setters do not. The Pointer is a noble breed to take up, as 
those still in middle life have seen its extraordinary merit 
whenever bred in the right way. As to the essential points 
of the breed, they may be set down as follows : 

Head Should be wide from ear to ear, long and slanting from the 
top of the skull to the setting on of the nose ; cheek bones prominent ; 


ears set low and thin in texture, soft and velvety ; nose broad at the 
base ; mouth large and jaws level. Neck The neck should be very 
strong, but long and slightly arched, meeting shoulders well knit into 
the back, which should be straight and joining a wide loin. There should 
be great depth of heart room, very deep brisket, narrow chest rather 
than otherwise, shoulders long and slanting. Legs and Feet Should be 
as nearly like the Foxhound's as possible. There should be really no 
difference, as they must be straight, the knees big, and the bone should 
be of goodly size down to the toes, and the feet should be very round 
and cat-shaped. Hind-quarters A great feature in the Pointer is his 
hind-quarters. He cannot well be too long in the haunch or strong in 
the stifle, which should be well bent, and the muscles in the second thigh 
of a good Pointer are always remarkable. The hocks may be straighter 
than even in a Foxhound, as, in pulling up sharp on his point, he in a 
great measure throws his weight on them ; the shank bones below the 
hock should be short. Colour There have been good ones of all colours. 
The Derby colours were always liver and whites for their Pointers 
and black breasted reds for their game-cocks. The Seftons were liver 
and whites also, and so were the Edges of Strelly, but mostly heavily 
ticked. Brockton's Bounce was so, and so were Ch. Bang, Mike, and 
Young Bang. Drake was more of the Derby colour ; dark liver and 
white. Mr. Whitehouse's were mostly lemon and whites, after Hamlet 
of that colour, and notable ones of the same hue were Squire, Bang 
Bang, and Mr. Whitehouse's Pax and Priam, all winners of field trials. 
There have been several very good black and whites. Mr. Francis's, 
afterwards Mr. Salter's, Chang was a field trial winner of this colour. 
A still better one was Mr. S. Becket's Rector, a somewhat mean little 
dog to look at, but quite extraordinary in his work, as he won the 
Pointer Puppy Stake at Shrewsbury and the All-Aged Stake three 
years in succession. Mr. Salter's Romp family were quite remarkable 
in colour a white ground, heavily shot with black in patches and in 
ticks. There have never been any better Pointers than these. There 
have been, and are, good black Pointers also. Height and Size A big 
Pointer dog stands from 24 inches to 25 inches at the shoulder. Old 
Ch. Bang and Young Bang were of the former height, and the great 
bitch, Mr. Lloyd Price's Belle, was 24 inches. For big Pointers 60 
pounds is about the weight for dogs and 56 pounds bitches ; smaller 
size, 54 pounds dogs and 48 pounds bitches. There have been some 
very good ones still smaller. 


I. THE ENGLISH SETTER. In some form or other Setters are 
to be found wherever guns are in frequent use and irrespective 
of the precise class of work they have to perform ; but their 
proper sphere is either on the moors, when the red grouse are 
in quest, or on the stubbles and amongst the root crops, when 
September comes in, and the partridge season commences. 

Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, is supposed to have been 
the first person to train setting dogs in the manner which 
has been commonly adopted by his successors. His lordship 
lived in the middle of the sixteenth century, and was therefore 
a contemporary of Dr. Caius, who may possibly have been 
indebted to the Earl for information when, in his work on 
English Dogges, he wrote of the Setter under the name of the 

Though Setters are divided into three distinct varieties, 
The English, the Irish and the Gordon, or Black and Tan 
there can be no doubt that all have a common origin, though 
it is scarcely probable, in view of their dissimilarity, that the 
same individual ancestors can be supposed to be their original 
progenitors. Nearly all authorities agree that the Spaniel 
family is accountable on one side, and this contention is borne 
out to a considerable extent by old illustrations and paintings 
of Setters at work, in which they are invariably depicted as 
being very much like the old liver and white Spaniel, though 
of different colours. Doubt exists as to the other side of their 
heredity, but it does not necessarily follow that all those who 
first bred them used the same means. Of the theories put 



forward, that which carries the most presumptive evidence 
must go to the credit of the old Spanish Pointer. Where else 
could they inherit that wonderful scenting power, that style 
in which they draw up to their game, their statuesque attitude 
when on point, and, above all, the staunchness and patience 
by which they hold their game spellbound until the shooter 
has time to walk leisurely up, even from a considerable 
distance ? 

But, apart from the question of their origin, the different 
varieties have many other attributes in common ; all perform 
the same kind of work, and in the same manner ; consequently 
the system of breaking or training them varies only according 
to the temper or ideas of those who undertake their schooling. 

Few dogs are more admired than English Setters, and those 
who are looked upon as professional exhibitors have not been 
slow to recognise the fact that when a really good young dog 
makes its appearance it is a formidable rival amongst all other 
breeds when the special prizes come to be allotted. 

Seen either at its legitimate work as a gun dog or as a 
domestic companion, the English Setter is one of the most 
graceful and beautiful of the canine race, and its elegant form 
and feathery coat command instant admiration. Twenty 
years ago it was known by several distinct names, among the 
more important being the Blue Beltons and Laveracks, and 
this regardless of any consideration as to whether or not the 
dogs were in any way connected by relationship to the stock 
which had earned fame for either of these time-honoured 
names. It was the great increase in the number of shows 
and some confusion on the part of exhibitors that made it 
necessary for the Kennel Club to classify under one heading 
these and others which had attained some amount of 
notability and the old terms have gradually been dropped. 

Doubtless the English Setter Club has done much since its 
institution in 1890 to encourage this breed of dog, and has 
proved the usefulness of the club by providing two very 
valuable trophies, the Exhibitors' Challenge Cup and the 


Field Trial Challenge Cup, for competition amongst its 
members, besides having liberally supported all the leading 
shows ; hence it has rightly come to be regarded as the 
only authority from which an acceptable and official dictum 
for the guidance of others can emanate. 

The following is the standard of points issued by the 
English Setter Club : 

Head The head should be long and lean, with well-defined stop. 
The skull oval from ear to ear, showing plenty of brain room, and with 
a well-defined occipital protuberance. The muzzle moderately deep 
and fairly square ; from the stop to the point of the nose should be long, 
the nostrils wide, and the jaws of nearly equal length ; flews not too 
pendulous. The colour of the nose should be black, or dark, or light 
liver, according to the colour of the coat. The eyes should be bright, 
mild, and intelligent, and of a dark hazel colour, the darker the better. 
The ears of moderate length, set on low and hanging in neat folds close 
to the cheek ; the tip should be velvety, the upper part clothed with fine 
silky hair. Neck The neck should be rather long, muscular, and lean, 
slightly arched at the crest, and clean cut where it joins the head ; 
towards the shoulder it should be larger, and very muscular, not throaty 
with any pendulosity below the throat, but elegant and bloodlike in 
appearance. Body The body should be of moderate length, with 
shoulders well set back or oblique ; back short and level ; loins wide, 
slightly arched, strong and muscular. Chest deep in the brisket, with 
good round widely-sprung ribs, deep in the back ribs that is, well 
ribbed up. Legs and Feet The stifles should be well bent and ragged, 
thighs long from hip to hock. The forearm big and very muscular, 
the elbow well let down. Pasterns short, muscular, and straight. 
The feet very close and compact, and well protected by hair between 
the toes. Tall The tail should be set on almost in a line with the back ; 
medium length, not curly or ropy, to be slightly curved or scimitar- 
shaped, but with no tendency to turn upwards ; the flag or feather 
hanging in long, pendant flakes ; the feather should not commence 
at the root, but slightly below, and increase in length to the middle, 
then gradually taper off towards the end ; and the hair long, bright, 
soft and silky, wavy but not curly. Coat and Feathering The coat 
from the back of the head in a line with the ears ought to be slightly 
wavy, long, and silky, which should be the case with the coat generally ; 
the breeches and fore-legs, nearly down to the feet, should be well 
feathered. Colour and Markings The colour may be either black and 
white, lemon and white, liver and white, or tricolour that is, black, 
white, and tan ; those without heavy patches of colour on the body, 
but flecked all over preferred. 

II. THE IRISH SETTER. Though this variety has not 
attained such popularity as its English cousin, it is not because 
it is regarded as being less pleasing to the eye, for in general 


appearance of style and outline there is very little difference ; 
in fact, none, if the chiselling of the head and colour of the 
coat be except ed. The beautiful rich golden, chestnut colour 
which predominates in all well-bred specimens is in itself 
sufficient to account for the great favour in which they are 
regarded generally, while their disposition is sufficiently 
engaging to attract the attention of those who desire to have 
a moderate-sized dog as a companion, rather than either a 
very large or very small one. Probably this accounts for so 
many lady exhibitors in England preferring them to the 
other varieties of Setters. We have to go over to its native 
country, however, to find the breed most highly esteemed 
as a sporting dog for actual work, and there it is naturally first 
favourite ; in fact, very few of either of the other varieties 
are to be met with from one end of the Green Isle to the other. 
It has been suggested that all Irish Setters are too headstrong 
to make really high-class field trial dogs. Some of them, on 
the contrary, are quite as great in speed and not only as clever 
at their business, but quite as keen-nosed as other Setters. 
Some which have competed within the past few years at the 
Irish Red Setter Club's trials have had as rivals some of 
the best Pointers from England and Scotland, and have 
successfully held their own. 

The Secretary of the Irish Setter Club is Mr. S. Brown, 27, 
Eustace Street, Dublin, and the standard of points as laid 
down by that authority is as follows : 

Head The head should be long and lean. The skull oval (from ear 
to ear), having plenty of brain room, and with well-defined occipital 
protuberance. Brows raised, showing stop. The muzzle moderately 
deep and fairly square at the end. From the stop to the point of the 
nose should be fairly long, the nostrils wide, and the jaws of nearly 
equal length ; flews not to be pendulous. The colour of the nose 
dark mahogany or dark walnut, and that of the eyes (which ought not to 
be too large) rich hazel or brown. The ears to be of moderate size, fine 
in texture, set on low, well back, and hanging in a neat fold close to the 
head. Neck The neck should be moderately long, very muscular, 
but not too thick ; slightly arched, free from all tendency to throati- 
ness. Body The body should be long. Shoulders fine at the points, 
deep and sloping well back. The chest as deep as possible, rather 


narrow in front. The ribs well sprung, leaving plenty of lung room. 
Loins muscular and slightly arched. The hind-quarters wide and 
powerful. Legs and Feet The hind-legs from hip to hock should be 
long and muscular ; from hock to heel short and strong. The stifle 
and hock joints well bent, and not inclined either in or out. The fore- 
legs should be straight and sinewy, having plenty of bone, with elbows 
free, well let down, and, like the hocks, not inclined either in or out. 
The feet small, very firm ; toes strong, close together, and arched. 
Tall The tail should be of moderate length, set on rather low, strong 
at root, and tapering to a fine point, to be carried as nearly as possible 
on a level or below the back. Coat On the head, front of legs, and 
tips of ears the coat should be short and fine ; but on all other parts 
of the body and legs it ought to be of moderate length, flat, and as free 
as possible from curl or wave. Feathering The feather on the upper 
portion of the ears should be long and silky ; on the back of fore and 
hind-legs long and fine ; a fair amount of hair on the belly, forming a 
nice fringe, which may extend on chest and throat. Feet to be well 
feathered between the toes. Tail to have a nice fringe of moderately 
long hair, decreasing in length as it approaches the point. All feather- 
ing to be as straight and as flat as possible. Colour and Markings 
The colour should be a rich golden chestnut, with no trace whatever of 
black ; white on chest, throat, or toes, or a small star on the forehead, 
or a narrow streak or blaze on the nose or face not to disqualify. 

III. THE BLACK AND TAN SETTER. Originally this variety 
was known as the Gordon Setter, but this title was only partly 
correct, as the particular dogs first favoured by the Duke of 
Gordon, from whom they took the name, were black, tan, and 
white, heavily built, and somewhat clumsy in appearance. 
But the introduction of the Irish blood had the effect of making 
a racier-looking dog more fashionable, the presence of white on 
the chest was looked upon with disfavour, and the Kennel 
Club settled the difficulty of name by abolishing the term 
" Gordon " altogether. 

Very few of this variety have appeared at field trials for 
several years past, but that cannot be considered a valid reason 
for stigmatising them as " old-men's dogs," as some narrow- 
minded faddists delight in calling them. On the few occasions 
when the opportunity has been presented they have acquitted 
themselves at least as well as, and on some occasions better 
than, their rivals of other varieties, proving to be as fast, as 
staunch, and as obedient as any of them. A notable example 
of this occurred during the season of 1902 and 1903, when Mr. 


Isaac Sharpe's Stylish Ranger was so remarkably successful 
at the trials. 

It is very difficult to account for the lack of interest which 
is taken in the variety outside Scotland, but the fact remains 
that very few have appeared at field trials within recent years, 
and that only about four owners are troubling the officials of 
English shows regularly at the present time. 

In France, Belgium, Norway, and especially in Russia this 
handsome sporting dog is a far greater favourite than it is 
in Great Britain, not only for work with the gun, but as a 
companion, and it is a fact that at many a Continental dog show 
more specimens of the breed are exhibited than could be 
gathered together in the whole of the United Kingdom. 

The want of an active organisation which would foster 
and encourage the interests of the Black and Tan Setter is 
much to be deplored, and is, without doubt, the chief cause of 
its being so much neglected, for in these strenuous days, when 
almost every breed or variety of breed is backed up by its own 
votaries, it cannot be expected that such as are not constantly 
kept in prominence will receive anything more than scant 

The Black and Tan Setter is heavier than the English or 
Irish varieties, but shows more of the hound and less of the 
Spaniel. The head is stronger than that of the English Setter, 
with a deeper and broader muzzle and heavier lips. The ears 
are also somewhat longer, and the eyes frequently show 
the haw. The black should be as jet, and entirely free from 
white. The tan on the cheeks and over the eyes, on the feet 
and pasterns, should be bright and clearly defined, and the 
feathering on the fore-legs and thighs should also be a rich, 
dark mahogany tan. 

Amongst the oldest and most successful owners of Setters 
who have consistently competed at field trials may be men- 
tioned Colonel Cotes, whose Prince Frederick was probably 
the most wonderful backer ever known. Messrs. Purcell- 
Llewellyn, W. Arkwright, Elias and James Bishop, F. C. Lowe, 


J. Shorthose, G. Potter and S. Smale, who may be considered 
the oldest Setter judges, and who have owned dogs whose 
prowess in the field has brought them high reputation. Mr. 
B. J. Warwick has within recent years owned probably more 
winners at field trials than any other owner, one of his being 
Compton Bounce. Captain Heywood Lonsdale has on several 
occasions proved the Ightfield strain to be staunch and true, 
as witness the doughty deeds of Duke of that ilk, and the 
splendid success he achieved at recent grouse trials in Scot- 
land with his Ightfield Rob Roy, Mack, and Dot, the first- 
named winning the all-aged stake, and the others being first 
and third in the puppy stake. Mr. Herbert Mitchell has been 
another good patron of the trials, and has won many important 
stakes. Mr. A. T. Williams has also owned a few noted trial 
winners, and from Scotland comes Mr. Isaac Sharpe, whose 
Gordon Setter, Stylish Ranger, has effectually put a stop to 
the silly argument that all this breed are old men's dogs. 

Many of the older field trial men hold tenaciously to the 
opinion that the modern exhibition Setter is useless for high- 
class work, and contend that if field-trial winners are to be 
produced they must be bred from noted working strains. 
Doubtless this prejudice in favour of working dogs has been 
engendered by the circumstance that many owners of cele- 
brated bench winners care nothing about their dogs being 
trained, in some cases generation after generation having been 
bred simply for show purposes. Under such conditions it 
is not to be wondered at that the capacity for fine scenting 
properties and the natural aptitude for quickly picking up a 
knowledge of their proper duties in the field is impaired. 
But there is no reason why a good show dog should not also 
be a good worker, and the recent edict of the Kennel Club 
which rules that no gun dog shall be entitled to championship 
honours until it has gained a certificate of merit in field trials 
will doubtless tend towards a general improvement in the 
working qualities of the breeds whose providence is in the 
finding and retrieving of game. 


IT is obviously useless to shoot game unless you can find it 
after it has been wounded or killed, and from the earliest times 
it has been the habit of sportsmen to train their dogs to do the 
work which they could not always successfully do for them- 
selves. The Pointers, Setters, and Spaniels of our forefathers 
were carefully broken not only to find and stand their game, 
but also to fetch the fallen birds. This use of the setting and 
pointing dog is still common on the Continent and in the 
United States, and there is no inaccuracy in a French artist 
depicting a Pointer with a partridge in its mouth, or showing 
a Setter retrieving waterfowl. 

The Springer and the old curly-coated water-dog were 
regarded as particularly adroit in the double work of finding 
and retrieving. Pointers and Setters who had been thus 
broken were found to deteriorate in steadiness in the field, 
and it gradually came to be realised that even the Spaniel's 
capacity for retrieving was limited. A larger and quicker 
dog was wanted to divide the labour, and to be used solely 
as a retriever in conjunction with the other gun dogs. The 
Poodle was tried for retrieving with some success, and he 
showed considerable aptitude in finding and fetching wounded 
wild duck ; but he, too, was inclined to maul his birds and 
deliver them dead. Even the old English Sheepdog was 
occasionally engaged in the work, and various crosses with 
Spaniel or Setter and Collie were attempted in the endeavour 
to produce a grade breed having the desired qualities of a good 
nose, a soft mouth, and an understanding brain, together with 



a coat that would protect its wearer from the ill effects of 
frequent immersion in water. 

It was when these efforts were most active namely about 
the year 1850 that new material was discovered in a black- 
coated dog recently introduced into England from Labrador. 
He was a natural water-dog, with a constitution impervious 
to chills, and entirely free from the liability to ear canker, 
which had always been a drawback to the use of the Spaniel 
as a retriever of waterfowl. Moreover, he was himself reputed 
to be a born retriever of game, and remarkably sagacious. His 
importers called him a Spaniel a breed name which at one 
time was also applied to his relative the Newfoundland. 
Probably there were not many specimens of the race in 
England, and, although there is no record explicitly saying 
so, it is conjectured that these were crossed with the English 
Setter, producing what is now familiarly known as the black, 
flat-coated Retriever. 

One very remarkable attribute of the Retriever is that 
notwithstanding the known fact that the parent stock was 
mongrel, and that in the early dogs the Setter type largely 
predominated, the ultimate result has favoured the Labrador 
cross distinctly and prominently, proving how potent, even 
when grafted upon a stock admittedly various, is the blood 
of a pure race, and how powerful its influence for fixing type 
and character over the other less vital elements with which it 
is blended. 

From the first, sportsmen recognised the extreme value of 
the new retrieving dog. Strengthened and improved by the 
Labrador blood, he had lost little if any of the Setter beauty 
of form. He was a dignified, substantial, intelligent, good- 
tempered, affectionate companion, faithful, talented, highly 
cultivated, and esteemed, in the season and out of it, for his 
mind as well as his beauty. 

It is only comparatively recently that we have realised how 
excellent an all-round sporting dog the Retriever has become. 
In many cases, indeed, where grouse and partridge are driven 


or walked-up a well-broken, soft-mouthed Retriever is unques- 
tionably superior to Pointer, Setter, or Spaniel, and for general 
work in the field he is the best companion that a shooting 
man can possess. 

Doubtless in earlier days, when the art of training was less 
thoroughly understood, the breaking of a dog was a matter of 
infinite trouble to breeders. Most of the gun dogs could be 
taught by patience and practice to retrieve fur or feather, but 
game carefully and skilfully shot is easily rendered valueless 
by being mumbled and mauled by powerful jaws not schooled 
to gentleness. And this question of a tender mouth was 
certainly one of the problems that perturbed the minds of the 
originators of the breed. The difficulty was overcome by 
process of selection, and by the exclusion from breeding 
operations of all hard-mouthed specimens, with the happy 
effect that in the present time it is exceptional to find a 
working Retriever who does not know how to bring his bird 
to hand without injuring it. A better knowledge of what is 
expected of him distinguishes our modern Retriever. He 
knows his duty, and is intensely eager to perform it, but he 
no longer rushes off unbidden at the firing of the gun. He 
has learned to remain at heel until he is ordered by word or 
gesture from his master, upon whom he relies as his friend and 

It would be idle to expect that the offspring of unbroken 
sire and dam can be as easily educated as a Retriever 
whose parents before him have been properly trained. 
Inherited qualities count for a great deal in the adaptability 
of all sporting dogs, and the reason why one meets with so 
many Retrievers that are incapable or disobedient or gun-shy 
is simply that their preliminary education has been neglected 
the education which should begin when the dog is very young. 

In his earliest youth he should be trained to prompt 
obedience to a given word or a wave of the hand. It is well 
to teach him very early to enter water, or he may be found 
wanting when you require him to fetch a bird from river or 


lake. Lessons in retrieving ought to be a part of his daily 
routine. Equally necessary is it to break him in to the know- 
ledge that sheep and lambs are not game to be chased, and 
that rabbits and hares are to be discriminated from feathered 

Gun-shyness is often supposed to be hereditary ; but it is 
not so. Any puppy can be cured of gun-shyness in half a 
dozen short lessons. Sir Henry Smith's advice is to get your 
puppy accustomed to the sound and sight of a gun being fired, 
first at a distance and gradually nearer and nearer, until he 
knows that no harm will come to him. Companionship and 
sympathy between dog and master is the beginning and end 
of the whole business, and there is a moral obligation between 
them which ought never to be strained. 

Both as a worker and as a show dog the flat-coated Retriever 
has reached something very near to the ideal standard of 
perfection which has been consistently bred up to. Careful 
selection and systematic breeding, backed up by enthusiasm, 
have resulted in the production of a dog combining useful 
working qualities with the highest degree of beauty. 

A very prominent admirer and breeder was the late Mr. S. E. 
Shirley, the President of the Kennel Club, who owned many 
Retrievers superlative both as workers and as show dogs, 
and who probably did more for the breed than any other man 
of his generation. 

Mr. Shirley's work was carried on by Mr. Harding Cox, 
who devoted much time and energy to the production of good 
Retrievers, many of which were of Mr. Shirley's strain. Mr. 
Cox's dogs deservedly achieved considerable fame for their 
levelness of type, and the improvement in heads so noticeable 
at the present time is to be ascribed to his breeding for this 
point. Mr. L. Allen Shuter, the owner of Ch. Darenth and 
other excellent Retrievers of his own breeding, claims also a 
large share of credit for the part he has played in the general 
improvement of the breed. Mr. C. A. Phillips, too, owned 
admirable specimens, and the name of the late Lieut.-Colonel 

u 1 

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& .. 


Cornwall Legh must be included. Many of Colonel Legh's 
bitches were of Shirley blood, but it is believed that a breed 
of Retrievers had existed at High Legh for several genera- 
tions, with which a judicious cross was made, the result being 
not only the formation of a remarkable kennel, but also a 
decided influence for good upon the breed in general. 

But since the Shirley days, when competition was more 
limited than it is at present, no kennel of Retrievers has ever 
attained anything like the distinction of that owned by Mr. 
H. Reginald Cooke, at Riverside, Nantwich. By acquiring 
the best specimens of the breed from all available sources, Mr. 
Cooke has gathered together a stock which has never been 
equalled. His ideas of type and conformation are the outcome 
of close and attentive study and consistent practice, and 
one needs to go to Riverside if one desires to see the highest 
examples of what a modern flat-coated Retriever can be. 

Since Dr. Bond Moore imparted to the Retriever a fixity 
of character, the coats have become longer and less wavy, 
and in conformation of skull, colour of eye, straightness of 
legs, and quality of bone, there has been a perceptible 

As there is no club devoted to the breed, and consequently 
no official standard of points, the following description of the 
perfect Retriever is offered : 

General Appearance That of a well-proportioned bright and active 
sporting dog, showing power without lumber and raciness without 
weediness. Head Long, fine, without being weak, the muzzle square, 
the underjaw strong with an absence of lippiness or throatiness. Eyes 
Dark as possible, with a very intelligent, mild expression. Neck 
Long and clean. Ears Small, well set on, and carried close to the 
head. Shoulders Oblique, running well into the back, with plenty of 
depth of chest. Body Short and square, and well ribbed up. Stern 
Short and straight, and carried gaily, but not curled over the back. 
Fore-legs Straight, pasterns strong, teet small and round. Quarters 
Strong ; stifles well bent. Coat Dense black or liver, of fine quality 
and texture. Flat, not wavy. Weight From 65 Ib. to 80 Ib. for dogs ; 
bitches rather less. 

As a rule the Retriever should be chosen for the intelligent 
look of his face, and particular attention should be paid to the 


shape of his head and to his eyes. His frame is important, o 
course, but in the Retriever the mental qualities are of mor 
significance than bodily points. 

There has been a tendency in recent years among Retrieve 
breeders to fall into the common error of exaggerating a par 
ticular point, and of breeding dogs with a head far too fine an< 
narrow it is what has been aptly called the alligator head- 
lacking in brain capacity and power of jaw. A perfect hea< 
should be long and clean, but neither weak nor snipy. Th 
eye should be placed just halfway between the occiput an< 
the tip of the nose. 

It is pleasing to add that to this beautiful breed the phras 
" handsome is as handsome does " applies in full measure 
Not only is the average Retriever of a companionable disposi 
tion, with delightful intelligence that is always responsive 
but he is a good and faithful guard and a courageous protecto 
of person and property. It has already been said that th 
majority of the best-looking Retrievers are also good workin] 
dogs, and it may here be added that many of the most success 
ful working dogs are sired by prize-winners in the show ring. 


The curly-coated Retriever is commonly believed to b 
of earlier origin than his flat-coated relative, and he is of les 
pure descent. He probably owes ancestral tribute to th 
Poodle. Such a cross may conceivably have been resortec 
to by the early Retriever breeders, and there was little t< 
lose from a merely sporting point of view from this aliei 
introduction, for the Poodle is well known to be by nature 
if not by systematic training, an excellent water dog, capabl 
of being taught anything that the canine mind can compre 
hend. During the early years of the nineteenth centuri 
the Poodle was fairly plentiful in England, and we had n< 
other curly-coated dog of similar size and type apart from thi 
Irish Water Spaniel, who may himself lay claim to Poodl< 
relationship ; while as to the Retriever, either curly o 


flat coated, he can in no sense be assigned to any country 
outside of Great Britain. The presumption is strong that 
the " gentleman from France " was largely instrumental in the 
manufacture of the variety, but whatever the origin of the 
curly-coated Retriever he is a beautiful dog, and one is gratified 
to note that the old prejudice against him, and the old in- 
dictment as to his hard mouth, are fast giving place to 
praise of his intelligence and admiration of his working 

Speaking generally, it seems to be accepted that he is 
slightly inferior in nose to his flat-coated cousin, and not quite 
so easy to break, but there are many keepers and handlers 
who have discovered in individual specimens extraordinary 
merit in the field combined with great endurance. It is not 
certain that any great improvement has been effected in the 
variety during recent years, but there are particular dogs to- 
day who are decidedly better than any that existed a dozen 
years or more ago, when such celebrities as True, Old Sam, 
King Koffee, Ben Wonder, Doden Ben, Lad and Una, were 
prominent, and there is no doubt that the curly coats 
attained show form in advance of the flat-coated variety. 

The coat of the curly Retriever plays a very important 
part in his value and personality. There are many kinds of 
coat, but the only true and proper one is the close-fitting 
" nigger curl," of which each knot is solid and inseparable. 
A coat of this quality is not capable of improvement by any 
method of grooming, for the simple reason that its natural 
condition is in itself perfect. The little locks should be 
so close together as to be impervious to water, and all parts 
of the body should be evenly covered with them, including 
the tail and legs. A bad class of coat, and one which readily 
yields to the faker's art, is the thin open curl which by careful 
manipulation can be greatly improved. Another bad quality 
of coat is one in which, upon the withers and over the loins 
in particular, the curls do not tighten up naturally, but are 
large, loose, and soft to the feel. Regarding the dog as a 


whole, the following may be taken as an all-round 
description : 

General Appearance That of a smart, active, clean-cut and alert 
dog, full of go and fire a sportsman from stem to stern. Head Long 
and not weedy in the muzzle, nor thick and coarse in the skull, but 
tapering down and finishing with a stout broad muzzle. Skull Should 
be flat and moderately broad between the ears, which are rather small, 
and well covered with hair. Ears Should lie close to the side of the 
head, but not dead in their carriage. Face The face should be smooth, 
and any indication of a forelock should be penalised. Eye The eye 
should in all cases be dark and not too deeply set. Neck Well placed 
in the shoulders and nicely arched, of moderate length and yet powerful 
and free from throatiness. Shoulders Well laid back and as free from 
massiveness as possible, though there is a decided tendency in this 
variety to such a fault. Legs Straight and well covered with coat. 
The bone should show quality and yet be fairly abundant. Feet 
Compact and hound-like. Body Should show great power, with deep, 
well-rounded ribs. As little cut-up in the flank as possible. Tail 
Strong at the base, set on in a line with the back and tapering to a 
point, the size of the curls upon it diminishing gradually to the end. 
Hind-quarters Should show great development of muscle, with bent 
hocks, the lower leg being strong and the hind feet compact. Any 
suspicion of cow hocks should be heavily penalised. Colour Mostly 
a dull black. Some liver-coloured dogs are seen with very good coats 
and bodies, but their heads are generally thick and coarse, and the colour 
of their eyes does not always match, as it should do, with the colour of 
the coat. A few dogs of this colour have achieved distinction on the 
show bench. 


Within recent years the original smooth-coated Labrador 
dog has taken its place as a recognised variety of the Retriever 
and become prominent both at exhibitions and as a worker. 
It is not probable that any have been imported into England for 
the past quarter of a century, but without the assistance of 
shows or imported blood they have survived marvellously. 
Thanks especially to the kennels of such breeders as the 
Dukes of Buccleuch and Hamilton, the Earl of Verulam, 
Lords Wimborne, Home, and Malmesbury, the Hon. A. 
Holland Hibbert, Sir Savile Crossley, Mr. F. P. Barnett, 
Mr. C. Liddell, Mr. O. L. Mansel, and others equally 

To the Duke of Buccleuch 's kennel we are probably more 
indebted in the last twenty years than to any other. Its 


foundation was laid in two bitches by a dog of the Duke of 
Hamilton's from a bitch of Lord Malmesbury's. At Drum- 
lanrig, as well as on the Duke's other estates, they have been 
most particular in preserving the purity and working qualities 
of their strain. And the same may be said of the Hon. A. 
Holland Hibbert, whose principal dogs are not only typical 
in appearance, but broken to perfection. The Duchess of 
Hamilton's kennels have been responsible for some of the best 
field trial winners of the present day. As far as looks are 
concerned, one cannot say that the Labrador compares 
favourably with either the flat or the curly coated Retriever, 
but that is immaterial so long as he continues to work as he 
is doing at present. 


I. THE SPANIEL FAMILY. The Spaniel family is without 
any doubt one of the most important of the many groups which 
are included in the canine race, not only on account of its 
undoubted antiquity, and, compared with other families, its 
well authenticated lineage, but also because of its many 
branches and subdivisions, ranging in size from the majestic 
and massive Clumbers to the diminutive toys which we are 
accustomed to associate with fair ladies' laps and gaily-decked 
pens at our big dog shows. 

Moreover, the different varieties of Setters undoubtedly 
derive their origin from the same parent stock, since we find 
them described by the earlier sporting writers as " setting " 
or " crouching " Spaniels, in contradistinction to the " find- 
ing " or " springing " Spaniel, who flushed the game he 
found without setting or pointing it. As time went on, the 
setting variety was, no doubt, bred larger and longer in the 
leg, with a view to increased pace ; but the Spaniel-like head 
and coat still remain to prove the near connection between 
the two breeds. 

All the different varieties of Spaniels, both sporting and 
toy, have, with the exception of the Clumber and the Irish 
Water Spaniel (who is not, despite his name, a true Spaniel at 
all), a common origin, though at a very early date we find 
them divided into two groups viz., Land and Water Spaniels, 
and these two were kept distinct, and bred to develop those 
points which were most essential for their different spheres 
of work. The earliest mention of Spaniels to be found in 



English literature is contained in the celebrated " Master of 
Game," the work of Edward Plantagenet, second Duke of 
York, and Master of Game to his uncle, Henry IV., to whom 
the work is dedicated. It was written between the years 
1406 and 1413, and although none of the MSS., of which some 
sixteen are in existence, is dated, this date can be fairly 
accurately fixed, as the author was appointed Master of Game 
in the former and killed at Agincourt in the latter year. His 
chapter on Spaniels, however, is mainly a translation from the 
equally celebrated " Livre de Chasse," of Gaston Comte de 
Foix, generally known as Gaston Phoebus, which was written 
in 1387, so that we may safely assume that Spaniels were well 
known, and habitually used as aids to the chase both in France 
and England, as early as the middle of the fourteenth century. 

In the eighteenth and early part of the nineteenth century 
the Spaniel was described by many writers on sporting subjects ; 
but there is a great similarity in most of these accounts, each 
author apparently having been content to repeat in almost 
identical language what had been said upon the subject 
by his predecessors, without importing any originality or 
opinions of his own. Many of these works, notwithstanding 
this defect, are very interesting to the student of Spaniel 
lore, and the perusal of Elaine's Rural Sports, Taplin's Sport- 
ing Dictionary and Rural Repository, Scott's Sportsman's 
Repository, and Needham's Complete Sportsman, can be 
recommended to all who wish to study the history of the 
development of the various modern breeds. The works 
of the French writers, De Cominck, De Cherville, Blaze, and 
Me'gnin, are well worth reading, while of late years the subject 
has been treated very fully by such British writers as the late 
J. H. Walsh (" Stonehenge "), Mr. Vero Shaw, Mr. Rawdon 
Lee, Colonel Claude Cane, and Mr. C. A. Phillips. 

Nearly all of the early writers, both French and English, 
are agreed that the breed came originally from Spain, and we 
may assume that such early authorities as Gaston Phoebus, 
Edward Plantagenet, and Dr. Caius had good reasons for 


telling us that these dogs were called Spaniels because they 
came from Spain. 

The following distinct breeds or varieties are recognised by 
the Kennel Club: (i) Irish Water Spaniels; (2) Water 
Spaniels other than Irish ; (3) Clumber Spaniels ; (4) Sussex 
Spaniels ; (5) Field Spaniels ; (6) English Springers ; (7) 
Welsh Springers ; (8) Cocker Spaniels. Each of these 
varieties differs considerably from the others, and each has 
its own special advocates and admirers, as well as its own 
particular sphere of work for which it is best fitted, though 
almost any Spaniel can be made into a general utility dog, 
which is, perhaps, one of the main reasons for the popularity 
of the breed. 

II. THE IRISH WATER SPANIEL. There is only one breed 
of dog known in these days by the name of Irish Water Spaniel, 
but if we are to trust the writers of no longer ago than half 
a century there were at one time two, if not three, breeds of 
Water Spaniels peculiar to the Emerald Isle. These were the 
Tweed Water Spaniel, the Northern Water Spaniel, and the 
Southern Water Spaniel, the last of these being the progenitors 
of our modern strains. 

The history of the Irish Water Spaniel is in many ways a 
very extraordinary one. According to the claim of Mr. 
Justin McCarthy, it originated entirely in his kennels, and 
this claim has never been seriously disputed by the subsequent 
owners and breeders of these dogs. It seems improbable that 
Mr. Justin McCarthy can actually have originated or manu- 
factured a breed possessing so many extremely marked 
differences and divergences of type as the Irish Water Spaniel ; 
but what he probably did was to rescue an old and moribund 
breed from impending extinction, and so improve it by 
judicious breeding, and cross-breeding as to give it a new 
lease of life, and permanently fix its salient points and charac- 
teristics. However that may be, little seems to have been 
known of the breed before he took it in hand, and it is very 
certain that nearly every Irish Water Spaniel seen for the last 


half century owes its descent to his old dog Boatswain, who 
was born in 1834 and lived for eighteen years. He must have 
been a grand old dog, since Mr. McCarthy gave him to Mr. 
Joliffe Tufmell in 1849, when he was fifteen years old ; and his 
new owner subsequently bred by him Jack, a dog whose 
name appears in many pedigrees. 

It was not until 1862 that the breed seems to have attracted 
much notice in England, but in that year the Birmingham 
Committee gave two classes for them, in which, however, 
several of the prizes were withheld for want of merit ; the next 
few years saw these dogs making great strides in popularity 
and, classes being provided at most of the important shows, 
many good specimens were exhibited. 

During the last few years, however, the breed seems to have 
been progressing the wrong way, and classes at shows have 
not been nearly so strong, either in numbers or in quality, as 
they used to be. Yet there have been, and are still, quite a 
large number of good dogs and bitches to be seen, and it 
only needs enthusiasm and co-operation among breeders 
to bring back the palmiest days of the Irish Water 

There is no member of the whole canine family which has a 
more distinctive personal appearance than the Irish Water 
Spaniel. With him it is a case of once seen never forgotten, 
and no one who has ever seen one could possibly mistake him 
for anything else than what he is. His best friends probably 
would not claim beauty, in the aesthetic sense, for him ; 
but he is attractive in a quaint way peculiarly his own, 
and intelligent-looking. In this particular his looks do not 
bewray him ; he is, in fact, one of the most intelligent of all 
the dogs used in aid of the gun, and in his own sphere one 
of the most useful. That sphere, there is no doubt, is that 
indicated by his name, and it is in a country of bogs and 
marshes, like the south and west of Ireland, of which he was 
originally a native, where snipe and wildfowl provide the 
staple sport of the gunner, that he is in his element and 


seen at his best, though, no doubt, he can do excellent work 
as an ordinary retriever, and is often used as such. 

But Nature (or Mr. McCarthy's art) has specially formed and 
endowed him for the amphibious sport indicated above, and 
has provided him with an excellent nose, an almost water- 
proof coat, the sporting instincts of a true son of Erin, and, 
above all, a disposition full of good sense ; he is high-couraged, 
and at the same time adaptable to the highest degree of per- 
fection in training. His detractors often accuse him of 
being hard-mouthed, but this charge is not well founded. 
Many a dog which is used to hunt or find game as well as to 
retrieve it, will often kill a wounded bird or rabbit rather 
than allow it to escape, while there are many Irish Water 
Spaniels who, under normal circumstances, are just as tender- 
mouthed as the most fashionable of black Retrievers. Be- 
sides his virtues in the field, the Irish Water Spaniel has 
the reputation a very well-founded one of being the best 
of pals. 

Most people are well acquainted with the personal appear- 
ance of this quaint-looking dog. The points regarded as 
essential are as follows : 

Colour The colour should always be a rich dark liver or puce without 
any white at all. Any white except the slightest of " shirt fronts " 
should disqualify. The nose of course should conform to the coat in 
colour, and be dark brown. Head The head should have a capacious 
skull, fairly but not excessively domed, with plenty of brain room. 
It should be surmounted with a regular topknot of curly hair, a most 
important and distinctive point. This topknot should never be square 
cut or like a poodle's wig, but should grow down to a well defined point 
between the eyes. Eyes The eyes should be small, dark, and set 
obliquely, like a Chinaman's. Ears The ears should be long, strong 
in leather, low set, heavily ringleted, and from 18 to 24 inches long, 
according to size. Muzzle and Jaw The muzzle and jaw should be 
long and strong. There should be a decided " stop," but not so pro- 
nounced as to make the brows or forehead prominent. Neck The neck 
should be fairly long and very muscular. Shoulders The shoulders 
should be sloping. Most Irish Water Spaniels have bad, straight 
shoulders, a defect which should be bred out. Chest The chest is 
deep, and usually rather narrow, but should not be so narrow as to 
constrict the heart and lungs. Back and Loins The back and loins 
strong and arched. Fore-legs The fore-legs straight and well boned. 
Heavily feathered or ringleted all over. Hind-legs The hind-legs 


with hocks set very low, stifles rather straight, feathered all over, 
except inside from the hocks down, which part should be covered with 
short hair (a most distinctive point). Feet The feet large and rather 
spreading as is proper for a water dog, well clothed with hair. Stern 
The stern covered with the shortest of hair, except for the first couple 
of inches next the buttocks, whiplike or stinglike (a most important 
point), and carried low, not like a hound's. Coat The coat composed 
entirely of short crisp curls, not woolly like a Poodle's, and very dense. 
If left to itself, this coat mats or cords, but this is not permissible in 
show dogs. The hair on the muzzle and forehead below the topknot 
is quite short and smooth, as well as that on the stern. General 
Appearance Is not remarkable for symmetry, but is quaint and 
intelligent looking. Height The height should be between 21 and 
23 inches. 

Register of Breeds no place is allotted to this variety, all 
Water Spaniels other than Irish being classed together. 
Despite this absence of official recognition there is abundant 
evidence that a breed of Spaniels legitimately entitled to the 
designation of English Water Spaniels has been in existence 
for many years, in all probability a descendant of the old 
" Water-Dogge," "an animal closely resembling the French 
" Barbet," the ancestor of the modern Poodle. They were 
even trimmed at times much in the same way as a Poodle is 
nowadays, as Markham gives precise directions for " the 
cutting or shearing him from the nauill downeward or backe- 
ward." The opinion expressed by the writer of The Sports- 
man's Cabinet, 1803, is that the breed originated from a cross 
between the large water dog and the Springing Spaniel, and 
this is probably correct, though Youatt, a notable authority, 
thinks that the cross was with an English Setter. Possibly 
some strains may have been established in this way, and not 
differ very much in make and shape from those obtained from 
the cross with the Spaniel, as it is well known that Setters and 
Spaniels have a common origin. 

In general appearance the dog resembles somewhat closely 
the Springer, except that he may be somewhat higher on the 
leg, and that his coat should consist of crisp, tight curls, 
almost like Astrakhan fur, everywhere except on his face, 


where it should be short. There should be no topknot 
like that of the Irish Water Spaniel. 

IV. THE CLUMBER SPANIEL is in high favour in the 
Spaniel world, both with shooting men and exhibitors, and 
the breed well deserves from both points of view the position 
which it occupies in the public esteem. No other variety 
is better equipped mentally and physically for the work it is 
called upon to do in aid of the gun ; and few, certainly none 
of the Spaniels, surpass or even equal it in appearance. 

As a sporting dog, the Clumber is possessed of the very 
best of noses, a natural inclination both to hunt his game and 
retrieve it when killed, great keenness and perseverance 
wonderful endurance and activity considering his massive 
build, and as a rule is very easy to train, being highly in- 
telligent and more docile and " biddable." The man who 
owns a good dog of this breed, whether he uses it as a re- 
triever for driven birds, works it in a team, or uses it as his 
sole companion when he goes gunning, possesses a treasure. 
The great success of these Spaniels in the Field Trials pro- 
moted by both the societies which foster those most useful 
institutions is enough to prove this, and more convincing 
still is the tenacity with which the fortunate possessors of 
old strains, mostly residents in the immediate neighbourhood 
of the original home of the breed, have held on to them and 
continued to breed and use them year after year for many 

As a show dog, his massive frame, powerful limbs, pure 
white coat, with its pale lemon markings and frecklings, and, 
above all, his solemn and majestic aspect, mark him out as a 
true aristocrat, with all the beauty of refinement which comes 
from a long line of cultured ancestors. 

All research so far has failed to cany their history 
back any further than the last quarter of the eighteenth 
century. About that time the Due de Noailles pre- 
sented some Spaniels, probably his whole kennel, which 
he brought from France, to the second Duke of Newcastle, 


from whose place, Clumber Park, the breed has taken its name. 
Beyond this it seems impossible to go : indeed, the Clumber 
seems to be generally looked upon as a purely English breed. 

From Clumber Park specimens found their way to most of 
the other great houses in the neighbourhood, notably to 
Althorp Park, Welbeck Abbey, Birdsall House, Thoresby 
Hall, and Osberton Hall. It is from the kennels at the last- 
named place, owned by Mr. Foljambe, that most of the pro- 
genitors of the Clumbers which have earned notoriety derived 
their origin. Nearly all the most famous show winners 
of early days were descended from Mr. Foljambe 's dogs, and 
his Beau may perhaps be considered one of the most im- 
portant " pillars of the stud," as he was the sire of Nabob, 
a great prize-winner, and considered one of the best of his 
day, who belonged at various times during his career to such 
famous showmen as Messrs. Phineas Bullock, Mr. Fletcher, 
Mr. Rawdon Lee, and Mr. G. Oliver. 

There has been a great deal of lamentation lately among 
old breeders and exhibitors about the decadence of the breed 
and the loss of the true old type possessed by these dogs. 
But, despite all they can say to the contrary, the Clumber 
is now in a more flourishing state than it ever has been ; 
and although perhaps we have not now, nor have had for the 
last decade, a John o' Gaunt or a Tower, there have been a 
large number of dogs shown during that time who possessed 
considerable merit and would probably have held their 
own even in the days of these bygone heroes. Some of the 
most notable have been Baillie Friar, Beechgrove Donally, 
Goring of Auchentorlie, Hempstead Toby, and Preston Shot, 
who all earned the coveted title of Champion. 

The Field Trials have, no doubt, had a great deal to do with 
the largely augmented popularity of the breed and the great 
increase in the number of those who own Clumbers. For the 
first two or three years after these were truly established no 
other breed seemed to have a chance with them ; and even 
now, though both English and Welsh Springers have done 


remarkably well, they more than hold their own. The most 
distinguished performer by far was Mr. Winton Smith's 
Beechgrove Bee, a bitch whose work was practically faultless, 
and the first Field Thai Champion among Spaniels. Other 
food Cumbers who earned distinction in the field were 
Beechgrove Minette. Beechgrove Maud, the Duke of Port- 
land's Wdbeck Sambo, and Mr. Phillips' Rivington Ho:. 
Rivington Pearl, and Rivington Reel. 

The points and general description of the breed as published 
by both the Spaniel Club and the Clumber Spaniel Gub 99% 
identical. They are as follows: 

Hatf Large, square and massive, of medium length, broad on 
with a decided occiput ; heavy brows with a deep stop ; heavy : 
muule, with well developed flew. Eyoi Dark amber ; 
A light or prominent eye objectionable. Ear* Large, vine leaf i 
nnd well covered with straight hair and hanging slightly forward, the 
feather not to extend below the leather. Nook Very thick and 
powerful, and well feathered underneath. Body (Including size and 
symmetry) Long and heavy, and near the ground. Weight of dofli 
about 55 Ib. to 65 Ib. ; bitches about 45 Ib. to 55 Ib. 
and flesh coloured. Shoulders and Chest \Mde and deep : 
strong and muscular. Back and Loti Dick straight, broad and 
loin powerful, well let down in flank. Hind quartan Very 
and well developed. Stern Set low, well feathered, and carried about 
level with the back. Ftet and Legs Feet large and round, well covered 
with hair: legs short, thick and strong; hocks low. Goal Loag. 
abundant, soft and straight. Colour Plain white with lemon raarkinft ; 
orange permissible but not desirable ; slight head markings with white 
body preferred. Central Appearance Should be that of a long, low, 
heavy, very massive dog, with a thoughtful expression. 

V. THE SUSSEX SPANIEL, -This is one of the oldest of the 
distinct breeds of Land Spaniels now existing in the British 
Islands, and probably also the purest in point of descent, 
since it has for many years past been eonnned to a compara- 
tively small number of kennels, the owners of which have 
always been at considerable pains to keep their strains free 
from any admixture of foreign blood. 

The modern race of Sussex Spaniels, as we know it, owes its 
origin in the main to the kennel kept by Mr. Fuller at Rosehill 
Park, Brightling, near Hastings. This gentleman, who 
died in 1847, is said to have kept his strain for fifty years or 


more, and to have shot over them almost daily during the 
season, but at his death they were dispersed by auction, and 
none of them can be traced with any accuracy except a dog 
and a bitch which were given at the time to Relf, the head 
keeper. Relf survived his master for forty years, and kept 
up his interest in the breed to the last. He used to say that 
the golden tinge peculiar to the Rosehill breed came from a 
bitch which had been mated with a dog belonging to Dr. 
Watts, of Battle, and that every now and then what he 
termed a <4 sandy " pup would turn up in her litters. Owing 
to an outbreak of dumb madness in the Rosehill kennels, a 
very large number of its occupants either died or had to be 
destroyed, and this no doubt accounted for the extreme 
scarcity of the breed when several enthusiasts began to revive 
it about the year 1870. Mr. Saxby and Mr. Marchant are 
said to have had the same strain as that at Rosehill, and 
certainly one of the most famous sires who is to be found 
in most Sussex pedigrees was Buckingham, by Marchant 's 
Rover out of Saxby's Fan. 

It was from the union of Buckingham, who was 
claimed to be pure Rosehill with Bebb's daughter 
Peggie that the great Bachelor resulted a dog whose name is 
to be found in almost every latter-day pedigree, though Mr. 
Campbell Newington's strain, to which has descended the 
historic prefix " Rosehill," contains less of this blood than any 

About 1879 Mr. T. Jacobs, of Newton Abbot, took up this 
breed with great success, owning, amongst other good speci- 
mens, Russett, Dolly, Brunette, and Bachelor III., the latter 
a dog whose services at the stud cannot be estimated too 
highly. When this kennel was broken up in 1891. the best 
of the Sussex Spaniels were acquired by Mr. Woolland, and 
from that date this gentleman's kennel carried all before it 
until it in turn was broken up and dispersed in 1905. So 
successful was Mr. Woolland that one may almost say that he 
beat all other competitors off the field, though one of them. 


Mr. Campbell Newington, stuck most gallantly to him all 

Mr. Campbell Newington has been breeding Sussex Spaniels 
lor over a quarter of a century with an enthusiasm 
and tenacity worthy of the warmest admiration, and his 
strain is probably the purest, and more full of the original 
blood than any other. His kennel has always maintained a 
very high standard of excellence, and many famous show 
specimens have come from it, notably Rosehill Ruler II. (a 
splendid Sussex, scarcely inferior to Bridford Giddie), Romu- 
lus, Roein, Rita, Rush, Rock, Rag, and Ranji, and many 
others of almost equal merit. 

Colonel Claude Cane's kennel of Sussex, started from a 
41 Woolland-bred " foundation, has been going for some 
seventeen years, the best he has shown being Jonathan 
Swift, Celbridge Eldorado, and Celbridge Chrysolite. 

The breed has always had a good character for work, and 
most of the older writers who mention them speak of Sussex 
Spaniels in very eulogistic terms. They are rather slow 
workers, but thoroughly conscientious and painstaking, 
and are not afraid of any amount of thick covert, through 
which they will force their way, and seldom leave anything 
behind them. 

A well-bred Sussex Spaniel is a very handsome dog. Indeed, 
his beautiful colour alone is enough to make his appearance an 
attractive one, even if he were unsymmetrical and ungainly in 
his proportions 

This colour, known as golden liver, is peculiar to the breed, 
and is the great touchstone and hall-mark of purity of blood. 
No other dog has exactly the same shade of coat, which the 
word " liver " hardly describes exactly, as it is totally dif- 
ferent from the ordinary liver colour of an Irishman, a Pointer, 
or even a liver Field Spaniel. It is rather a golden chestnut 
with a regular metallic sheen as of burnished metal, showing 
more especially on the head and face and everywhere where 
the hair is short. This is very apparent when a dog gets 


his new coat. In time, of course, it is liable to get somewhat 
bleached by sun and weather, when it turns almost yellow. 
Every expert knows this colour well, and looks for it at once 
when judging a class of Sussex. 

The description of the breed given by the Spaniel Club is 
as follows : 

Head The skull should be moderately long, and also wide, with an 
indentation in the middle, and a full stop, brows fairly heavy ; occiput 
full, but not pointed, the whole giving an appearance of heaviness 
without dulness. Eyes Hazel colour, fairly large, soft and languishing, 
not showing the haw overmuch. Nose The muzzle should be about 
three inches long, square, and the lips somewhat pendulous. The 
nostrils well developed and liver colour. Ears Thick, fairly large, 
and lobe shaped ; set moderately low, but relatively not so low as in the 
Black Field Spaniel ; carried close to the head, and furnished with 
soft wavy hair. Neck Is rather short, strong, and slightly arched, 
but not carrying the head much above the level of the back. There 
should not be much throatiness in the skin, but well marked frill in the 
coat. Chest and Shoulders The chest is round, especially behind the 
shoulders, deep and wide, giving a good girth. The shoulders should 
be oblique. Back and Back Ribs The back and loin are long, and 
should be very muscular, both in width and depth ; for this develop- 
ment the back ribs must be deep. The whole body is characterised as 
.low, long, level, and strong. Legs and Feet The arms and thighs must 
be bony, as well as muscular, knees and hocks large and strong, pasterns 
very short and bony, feet large and round, and with short hair between 
the toes. The legs should be very short and strong, with great bone, 
and may show a slight bend in the forearm, and be moderately well 
feathered. The hind-legs should not be apparently shorter than the 
fore-legs, or be too much bent at the hocks, so as to give a Settery 
appearance which is so objectionable. The hind-legs should be well 
feathered above the hocks, but should not have much hair below that 
point. The hocks should be short and wide apart. Tail Should be 
docked from five to seven inches, set low, and not carried above the 
level of the back, thickly clothed with moderately long feather. Coat 
Body coat abundant, flat or slightly waved, with no tendency to curl, 
moderately well feathered on legs and stern, but clean below the hocks. 
Colour Rich golden liver ; this is a certain sign of the purity of the 
breed, dark liver or puce denoting unmistakably a recent cross with the 
black or other variety of Field Spaniel. General Appearance Rather 
massive and muscular, but with free movements and nice tail action 
denoting a tractable and cheerful disposition. Weight from 35 Ib. to 
45 Ib. 

VI. THE FIELD SPANIEL. The modern Field Spaniel may 
be divided into two classes. Indeed, we may almost say at 
this stage of canine history, two breeds, as for several years 


past there has not been very much intermingling of blood 
between the Blacks and those known by the awkward designa- 
tion of " Any Other Variety," though, of course, all came 
originally from the same parent stock. 

The black members of the family have always been given 
the pride of place, and accounted of most importance, though 
latterly their parti-coloured brethren seem to have rather 
overtaken them. 

Among the really old writers there is one mention, and one 
only, of Spaniels of a black colour. Arcussia speaks of them, 
and of their being used in connection with the sport of hawk- 
ing, but from his time up to the middle of the nineteenth 
century, though many colours are spoken of as being appro- 
priate to the various breeds of Spaniels, no author mentions 

The first strain of blacks of which we know much belonged 
to Mr. F. Burdett, and was obtained from a Mr. Footman, 
of Lutterworth, Leicestershire, who was supposed to have 
owned them for some time. Mr. Burdett 's Bob and Frank 
may be found at the head of very many of the best pedigrees. 
At his death most of his Spaniels became the property of 
Mr. Jones, of Oscott, and Mr. Phineas Bullock, of Bilston, the 
latter of whom was most extraordinarily successful, and 
owned a kennel of Field Spaniels which was practically un- 
beatable between the dates of the first Birmingham Show 
in 1861 and the publication of the first volume of the Kennel 
Club's Stud Book in 1874, many, if not most, of the dogs which 
won for other owners having been bred by him. His Nellie 
and Bob, who won the chief prizes year after year at all the 
leading shows, were probably the two best specimens of their 
day. Another most successful breeder was Mr. W. W. 
Boulton, of Beverley, whose kennel produced many celebrated 
dogs, including Beverlac, said to be the largest Field Spaniel 
ever exhibited, and Rolf, whose union with Belle produced 
four bitches who were destined, when mated with Nigger, a 
dog of Mr. Bullock's breeding, to form the foundation of the 


equally if not more famous kennel belonging to Mr. T. Jacobs, 
of Newton Abbot. 

It was Mr. Jacobs who, by judiciously mating his Sussex 
sires Bachelor, Bachelor III., and others with these black-bred 
bitches, established the strain which in his hands and in those 
of his successors, Captain S. M. Thomas and Mr. Moses Wool- 
land, carried all before it for many years, and is still easily at 
the top of the tree, being the most sought for and highly prized 
of all on account of its " quality." 

If Black Spaniels are not quite so popular at present as 
they were some years ago, the fault lies with those breeders, 
exhibitors, and judges (the latter being most to blame) who 
encouraged the absurd craze for excessive length of body and 
shortness of leg which not very long ago threatened to trans- 
form the whole breed into a race of cripples, and to bring it 
into contempt and derision among all practical men. No 
breed or variety of dog has suffered more from the injudicious 
fads and crazes of those showmen who are not sportsmen 
also. At one time among a certain class of judges, length 
and lowness was everything, and soundness, activity, 
and symmetry simply did not count. As happens to 
all absurd crazes of this kind when carried to exaggera- 
tion, public opinion has proved too much for it, but not 
before a great deal of harm has been done to a breed which 
is certainly ornamental, and can be most useful as well. 
Most of the prize-winners of the present day are sound, useful 
dogs capable of work, and it is to be hoped that judges will 
combine to keep them so. 

The coloured Field Spaniel has now almost invariably at the 
principal shows special classes allotted to him, and does not 
have to compete against his black brother, as used to be the 
case in former years. 

The systematic attempt to breed Spaniels of various colours, 
with a groundwork of white, does not date back much more 
than a quarter of a century, and the greater part of the credit 
for producing this variety may be given to three gentlemen, 


Mr. F. E. Schofield, Dr. J. H. Spurgin, and Mr. J. W. Robinson. 
In the early days of breeding blacks, when the bitches were 
mated either with Sussex or liver and white Springers or 
Norfolk Spaniels, many parti-coloured puppies necessarily 
occurred, which most breeders destroyed ; but it occurred to 
some of these gentlemen that a handsome and distinct variety 
might be obtained by careful selection, and they have certainly 
succeeded to a very great extent. The most famous names 
among the early sires are Dr. Spurgin 's Alonzo and his son 
Fop, and Mr. Robinson's Alva Dash, from one or other of 
whom nearly all the modern celebrities derive their descent. 

Those who have been, and are, interested in promoting 
and breeding these variety Spaniels deserve a large amount 
of credit for their perseverance, which has been attended 
with the greatest success so far as producing colour goes. 
No doubt there is a very great fascination in breeding for 
colour, and in doing so there is no royal road to success, which 
can only be attained by the exercise of the greatest skill and 
the nicest discrimination in the selection of breeding stock. 
At the same time colour is not everything, and type and 
working qualities should never be sacrificed to it. This has 
too often been done in the case of coloured Field Spaniels. 
There are plenty of beautiful blue roans, re*d roans, and 
tricolours, whether blue roan and tan or liver roan and tan, 
but nearly all of them are either cocktailed, weak in hind- 
quarters, crooked-fronted, or houndy-headed, and showing far 
too much haw. In fact, in head and front the greater number 
of the tricolours remind one of the Basset-hound almost as 
much as they do in colour. It is to be hoped that colour- 
breeders will endeavour to get back the true Spaniel type 
before it is too late. 

The points of both black and coloured Field Spaniels are 
identical, bar colour, and here it must be said that black and 
tan, liver and tan, and liver are not considered true variety 
colours, though of course they have to compete in those classes, 
but rather sports from black. The colours aimed at by 


variety breeders have all a ground colour of white, and are 
black and white, blue roan, liver and white, red roan, liver 
white and tan, and tricolours or quadri-colours i.e., blue or 
red roan and tan, or both combined, with tan. The Spaniel 
Club furnishes the following description of the Black Field 
Spaniel : 

Head Should be quite characteristic of this grand sporting dog* 
as that of the Bloodhound or the Bulldog ; its very stamp and coun- 
tenance should at once convey the conviction of high breeding, character 
and nobility ; skull well developed, with a distinctly elevated occipital 
tuberosity, which, above all, gives the character alluded to ; not too 
wide across muzzle, long and lean, never snipy nor squarely cut, and in 
profile curving gradually from nose to throat ; lean beneath eyes, a 
thickness here gives coarseness to the whole head. The great length 
of muzzle gives surface for the free development of the olfactory nerve, 
and thus secures the highest possible scenting powers. Eyes Not too 
full, but not small, receding or overhung ; colour dark hazel or dark 
brown, or nearly black ; grave in expression, and bespeaking unusual 
docility and instinct. Ears Set low down as possible, which greatly 
adds to the refinement and beauty of the head, moderately long and 
wide, and sufficiently clad with nice Setter-like feather. Neck Very 
strong and muscular, so as to enable the dog to retrieve his game without 
undue fatigue ; not too short, however. Body (including size and 
symmetry) Long and very low, well ribbed up to a good strong loin, 
straight or slightly arched, never slack ; weight from about 35 Ibs. 
to 45 Ibs. Nose Well developed, with good open nostrils, and 
always black. Shoulders and Chest Former sloping and free, latter 
deep and well developed, but not too round and wide. Back and Loin 
Very strong and muscular ; level and long in proportion to the height 
of the dog. Hind-quarters Very powerful and muscular, wide, and 
fully developed. Stern Well set on, and carried low, if possible below 
the level of the back, in a perfectly straight line, or with a slight down- 
ward inclination, never elevated above the back, and in action always 
kept low, nicely fringed, with wavy feather of silky texture. Feet 
and Legs Feet not too small, and well protected between the toes with 
soft feather ; good strong pads. Legs straight and immensely boned, 
strong and short, and nicely feathered with straight or waved Setter-like 
feather, overmuch feathering below the hocks objectionable. Coat 
Flat or slightly waved, and never curled. Sufficiently dense to resist 
the weather, and not too short. Silky in texture, glossy, and refined in 
nature, with neither duffelness on the one hand nor curl or wiriness on 
the other. On chest under belly, and behind the legs, there should be 
abundant feather, but never too much, and that of the right sort, viz., 
Setter-like. The tail and hind-quarters should be similarly adorned. 
Colour Jet black throughout, glossy and true. A little white on chest* 
though a drawback, not a disqualification. General Appearance 
That of a sporting dog, capable of learning and doing anything possible 
for his inches and conformation. A grand combination of beauty and 


VII. THE ENGLISH SPRINGER. It is only quite recently 
that the Kennel Club has officially recognised the variety known 
by the name at the head of this section. For a long time the 
old-fashioned liver and white, or black Spaniels, longer 
in the leg than either Sussex or Field Spaniels, had been 
known as Norfolk Spaniels, and under this title the Spaniel 
Club has published a description of them. There had, how- 
ever, been a considerable amount of discussion about the 
propriety of this name of " Norfolk," and the weight of the 
evidence adduced went to show that as far as any territorial 
connection with the county of that name went, it was a mis- 
nomer, and that it probably arose from the breed having been 
kept by one of the Dukes of Norfolk, most likely that one 
quoted by Elaine in his Rural Sports, who was so jealous of 
his strain that it was only on the expressly stipulated condition 
that they were not to be allowed to breed in the direct line 
that he would allow one to leave his kennels. 

But, when this old breed was taken up by the Sporting 
Spaniel Society, they decided to drop the name of " Norfolk," 
and to revert to the old title of "Springer," not, per- 
haps, a very happy choice, as all Spaniels are, properly 
speaking, Springers in contradistinction to Setters. The com- 
plete official designation on the Kennel Club's register is 
" English Springers other than Clumbers, Sussex, and Field," 
a very clumsy name for a breed. There is no doubt that this 
variety of Spaniel retains more resemblance to the old strains 
which belonged to our forefathers, before the long and low 
idea found favour in the eyes of exhibitors, and it was certainly 
well worth preserving. The only way nowadays by which 
uniformity of type can be obtained is by somebody having 
authority drawing up a standard and scale of points for 
breeders to go by, and the Sporting Spaniel Society are to be 
commended for having done this for the breed under notice, 
the fruit of their action being already apparent in the larger 
and more uniform classes to be seen at shows. 

As the officially recognised life of the breed has been such a 


short one, there are naturally not very many names of note 
among the prize-winners. The principal breeders and owners 
have so far been Mr. W. Arkwright, Mr Harry Jones, Sir 
Hugo FitzHerbert, Mr. C. C. Bethune Eversfield, and Mr. 
Winton Smith. 

They are undoubtedly the right dogs for those who want 
Spaniels to travel faster and cover more ground than the more 
ponderous and short-legged Clumbers, Sussex, or Field 
Spaniels do, but their work is hardly equal in finish and 
precision to that of either of the two former breeds. 

The following revised description of the English Springer 
has been issued by the Sporting Spaniel Society : 

Skull Long and slightly arched on top, fairly broad, with a stop, 
and well-developed temples. Jaws Long and broad, not snipy, with 
plenty of thin lip. Eyes Medium size, not too full, but bright and 
intelligent, of a rich brown. Ears Of fair length, low set, and lobular 
in shape. Neck Long, strong, and slightly arched. Shoulders 
Long and sloping. Fore-legs Of a moderate length, straight, with 
flat strong bone. Body Strong, with well-sprung ribs, good girth, and 
chest deep and fairly broad. Loin Rather long, strong, and slightly 
arched. Hind-quarters and Hind-legs Very muscular, hocks well let 
down, stifles moderately bent, and not twisted inwards or outwards. 
Feet Strong and compact. Stern Low carried, not above the level 
of the back, and with a vibratory motion. Coat Thick and smooth 
or very slightly wavy, it must not be too long. The feathering must 
be only moderate on the ears, and scanty on the legs, but continued 
down to the heels. Colour Liver and white and black and white 
(with or without tan), fawn and white, yellow and white, also roans 
and self colours of all these tints. The pied colours are preferable, 
however, as more easily seen in cover. General Appearance An 
active compact dog, upstanding, but by no means stilty. His height 
at shoulder should about equal his length from the top of the withers 
to the root of the tail. 

VIII. THE WELSH SPRINGER. Like the English Springer, 
the Welsh Springer has only very recently come into existence 
officially, that is to say ; but his admirers claim for him 
that he has existed as a separate breed for a long time, though 
not beyond the bounds of the Principality, where he is referred 
to as the Starter. 

When his claims were first put forward they were vigorously 
contested by many who could claim to speak and write with 


authority upon the various breeds of Spaniels existing in these 
islands, and it was freely asserted that they were nothing but 
crossbreds between the ordinary Springer and probably a 
Clumber in order to account for the red or orange markings 
and the vine-leaf-shaped ears. Even if they are a new breed, 
they are a most meritorious one, both in their appearance, 
which is eminently sporting and workmanlike, and for the 
excellence of their work in the field, which has been amply 
demonstrated by the record earned at the field trials by Mr. 
A. T. Williams and others, but those who have seen them at 
work have nothing but good to say of them, and for working 
large rough tracts of country in teams their admirers say they 
are unequalled. 

In appearance they are decidedly attractive, rather more 
lightly built than most Spaniels, small in size, indeed very 
little larger than Cockers, invariably white in colour, with 
red or orange markings, and possessing rather fine heads with 
small Clumber-shaped ears. Their general appearance is 
that of extremely smart and active little dogs. 

The Welsh Springer is described by the Sporting Spaniel 
Society as follows : 

Skull Fairly long and fairly broad, slightly rounded with a stop at 
the eyes. Jaws Medium length, straight, fairly square, the nostrils 
well developed, and flesh coloured or dark. A short, chubby head is 
objectionable. Eyes Hazel or dark, medium size, not prominent, not 
sunken, nor showing haw. Ears Comparatively small and gradually 
narrowing towards the tip, covered with feather not longer than the 
ear, set moderately low and hanging close to the cheeks. Neck Strong, 
muscular, clean in throat. Shoulders Long and sloping. Fore-legs 
Medium length, straight, good bone, moderately feathered. Body 
Strong, fairly deep, not long, well-sprung ribs. Length of body should 
be proportionate to length of leg. Loin Muscular and strong, slightly 
arched, well coupled up and knit together. Hind-quarters and Hind-legs 
Strong ; hocks well let down ; stifles moderately bent (not twisted 
in or out), not feathered below the hock on the leg. Feet Round, with 
thick pads. Stern Low, never carried above the level of the back, 
feathered, and with a lively motion. Coat Straight or flat, and thick. 
Colour Red or orange and white. General Appearance Symmetrical, 
compact, strong, merry, active, not stilty, built for endurance and 
activity, and about 28 Ib. and upwards in weight, but not exceeding 
45 Ib. 



IX. THE COCKER SPANIEL. For the last few years the popu- 
larity of this smaller sized branch of the Spaniel tribe has 
been steadily increasing, and the Cocker classes at most of 
the best shows are now remarkable both for the number of 
entries and the very high standard of excellence to which 
they attain. 

A short time ago black Cockers were decidedly more fashion- 
able than their parti-coloured relatives, but now the reverse is 
the case, and the various roans and tricolours have overtaken 
and passed the others, both in general quality and in the public 
esteem. The reason for this popularity of the breed as a 
whole is not far to seek. The affectionate and merry disposi- 
tion of the Cocker and his small size compared with that of the 
other breeds pre-eminently fit him for a companion in the house 
as well as in the field, and he ranks among his admirers quite 
as many of the fairer sex as he does men a fact which is 
not without a certain element of danger, since it should never 
be lost sight of that the breed is a sporting one, which should 
on no account be allowed to degenerate into a race of mere 
house companions or toys. 

Small-sized Spaniels, usually called Cockers, from their 
being more especially used in woodcock shooting, have been 
indigenous to Wales and Devonshire for many years, and it is 
most likely from one or both of these sources that the modern 
type has been evolved. It is probable too that the type in 
favour to-day, of a short coupled, rather " cobby" dog, 
fairly high on the leg, is more like that of these old-fashioned 
Cockers than that which obtained a decade or two ago, 
when they were scarcely recognised as a separate breed, and 
the Spaniel classes were usually divided into " Field Spaniels 
over 25 Ib." and " Field Spaniels under 25 Ib." In those days a 
large proportion of the prizes fell to miniature Field Spaniels. 
The breed was not given official recognition on the Kennel 
Club's register till 1893, nor a section to itself in the Stud 
Book ; and up to that date the only real qualification a dog 
required to be enabled to compete as a Cocker was that he 


should be under the weight of 25 lb., a limit arbitrarily and 
somewhat irrationally hxed, since in the case of an animal 
just on the border-line he might very well have been a Cocker 
before and a Field Spaniel after breakfast. 

It is not easy to find authentic pedigrees going back further 
than a quarter of a century, but Mr. C. A. Phillips can trace his 
own strain back to 1860, and Mr. James Farrow was exhibiting 
successfully thirty-five years ago. The former gentleman 
published the pedigree of his bitch Rivington Dora for eighteen 
generations in extenso in The Sporting Spaniel; while the 
famous Obo strain of the latter may be said to have exercised 
more influence than any other on the black variety both in 
this country and in the United States. 

It was in 1880 that the most famous of all the " pillars " 
of the Cocker stud, Mr. James Farrow's Obo, made his first 
bow to the public, he and his litter sister Sally having been 
born the year before. He won the highest honours that the 
show bench can give, and the importance of his service to the 
breed both in his owner's kennel and outside it, can scarcely 
be over-estimated. Nearly all of the best blacks, and many of 
the best coloured Cockers, are descended from him. At this 
period the type mostly favoured was that of a dog rather 
longer in the body and lower on the leg than it is at present, 
but the Obo family marked a progressive step, and very 
rightly kept on winning under all the best judges for many 
years, their owner being far too good a judge himself ever to 
exhibit anything but first-class specimens. 

Meanwhile, although the blacks were far the most fashion- 
able and it was said that it was hopeless to try to get the 
same quality in coloured specimens several enthusiastic 
breeders for colour were quietly at work, quite undismayed 
by the predilection shown by most exhibitors and judges 
for the former colour. Among them was Mr. C. A. Phillips, 
whose two bitches from Mr. James Freme, of Wepre 
Hall, Flintshire, succeeded in breeding from one of them, 
whom he named Rivington Sloe, the celebrated dog Rivington 


Signal, who, mated with Rivington Blossom, produced 
Rivington Bloom, who was in turn the dam of Rivington 
Redcoat. These dogs proved almost, if not quite, as valuable 
to the coloured variety as Obo did to the blacks, and formed 
the foundation of Mr. J. M. Porter's celebrated Braeside 
strain which afterwards became so famous. 

During the last few years Mr. R. de Courcy Peele's kennel 
has easily held the pride of place in this variety. Most readers 
are no doubt familiar with the many beautiful Cockers which 
have appeared in the show ring and carried off so many prizes 
under the distinguishing affix Bowdler. His kennel was built 
up on a Braeside foundation, and has contained at one time 
or other such flyers as Ben Bowdler, Bob Bowdler, Rufus 
Bowdler, Dixon Bowdler, Eva Bowdler, Mary Bowdler, Blue- 
coat Bowdler, Susan Bowdler, and others, and Ben and Bob 
have also been, as sires, responsible for the success of a good 
many dogs hailing from other kennels. He has also been 
fairly successful with blacks, which, however, have usually 
been purchased and not bred by him, the two best being Master 
Reuben, bred by Miss Joan Godfrey, and Jetsam Bowdler, a 
bitch who has distinguished herself both in the ring and in the 

Coloured Cockers are certainly " booming " just now, and 
as a consequence the blacks, who are equally worthy of sup- 
port, are being rather neglected. Certainly it is the case that 
whereas one sees at most shows big classes of the former filled 
with a good level lot with hardly a bad specimen amongst 
them, the classes devoted to the latter, besides not being so 
well filled, are much more uneven, and always contain a large 
proportion of weeds and toys. A few years ago the black 
classes were immeasurably superior to the coloured, and it is 
to be hoped that in the near future they will regain at least 
a position of equality with them. 

At the last few Field Trial meetings the Spaniel Club has 
provided classes confined to Cockers, which have filled fairly 
well, and enabled the small breed to demonstrate that it can 


in its way be quite as useful as its larger cousins. A Cocker 
can very often go and work as well where a larger Spaniel 
cannot even creep, and for working really thick hedgerows or 
gorse has no superior. There seems to be every prospect of a 
brilliant future, and increased popularity for this charming 

Its interests are looked after both by the Spaniel Club and 
the comparatively newly formed Cocker Spaniel Club, and it 
is also quite as much in favour on the other side of the Atlantic 
as it is in the United Kingdom. Indeed, the classes in America 
and Canada compare very favourbly with our own. 

The descriptive particulars of the breed are : 

Head Not so heavy in proportion and not so high in occiput as in 
the modern Field Spaniel, with a nicely developed muzzle or jaw ; 
lean, but not snipy, and yet not so square as in the Clumber or Sussex 
varieties, but always exhibiting a sufficiently wide and well-developed 
nose. Forehead perfectly smooth, rising without a too decided stop 
from muzzle into a comparatively wide and rounded, well-developed 
skull, with plenty of room for brain power. Eyes Full, but not promi- 
nent, hazel or brown coloured, with a general expression of intelligence 
and gentleness, though decidedly wideawake, bright and merry, never 
goggled nor weak as in the King Charles and Blenheim kinds. Ears 
Lobular, set on low, leather fine and not exceeding beyond the nose, 
well clothed with long silky hair, which must be straight or wavy 
no positive curls or ringlets. Neck Strong and muscular, and neatly 
set on to fine sloping shoulders. Body (including size and symmetry)- 
Not quite so long and low as in the other breeds of Spaniels, more com- 
pact and firmly knit together, giving the impression of a concentration 
of power and untiring activity. Weight The weight of a Cocker 
Spaniel of either sex should not exceed 25 lb., or be less than 20 Ib. 
Any variation either way should be penalised. Nose Sufficiently 
wide and well developed to ensure the exquisite scenting powers of this 
breed. Shoulders and Chest The former sloping and fine, chest deep 
and well developed, but not too wide and round to interfere with the 
free action of the fore-legs. Back and Loin Immensely strong and 
compact in proportion to the size and weight of the dog ; slightly 
sloping towards the tail. Hind-quarters Wide, well rounded, and 
very muscular, so as to ensure untiring action and propelling power 
under the most trying circumstances of a long day, bad weather, rough 
ground, and dense covert. Stern That most characteristic of blue 
blood in all the Spaniel family may, in the lighter and more active 
Cocker, although set low down, be allowed a slightly higher carriage 
than in the other breeds, but never cocked up over, but rather in a line 
with the back, though the lower its carriage and action the better, 
and when at work its action should be incessant in this, the brightest 


and merriest of the whole Spaniel family. Feet and Legs The legs 
should be well boned, feathered and straight, for the tremendous exer- 
tions expected from this grand little sporting dog, and should be 
sufficiently short for concentrated power, but not too short as to inter- 
fere with its full activity. Feet firm, round, and cat-like, not too large, 
spreading, and loose jointed. This distinct breed of Spaniel does not 
follow exactly on the lines of the larger Field Spaniel, either in lengthi- 
ness, lowness, or otherwise, but is shorter in the back, and rather higher 
on the legs. Coat Flat or waved, and silky in texture, never wiry, 
woolly, or curly, with sufficient feather of the right sort, viz., waved 
or Setter-like, but not too profuse and never curly. General Appear* 
ance Confirmatory of all indicated above, viz., a concentration of pure 
blood and^type, sagacity, docility, good temper, affection, and activity. 


THE Basset was not familiarly known to British sportsmen 
before 1863, in which year specimens of the breed were seen 
at the first exhibition of dogs held in Paris, and caused general 
curiosity and admiration among English visitors. In France, 
however, this hound has been used for generations, much as 
we use our Spaniel, as a finder of game in covert, and it has 
long been a popular sporting dog in Russia and Germany. In 
early times it was chiefly to be found in Artois and Flanders, 
where it is supposed to have had its origin*; but the home of 
the better type of Basset is now chiefly in La Vended, in which 
department some remarkably fine strains have been produced. 

There are three main strains of the French Basset the 
Lane, the Couteulx, and the Griffon. The Griffon Basset is a 
hound with a hard bristly coat, and short, crooked legs. It 
has never found great favour here. The Lane hounds are 
derived from the kennels of M. Lane, of Franqueville, Baos, 
Seine-InfeYieure, and are also very little appreciated in this 
country. They are a lemon and white variety, with torse or 
bent legs. The Couteulx hounds were a type bred up into a 
strain by Comte le Couteulx de Canteleu. They were tri- 
colour, with straight, short legs, of sounder constitution than 
other strains, with the make generally of a more agile hound, 
and in the pedigree of the best Bassets owned in this country 
fifteen years ago, when the breed was in considerable demand, 
Comte de Couteulx 's strain was prominent and always sought 

With careful selection and judicious breeding we have now 



produced a beautiful hound of fine smooth coat, and a rich 
admixture of markings, with a head of noble character and the 
best of legs and feet. Their short, twinkling legs make our 
Bassets more suitable for covert hunting than for hunting 
hares in the open, to which latter purpose they have frequently 
been adapted with some success. Their note is resonant, with 
wonderful power for so small a dog, and in tone it resembles the 
voice of the Bloodhound. 

The Basset-hound is usually very good tempered and not 
inclined to be quarrelsome with his kennel mates ; but he is 
wilful, and loves to roam apart in search of game, and is not very 
amenable to discipline when alone. On the other hand, he 
works admirably with his companions in the pack, when he is 
most painstaking and indefatigable. Endowed with remark- 
able powers of scent, he will hunt a drag with keen intelligence. 

There are now several packs of Bassets kept in England, and 
they show very fair sport after the hares ; but it is not their 
natural vocation, and their massive build is against the possi- 
bility of their becoming popular as harriers. The general 
custom is to follow them on foot, although occasionally some 
sportsmen use ponies. Their pace, however, hardly warrants 
the latter expedient. On the Continent, where big game is 
more common than with us, the employment of the Basset is 
varied. He is a valuable help in the tracking of boar, wolf, and 
deer, and he is also frequently engaged in the lighter pastimes 
of pheasant and partridge shooting. 

The Earl of Onslow and the late Sir John Everett Millais 
were among the earliest importers of the breed into England. 
They both had recourse to the kennels of Count Couteulx. 
Sir John Millais' Model was the first Basset-hound exhibited 
at an English dog show, at Wolverhampton in 1875. Later 
owners and breeders of prominence were Mr. G. Krehl, Mrs. 
Stokes, Mrs. C. C. Ellis and Mrs. Mabel Tottie. 

As with most imported breeds, the Basset-hound when first 
exhibited was required to undergo a probationary period as a 
foreign dog in the variety class at the principal shows. It was 


not until 1880 that a class was provided for it by the Kennel 

It is to be regretted that owners of this beautiful hound are 
not more numerous. Admirable specimens are still to be seen 
at the leading exhibitions, but the breed is greatly in need of 
encouragement. At the present time the smooth dog hound 
taking the foremost place in the estimate of our most capable 
judges is Mr. W. W. M. White's Ch. Loo-Loo-Loo, bred by Mrs. 
Tottie, by Ch. Louis Le Beau out of Sibella. Mr. Croxton 
Smith's Waverer is also a dog of remarkably fine type. Among 
bitch hounds Sandringham Dido, the favourite of Her Majesty 
the Queen, ranks as the most perfect of her kind. 

The rough or Griffon-Basset, introduced into England at 
a later date than the smooth, has failed for some reason 
to receive great attention. In type it resembles the shaggy 
Otterhound, and as at present favoured it is larger and higher 
on the leg than the smooth variety. Their colouring is less 
distinct, and they seem generally to be lemon and white, 
grey and sandy red. Their note is not so rich as that of the 
smooth variety. In France the rough and the smooth Bassets 
are not regarded as of the same race, but here some breeders 
have crossed the two varieties, with indifferent consequences. 

Some beatuiful specimens of the rough Basset have from 
time to time been sent to exhibition from the Sandringham 
kennels. His Majesty the King has always given affectionate 
attention to this breed, and has taken several first prizes at 
the leading shows, latterly with Sandringham Bobs, bred in 
the home kennels by Sandringham Babil ex Saracenesca. 

Perhaps the most explicit description of the perfect Basset- 
hound is still that compiled twenty-five years ago by Sir John 
Millais. It is at least sufficiently comprehensive and exact to 
serve as a guide : 

" The Basset, for its size, has more bone, perhaps, than nearly any 
other dog. 

" The skull should be peaked like that of the Bloodhound, with the 
same dignity and expression, the nose black (although some of my own 
have white about theirs), and well flewed. For the size of the hound 


I think the teeth are extremely small. However, as they are not 
intended to destroy life, this is probably the reason. 

" The ears should hang like the Bloodhound's, and are like the softest 
velvet drapery. 

" The eyes are a deep brown, and are brimful of affection and intelli- 
gence. They are pretty deeply set, and should show a considerable 
haw. A Basset is one of those hounds incapable of having a wicked 

" The neck is long, but of great power ; and in the Basset d jambes 
torses the flews extend very nearly down to the chest. The chest is 
more expansive than even in the Bulldog, and should in the Bassets d 
jambes torses be not more than two inches from the ground. In the 
case of the Bassets a jambes demi-torses and jambes droites, being 
generally lighter, their chests do not, of course, come so low. 

" The shoulders are of great power, and terminate in the crooked 
feet of the Basset, which appear to be a mass of joints. The back and 
ribs are strong, and the former of great length. 

" The stern is carried gaily, like that of hounds in general, and when 
the hound is on the scent of game this portion of his body gets 
extremely animated, and tells me, in my own hounds, when they have 
struck a fresh or a cold scent, and I even know when the foremost 
hound will give tongue. 

" The hind-quarters are very strong and muscular, the muscles 
standing rigidly out down to the hocks. 

" The skin is soft in the smooth haired dogs, and like that of any other 
hound, but in the rough variety it is like that of the Otterhound's. 

" Colour, of course, is a matter of fancy, although I infinitely prefer 
the tricolour, which has a tan head and a black and white body." 


PERSONS unfamiliar with the sporting properties of this long- 
bodied breed are apt to refer smilingly to the Dachshund as 
" the dog that is sold by the yard," and few even of those who 
know him give credit to the debonair little fellow for the grim 
work which he is intended to perform in doing battle with the 
vicious badger in its lair. Dachshund means " badger dog," 
and it is a title fairly and squarely earned in his native 

Given proper training, he will perform the duties of several 
sporting breeds rolled into one. Possessing a wonderful nose, 
combined with remarkable steadiness, his kind will work 
out the coldest scent, and once fairly on the line they will give 
plenty of music and get over the ground at a pace almost 
incredible. Dachshunds hunt well in a pack, and, though it is 
not their recognised vocation, they can be successfully used on 
hare, on fox, and any form of vermin that wears a furry coat. 
But his legitimate work is directed against the badger, in 
locating the brock under ground, worrying and driving him 
into his innermost earth, and there holding him until dug out. 
It is no part of his calling to come to close grips, though that 
often happens in the confined space in which he has to work. 
In this position a badger with his powerful claws digs with such 
energy and skill as rapidly to bury himself, and the Dachshund 
needs to be provided with such apparatus as will permit him to 
clear his way and keep in touch with his formidable quarry. 
The badger is also hunted by Dachshunds above ground, 
usually in the mountainous parts of Germany, and in the 


growing crops of maize, on the lower slopes, where the vermin 
work terrible havoc in the evening. In this case the badger is 
rounded up and driven by the dogs up to the guns which are 
posted between the game and their earths. For this sport 
the dog used is heavier, coarser, and of larger build, higher on 
the leg, and more generally houndy in appearance. Dach- 
shunds are frequently used for deer driving, in which operation 
they are especially valuable, as they work slowly, and do not 
frighten or -overrun their quarry, and can penetrate the 
densest undergrowth. Packs of Dachshunds may sometimes be 
engaged on wild boar, and, as they are web-footed and excel- 
lent swimmers, there is no doubt that their terrier qualities 
would make them useful assistants to the Otterhound. 
Apropos of their capabilities in the water it is the case that a 
year or two ago, at Offenbach-on-Main, at some trials arranged 
for life-saving by dogs, a Dachshund carried off the first prize 
against all comers. 

As a companion in the house the Dachshund has perhaps no 
compeer. He is a perfect gentleman ; cleanly in his habits, 
obedient, unobtrusive, incapable of smallness, affectionate, 
very sensitive to rebuke or to unkindness, and amusingly 
jealous. As a watch he is excellent, quick to detect a strange 
footstep, valiant to defend the threshold, and to challenge 
with deep voice any intruder, yet sensibly discerning his 
master's friends, and not annoying them with prolonged 
growling and grumbling as many terriers do when a stranger 
is admitted. Properly brought up, he is a perfectly safe and 
amusing companion for children, full of animal spirits, and 
ever ready to share in a romp, even though it be accompanied 
by rough and tumble play. In Germany, where he is the most 
popular of all dogs, large or small, he is to be found in every 
home, from the Emperor's palace downwards, and his quaint 
appearance, coupled with his entertaining personality, is daily 
seized upon by the comic papers to illustrate countless jokes 
at his expense. 

The origin of the Dachshund is not very clear. Some 



writers have professed to trace the breed or representations of 
it on the monuments of the Egyptians. Some aver that it is 
a direct descendant of the French Basset-hound, and others 
that he is related to the old Turnspits the dogs so excellent 
in kitchen service, of whom Dr. Caius wrote that " when any 
meat is to be roasted they go into a wheel, where they, turning 
about with the weight of their bodies, so diligently look to their 
business that no drudge nor scullion can do the feat more 
cunningly, whom the popular sort hereupon term Turnspits." 
Certainly the dog commonly used in this occupation was long 
of body and short of leg, very much resembling the Dachshund. 

In all probability the Dachshund is a manufactured breed 
a breed evolved from a large type of hound intermixed with a 
terrier to suit the special conditions involved in the pursuit 
and extermination of a quarry that, unchecked, was capable 
of seriously interfering with the cultivation of the land. 
He comprises in his small person the characteristics of both 
hound and terrier his wonderful powers of scent, his long, 
pendulous ears, and, for his size, enormous bone, speak of his 
descent from the hound that hunts by scent. In many 
respects he favours the Bloodhound, and one may often see 
Dachshunds which, having been bred from parents carefully 
selected to accentuate some fancy point, have exhibited the 
very pronounced " peak " (occipital bone), the protruding haw 
of the eye, the loose dewlap and the colour markings char- 
acteristic of the Bloodhound. His small stature, iron heart, 
and willingness to enter the earth bespeak the terrier cross. 

The Dachshund was first introduced to this country in 
sufficient numbers to merit notice in the early 'sixties, and, 
speedily attracting notice by his quaint formation and un- 
doubted sporting instincts, soon became a favourite. At first 
appearing at shows in the " Foreign Dog " class, he quickly 
received a recognition of his claims to more favoured treat- 
ment, and was promoted by the Kennel Club to a special classi- 
fication as a sporting dog. Since then his rise has been rapid, 
and he now is reckoned as one of the numerically largest breeds 


exhibited. Unfortunately, however, he has been little, if ever, 
used for sport in the sense that applies in Germany, and this 
fact, coupled with years of breeding from too small a stock (or 
stock too nearly related) and the insane striving after the 
fanciful and exaggerated points demanded by judges at dog 
shows, many of whom never saw a Dachshund at his legitimate 
work, has seriously affected his usefulness. He has deteri- 
orated in type, lost grit and sense, too, and is often a parody 
of the true type of Dachshund that is to be found in his native 

To the reader who contemplates possessing one or more 
Dachshunds a word of advice may be offered. Whether you 
want a dog for sport, for show, or as a companion, endeavour to 
get a good one a well-bred one. To arrive at this do not buy 
from an advertisement on your own knowledge of the breed, 
but seek out an expert amateur breeder and exhibitor, and get 
his advice and assistance. If you intend to start a kennel for 
show purposes, do not buy a high 1 priced dog at a show, but 
start with a well-bred bitch, and breed your own puppies, 
under the guidance of the aforementioned expert. In this 
way, and by rearing and keeping your puppies till they are of 
an age to be exhibited, and at the same time carefully noting 
the awards at the best shows, you will speedily learn which 
to retain and the right type of dog to keep and breed for, 
and in future operations you will be able to discard inferior 
puppies at an earlier age. But it is a great mistake, if you 
intend to form a kennel for show purposes, to sell or part 
with your puppies too early. It is notorious with all breeds 
that puppies change very much as they grow. The best look- 
ing in the nest often go wrong later, and the ugly duckling 
turns out the best of the litter. This is especially true of 
Dachshunds, and it requires an expert to pick the best puppy 
of a litter at a month or two old, and even he may be at fault 
unless the puppy is exceptionally well reared. 

To rear Dachshund puppies successfully you must not over- 
load them with fat give them strengthening food that does not 


lay on flesh. Lean, raw beef, finely chopped, is an excellent 
food once or twice a day for the first few months, and, though 
this comes expensive, it pays in the end. Raw meat is supposed 
to cause worm troubles, but these pests are also found where 
meat is not given, and in any case a puppy is fortified with 
more strength to withstand them if fed on raw meat than 
otherwise, and a good dosing from time to time will be all that 
is necessary to keep him well and happy. 

Young growing puppies must have their freedom to gambol 
about, and get their legs strong. Never keep the puppies 
cooped up in a small kennel run or house. If you have a fair- 
sized yard, give them the run of that, or even the garden, in 
spite of what your gardener may say they may do a little 
damage to the flowers, but will assuredly do good to them- 
selves. They love to dig in the soft borders : digging is 
second nature to them, and is of great importance in their 

If you have not a garden, or if the flowers are too sacred, it is 
better to place your puppies as early as possible with respec- 
table cottagers, or small farmers, especially the latter, with 
whom they will have entire freedom to run about, and will not 
be overfed. 

If you intend to show your puppies, you should begin some 
time in advance to school them to walk on the lead and to 
stand quiet when ordered to. Much depends on this in the 
judging ring, where a dog who is unused to being on a 
lead often spoils his chances of appearing at his best under 
the (to him) strange experiences of restraint which the lead 

During the past five-and-twenty years the names of two 
particular Dachshunds stand out head and shoulders above 
those of their competitors : Champions Jackdaw and Ptero- 
dactyl. Jackdaw had a wonderful record, having, during a 
long show career, never been beaten in his class from start to 
finish, and having won many valuable prizes. He was 
credited with being the most perfect Dachshund that had ever 


been seen in England, and probably as good as anything in 

Ch. Jackdaw was a black and tan dog, bred and owned by 
Mr. Harry Jones, of Ipswich. He was sired by Ch. Charkow, 
out of Wagtail, and born 2Oth July, 1886. Through his dam 
he was descended from a famous bitch, Thusnelda, who was 
imported by Mr. Mudie in the early 'eighties. She was a 
winner of high honours in Hanover. The name of Jackdaw 
figures in all the best pedigrees of to-day. 

Ch. Pterodactyl was born in 1888, and bred by Mr. Willink. 
He was in a measure an outcross from the standard type of the 
day, and his dam, whose pedigree is in dispute, was thought 
to have been imported. After passing through one or two 
hands he was purchased by Mr. Harry Jones, and in his kennel 
speedily made a great name in the show ring and at the stud, 
and was eventually sold for a high price to Mr. Sidney Woodi- 
wiss, who at that period had the largest kennel of Dachshunds 
in England. 

" Ptero," as he was called, was a big, light red dog, with 
wonderful fore-quarters and great muscular development. He 
also possessed what is called a " punishing jaw " and rather 
short ears, and looked a thorough " business " dog. He had an 
almost unbroken series of successes at shows in England, and. 
being taken to Germany (in the days before the quarantine 
regulations), he took the highest honours in the heavy-weight 
class, and a special prize for the best Dachshund of all 
classes. This dog became the favourite sire of his day and 
the fashionable colour. 

The black and tan thereupon went quite out of favour, and 
this fact, coupled with the reckless amount of inbreeding of 
red to red that has been going on since Ptero 's day, accounts 
largely for the prevalence of light eyes, pink noses, and bad- 
coloured coats of the Dachshunds, as a class, to-day. 

There are, strictly speaking, three varieties of Dachshund 
(a) the short-haired, (b) the long-haired, and (c) the rough- 


Of these we most usually find the first-named in England, 
and they are no doubt the original stock. Of the others, 
though fairly numerous in Germany, very few are to be seen 
in this country, and although one or two have been imported 
the type has never seemed to appeal to exhibitors. 

Both the long-haired and rough-haired varieties have no 
doubt been produced by crosses with other breeds, such as the 
Spaniel and probably the Irish Terrier, respectively. 

In the long-haired variety the hair should be soft and wavy, 
forming lengthy plumes under the throat, lower parts of the 
body, and the backs of the legs, and it is longest on the under 
side of the tail, where it forms a regular flag like that of a 
Setter or Spaniel. The rough-haired variety shows strongly 
a terrier cross by his " varmint " expression and short ears. 

The Germans also subdivide by colour, and again for show 
purposes by weight. These subdivisions are dealt with in 
their proper order in the standard of points, and it is only 
necessary to say here that all the varieties, colours, and 
weights are judged by the same standard except in so far as 
they differ in texture of coat. At the same time the Germans 
themselves do not regard the dapple Dachshunds as yet so 
fixed in type as the original coloured dogs, and this exception 
must also apply to the long and the rough haired varieties. 

The following German standard of points embodies a 
detailed description of the breed : 

General Appearance and Disposition In general appearance the 
Dachshund is a very long and low dog, with compact and well-muscled 
body, resting on short, slightly crooked fore-legs. A long head and 
ears, with bold and defiant carriage and intelligent expression. In 
disposition the Dachshund is full of spirit, defiant when attacked, 
aggressive even to foolhardiness when attacking ; in play amusing 
and untiring ; by nature wilful and unheeding. Head Long, and 
appearing conical from above, and from a side view, tapering to the 
point of the muzzle, wedge-shaped. The skull should be broad rather 
than narrow, to allow plenty of brain room, sightly arched, and fairly 
straight, without a stop, but not deep or snipy. Eyes Medium in 
size, oval, and set obliquely, with very clear, sharp expression and of a 
dark colour, except in the case of the liver and tan, when the eyes may 
be yellow ; and in the dapple, when the eyes may be light or " wall- 
eyed." Nose Preferably deep black. The flesh-coloured and spotted 


noses are allowable only in the liver and tan and dapple varieties. 
Ears Set on moderately high, or, seen in profile, above the level of the 
eyes, well back, flat, not folded, pointed, or narrow, hanging close to the 
cheeks, very mobile, and when at attention carried with the back of the 
ear upward and outward. Neck Moderately long, with slightly 
arched nape, muscular and clean, showing no dewlap, and carried well 
up and forward. Fore-quarters His work underground demands 
strength and compactness, and, therefore, the chest and shoulder 
regions should be deep, long, and wide. The shoulder blade should 
be long, and set on very sloping, the upper arm of equal length with, 
and at right angles to, the shoulder blade, strong-boned and well- 
muscled, and lying close to ribs, but moving freely. The lower arm 
is slightly bent inwards, and the feet should be turned slightly outwards, 
giving an appearance of " crooked " legs approximating to the cabriole 
of a Chippendale chair. Straight, narrow, short shoulders are always 
accompanied by straight, short, upper arms, forming an obtuse angle, 
badly developed brisket and " keel " or chicken breast, and the upper 
arm being thrown forward by the weight of the body behind causes 
the legs to knuckle over at the " knees." Broad, sloping shoulders, 
on the other hand, insure soundness of the fore-legs and feet. Legs and 
Feet Fore-legs very short and strong in bone, slightly bent inwards ; 
seen in profile, moderately straight and never bending forward or 
knuckling over. Feet large, round, and strong, with thick pads, com- 
pact and well-arched toes, nails strong and black. The dog must stand 
equally on all parts of the foot. Body Should be long and muscular, 
the chest very oval, rather than very narrow and deep, to allow ample 
room for heart and lungs, hanging low between front legs, the brisket 
point should be high and very prominent, the ribs well sprung out 
towards the loins (not flat-sided). Loins short and strong. The line 
of back only slightly depressed behind shoulders and only slightly arched 
over loins. The hind-quarters should not be higher than the shoulders, 
thus giving a general appearance of levelness. Hind-quarters The 
ramp round, broad, and powerfully muscled ; hip bone not too short, 
but broad and sloping ; the upper arm, or thigh, thick, of good length, 
and jointed at right angles to the hip bone. The lower leg (or second 
thigh) is, compared with other animals, short, and is set on at right 
angles to the upper thigh, and is very firmly muscled. The hind-legs 
are lighter in bone than the front ones, but very strongly muscled, 
with well-rounded-out buttocks, and the knee joint well developed. 
Seen from behind, the legs should be wide apart and straight, and not 
cowhocked. The dog should not be higher at the quarters than at 
shoulder. Stern Set on fairly high, strong at root, and tapering, but 
not too long. Neither too much curved nor carried too high ; well, but 
not too much, feathered ; a bushy tail is better than too little hair. 
Coat and Skin Hair short and close as possible, glossy and smooth, 
but resistant to the touch if stroked the wrong way. The skin tough 
and elastic, but fitting close to the body. Colour One Coloured: 
There are several self-colours recognised, including deep red, yellowish 
red, smutty red. Of these the dark, or cherry, red is preferable, and in 
this colour light shadings on any part of the body or head are undesir- 
able. " Black " is rare, and is only a sport from black and tan. Two 


Coloured : Deep black, brown (liver) or grey, with golden or tan 
markings (spots) over the eyes at the side of the jaw and lips, inner rim 
of ears, the breast, inside and back of legs, the feet, and under the tail 
for about one-third of its length. In the above-mentioned colours white 
markings are objectionable. The utmost that is allowed being a small 
spot, or a few hairs, on the chest. Dappled : A silver grey to almost 
white foundation colour, with dark, irregular spots (small for prefer- 
ence) of dark grey, brown, tan, or black. The general appearance 
should be a bright, indefinite coloration, which is considered especially 
useful in a hunting dog. Weight Dachshunds in Germany are classi- 
fied by weight as follows : Light-weight Dogs up to 16 } lb., bitches 
up to 15 i lb. Middle-weight Dogs up to 22 lb., bitches up to 22 lb. 
Heavy-weight Over 22 lb. Toys Up to 12 lb. The German pound 
is one-tenth more than the English. The light-weight dog is most 
used for going to ground. 


THERE can hardly have been a time since the period of the 
Norman Conquest when the small earth dogs which we now 
call terriers were not known in these islands and used by 
sporting men as assistants in the chase, and by husbandmen 
for the killing of obnoxious vermin. The two little dogs shown 
in the Bayeux tapestry running with the hounds in advance 
of King Harold's hawking party were probably meant for 
terriers. Dame Juliana Berners in the fifteenth century did 
not neglect to include the " Teroures " in her catalogue of 
sporting dogs, and a hundred years later Dr. Caius gave 
pointed recognition to their value in unearthing the fox and 
drawing the badger. 

" Another sorte, there is," wrote the doctor's translator in 
1576, " which hunteth the Fox and the Badger or Greye onely, 
whom we call Terrars, because they (after the manner and 
custome of ferrets in searching for Connyes) creep into the 
grounde, and by that meanes make afrayde, nyppe and bite 
the Foxe and the Badger in such sorte that eyther they teare 
them in pieces with theyr teeth, beying in the bosome of the 
earth, or else hayle and pull them perforce out of theyr lurking 
angles, darke dongeons, and close caues ; or at the least through 
cocened feare drive them out of theire hollow harbours, in so 
much that they are compelled to prepare speedie flyte, and, 
being desirous of the next (albeit not the safest) refuge, are 
otherwise taken and intrapped with snayres and nettes layde 
over holes to the same purpose. But these be the least in that 
kynde called Sagax." 


The colour, size, and shape of the original terriers are not 
indicated by the early writers, and art supplies but vague and 
uncertain evidence. Nicholas Cox, who wrote of sporting 
dogs in The Gentleman's Recreation (1667), seems to suggest 
that the type of working terrier was already fixed suffi- 
ciently to be divided into two kinds, the one having shaggy 
coats and straight limbs, the other smooth coats and short bent 
legs. Yet some years later another authority Blome in 
the same publication was more guarded in his statements 
as to the terrier type when he wrote : " Everybody that is 
a fox hunter is of opinion that he hath a good breed, and 
some will say that the terrier is a peculiar species of itself. I 
will not say anything to the affirmative or negative of the 

Searching for evidence on the subject, one finds that per- 
haps the earliest references to the colours of terriers were made 
by Daniel in his Field Sports at the end of the eighteenth 
century, when he described two sorts, the one rough, short- 
legged, and long-backed, very strong, and " most commonly 
of a black or yellowish colour, mixed with white " evidently 
a hound-marked dog ; and another smooth-coated and beauti- 
fully formed, with a shorter body and more sprightly appear- 
ance, " generally of a reddish brown colour, or black with 
tanned legs." 

Gilpin's portrait of Colonel Thornton's celebrated Pitch, 
painted in 1790, presents a terrier having a smooth white coat 
with a black patch at the set-on of the undocked tail, and black 
markings on the face and ears. The dog's head is badly drawn 
and small in proportion ; but the body and legs and colouring 
would hardly disgrace the Totteridge Kennels of to-day. Fox- 
terriers of a noted strain were depicted from life by Reinagle 
in The Sportsman's Cabinet, published over a hundred years 
ago ; and in the text accompanying the engraving a minute 
account is given of the peculiarities and working capacities 
of the terrier. We are told that there were two breeds : the 
one wire-haired, larger, more powerful, and harder bitten ; 


the other smooth-haired and smaller, with more style. The 
wire-hairs were white with spots, the smooths were black and 
tan, the tan apparently predominating over the black. The 
same writer states that it was customary to take out a brace 
of terriers with a pack of hounds, a larger and a smaller one, 
the smaller dog being used in emergency when the earth 
proved to be too narrow to admit his bigger companion. It is 
well known that many of the old fox hunters have kept their 
special breeds of terrier, and the Belvoir, the Grove, and Lord 
Middleton's are among the packs to which particular terrier 
strains have been attached. 

That even a hundred years ago terriers were bred with care, 
and that certain strains were held in especial value, is shown 
by the recorded fact that a litter of seven puppies was sold 
for twenty-one guineas a good price even in these days 
and that on one occasion so high a sum as twenty guineas was 
paid for a full-grown dog. At that time there was no definite 
and well-established breed recognised throughout the islands 
by a specific name ; the embracing title of " Terrier " included 
all the varieties which have since been carefully differentiated. 
But very many of the breeds existed in their respective locali- 
ties awaiting national recognition. Here and there some 
squire or huntsman nurtured a particular strain and developed 
a type which he kept pure, and at many a manor-house and 
farmstead in Devonshire and Cumberland, on many a High- 
land estate and Irish riverside where there were foxes to be 
hunted or otters to be killed, terriers of definite strain were 
religiously cherished. Several of these still survive, and are 
as respectable in descent and quite as important historically 
as some of the favoured and fashionable champions of our 
time. They do not perhaps possess the outward beauty and 
distinction of type which would justify their being brought 
into general notice, but as workers they retain all the fire and 
verve that are required in dogs that are expected to encounter 
such vicious vermin as the badger and the fox. 

Some of the breeds of terriers seen nowadays in every dog 


show were equally obscure and unknown a few years back. 
Thirty-seven years ago the now popular Irish Terrier was prac- 
tically unknown in England, and the Scottish Terrier was only 
beginning to be recognised as a distinct breed. The Welsh 
Terrier is quite a new introduction that a dozen or so years ago 
was seldom seen outside the Principality ; and so recently as 
1881 the Airedale was merely a local dog known in Yorkshire 
as the Waterside or the Bingley Terrier. Yet the breeds just 
mentioned are all of unimpeachable ancestry, and the circum- 
stance that they were formerly bred within limited neighbour- 
hoods is in itself an argument in favour of their purity. We 
have seen the process of a sudden leap into recognition enacted 
during the past few years in connection with the white terrier 
of the Western Highlands a dog which was familiarly known 
in Argyllshire centuries ago, yet which has only lately emerged 
from the heathery hillsides around Poltalloch to become an 
attraction on the benches at the Crystal Palace and on the 
lawns of the Botanical Gardens ; and the example suggests 
the possibility that in another decade or so the neglected 
Sealyham Terrier, the ignored terrier of the Borders, and the 
almost forgotten Jack Russell strain, may have claimed a due 
recompense for their long neglect. 

There are lovers of the hard-bitten working "earth dogs " 
who still keep these strains inviolate, and who greatly prefer 
them to the better-known terriers whose natural activities 
have been too often atrophied by a system of artificial breeding 
to show points. Few of these old unregistered breeds would 
attract the eye of the fancier accustomed to judge a dog 
parading before him in the show ring. To know their value 
and to appreciate their sterling good qualities, one needs to 
watch them at work on badger or when they hit upon the line 
of an otter. It is then that they display the alertness and the 
dare-devil courage which have won for the English terriers 
their name and fame. 

An excellent working terrier was the white, rough-haired 
strain kept by the Rev. John Russell in Devonshire and 


distributed among privileged sportsmen about Somersetshire 
and Gloucestershire. The working attributes of these ener- 
getic terriers have long been understood, and the smart, plucky 
little dogs have been constantly coveted by breeders all over the 
country, but they have never won the popularity they deserve. 

Those who have kept both varieties prefer the Russell to 
the Sealyham Terrier, which is nevertheless an excellent 
worker. It is on record that one of these, a bitch of only 9 Ib. 
weight, fought and killed, single-handed, a full-grown dog-fox. 
The Sealyham derives its breed name from the seat of the 
Edwardes family, near Haverfordwest, in Pembrokeshire, 
where the strain has been carefully preserved for well over a 
century. It is a long-bodied, short-legged terrier, with a 
hard, wiry coat, frequently whole white, but also white with 
black or brown markings or brown with black. They may be 
as heavy as 17 Ib., but 12 Ib. is the average weight. Some 
years ago the breed seemed to be on the down grade, requiring 
fresh blood from a well-chosen out-cross. One hears very 
little concerning them nowadays, but it is certain that when 
in their prime they possessed all the grit, determination, and 
endurance that are looked for in a good working terrier. 

A wire-haired black and tan terrier was once common in 
Suffolk and Norfolk, where it was much used for rabbiting, 
but it may now be extinct, or, if not extinct, probably identified 
with the Welsh Terrier, which it closely resembled in size 
and colouring. There was also in Shropshire a well-known 
breed of wire-hair terriers, black and tan, on very short legs, 
and weighing about 10 Ib. or 12 Ib., with long punishing heads 
and extraordinary working powers. So, too, in Lancashire 
and Cheshire one used to meet with sandy-coloured terriers 
of no very well authenticated strain, but closely resembling 
the present breed of Irish Terrier ; and Squire Thornton, at 
his place near Pickering, in Yorkshire, had a breed of wire- 
hairs tan in colour with a black stripe down the back. Then 
there is the Cowley strain, kept by the Cowleys of Callipers, 
near King's Langley. These are white wire-haired dogs 


marked like the Fox-terrier, and exceedingly game. Possibly 
the Elterwater Terrier is no longer to be found, but some few 
of them still existed a dozen years or so ago in the Lake District, 
where they were used in conjunction with the West Cumber- 
land Otterhounds. They were not easily distinguishable from 
the better-known Border Terriers of which there are still 
many strains, ranging from Northumberland, where Mr. T. 
Robson, of Bellingham, has kept them for many years, to 
Galloway and Ayrshire and the Lothians, where their coats 
become longer and less crisp. 

There are many more local varieties of the working terrier 
as, for example, the Roseneath, which is often confused with 
the Poltalloch, or White West Highlander, to whom it is 
possibly related. And the Pittenweem, with which the Pol- 
talloch Terriers are now being crossed ; while Mrs. Alastair 
Campbell, of Ardrishaig, has a pack of Cairn Terriers which 
seem to represent the original type of the improved Scottie. 
Considering the great number of strains that have been pre- 
served by sporting families and maintained in more or less 
purity to type, it is easy to understand how a " new " breed 
may become fashionable, and still claim the honour of long 
descent. They may not in all cases have the beauty of shape 
which is desired on the show bench ; but it is well to remem- 
ber that while our show terriers have been bred to the highest 
perfection we still possess in Great Britain a separate order of 
" earth dogs " that for pluckily following the fox and the badger 
into their lairs or bolting an otter from his holt cannot be 
excelled all the world over. 


THIS dog, one would think, ought, by the dignified title which 
he bears, to be considered a representative national terrier, 
forming a fourth in the distinctively British quartette whose 
other members are the Scottish, the Irish, and the Welsh 
Terriers. Possibly in the early days when Pearson and Roo- 
croft bred him to perfection it was hoped and intended that 
he should become a breed typical of England. He is still the 
only terrier who owns the national name, but he has long ago 
yielded pride of place to the Fox-terrier, and it is the case that 
the best specimens of his race are bred north of the border, 
while, instead of being the most popular dog in the land, he is 
actually one of the most neglected and the most seldom seen. 
At the Kennel Club Show of 1909 there was not a single 
specimen of the breed on view, nor was one to be found at 
the recent shows at Edinburgh, Birmingham, Manchester, 
or Islington, nor at the National Terrier Show at Westminster. 
It is a pity that so smart and beautiful a dog should be suffered 
to fall into such absolute neglect. One wonders what the 
reason of it can be. Possibly it is that the belief still prevails 
that he is of delicate constitution, and is not gifted with a 
great amount of intelligence or sagacity ; there is no doubt, 
however, that a potent factor in hastening the decline is to be 
found in the edict against cropping. Neither the White 
Terrier nor the Manchester Terrier has since been anything 
like so popular as they both were before April, 1898, when the 
Kennel Club passed the law that dogs' ears must not be 



Writers on canine history, and Mr. Rawdon Lee among the 
number, tell us that the English White Terrier is a compara- 
tively new breed, and that there is no evidence to show where 
he originally sprang from, who produced him, or for what 
reason he was introduced. His existence as a distinct breed 
is dated back no longer than forty years. This is about the 
accepted age of most of our named English terriers. Half a 
century ago, before the institution of properly organised dog 
shows drew particular attention to the differentiation of breeds, 
the generic term " terrier " without distinction was applied 
to all " earth dogs," and the consideration of colour and size was 
the only common rule observed in breeding. But it would 
not be difficult to prove that a white terrier resembling the 
one now under notice existed in England as a separate variety 
many generations anterior to the period usually assigned to 
its recognition. 

In the National Portrait Gallery there is a portrait of Mary 
of Modena, Queen Consort of James II., painted in 1670 by 
William Wissing, who has introduced at the Queen's side a 
terrier that is undoubtedly of this type. The dog has slight 
brown or brindle markings on the back, as many English 
White Terriers have, and it is to be presumed that it is of the 
breed from which this variety is descended. 

Apart from colour there is not a great difference between 
the White English Terrier and the Manchester Black and 
Tan. But although they are of similar shape and partake 
much of the same general character, yet there is the distinction 
that in the black and tan the conservation of type is stronger 
and more noticeable than in the white, in which the correct 
shape and action are difficult to obtain. It ought naturally 
to be easier to breed a pure white dog from white parents than 
to breed correctly marked and well tanned puppies from per- 
fect black and tans ; but the efforts of many breeders do not 
seem to support such a theory in connection with the English 
Terrier, whose litters frequently show the blemish of a spot 
of brindle or russet. These spots usually appear behind the 


ears or on the neck, and are of course a disfigurement on a 
dog whose coat to be perfect should be of an intense and 
brilliant white. It appears to be equally difficult to breed 
one which, while having the desired purity of colour, is also 
perfect in shape and terrier character. It is to be noted, 
too, that many otherwise good specimens are deaf a fault 
which seriously militates against the dog's possibilities as a 
companion or as a watch. 

Birmingham and Manchester were the localities in which the 
English Terrier was most popular forty years ago, but it was 
Mr. Frederick White, of Clapham, who bred all the best of the 
white variety and who made it popular in the neighbourhood 
of London. His terriers were of a strain founded by a dog 
named King Dick, and in 1863 he exhibited a notable team in 
Laddie, Fly, Teddie, and Nettle. Mr. S. E. Shirley, M.P., was 
attracted to the breed, and possessed many good examples, 
as also did the Rev. J. W. Mellor and Mr. J. H. Murchison. 
Mr. Alfred Benjamin's Silvio was a prominent dog in 1877. 

Silvio was bred by Mr. James Roocroft, of Bolton, who 
owned a large kennel of this variety of terrier, and who joined 
with his townsman, Joe Walker, and with Bill Pearson in 
raising the breed to popularity in Lancashire. Bill Pearson 
was the breeder of Tim, who was considered the best terrier 
of his time, a dog of 14 lb., with a brilliant white coat, the 
darkest of eyes, and a perfect black nose. 

It is apparent that the Whippet was largely used as a cross 
with the English Terrier, which may account to a great 
extent for the decline of terrier character in the breed. Wiser 
breeders had recourse to the more closely allied Bull-terrier ; 
Mr. Shirley's prize winning Purity was by Tim out of a Bull- 
terrier bitch, and there is no doubt that whatever stamina 
remains in the breed has been supported by this cross. 

The following is the description laid down by the White 
English Terrier Club : 

Head Narrow, long and level, almost flat skull, without cheek 
muscles, wedge-shaped, well filled up under the eyes, tapering to the 



nose, and not lippy. Eyes Small and black, set fairly close together, 
and oblong in shape. Nose Perfectly black. Ears Cropped and 
standing perfectly erect. Neck and Shoulders The neck should be 
fairly long and tapering from the shoulders to the head, with sloping 
shoulders, the neck being free from throatiness, and slightly arched 
at the occiput. Chest Narrow and deep. Body Short and curving 
upwards at the loins, sprung out behind the shoulders, back slightly 
arched at loins, and falling again at the joining of the tail to the same 
height as the shoulders. Legs Perfectly straight and well under the 
body, moderate in bone, and of proportionate length. Feet Feet 
nicely arched, with toes set well together, and more inclined to be round 
than hare-footed. Tall Moderate length, and set on where the arch of 
the back ends, thick where it joins the body, tapering to a point, and 
not carried higher than the back. Coat Close, hard, short, and glossy. 
Colour Pure white, coloured marking to disqualify. Condition 
Flesh and muscles to be hard and firm. Weight Froni 12 Ib. to 20 Ib. 


THE Black and Tan, or Manchester, Terrier as we know him 
to-day is a comparatively new variety, and he is not to be 
confounded with the original terrier with tan and black 
colouring which was referred to by Dr. Caius in the sixteenth 
century, and which was at that time used for going to ground 
and driving out badgers and foxes. 

Formerly there was but little regard paid to colour and 
markings, and there was a considerably greater proportion of 
tan in the coat than there is at the present day, while the fancy 
markings, such as pencilled toes, thumb marks, and kissing 
spots were not cultivated. The general outline of the dog, 
too, was less graceful and altogether coarser. 

During the first half of the nineteenth century the chief 
accomplishment of this terrier was rat-killing. There are some 
extraordinary accounts of his adroitness, as well as courage, 
in destroying these vermin. The feats of a dog called Billy 
are recorded. He was matched to destroy one hundred large 
rats in eight minutes and a half. The rats were brought into 
the ring in bags, and as soon as the number was complete 
Billy was put over the railing into their midst. In six 
minutes and thirty-five seconds they were all destroyed. In 
another match he killed the same number in six minutes 
and thirteen seconds. 

It was a popular terrier in Lancashire, and it was in this 
county that the refining process in his shape and colouring 
was practised, and where he came by the name of the 
Manchester Terrier. 


Like the White English Terriers the Black and Tan has fallen 
on evil days. It is not a popular dog among fanciers, and 
although many good ones may be seen occasionally about the 
streets the breed suffers from want of the care and attention 
that are incidental to the breeding and rearing of dogs intended 
for competition at shows. 

There are many who hold the opinion that one of the chief 
reasons for the decadence in the popularity of the Black and 
Tan Terrier, notwithstanding its many claims to favour, is to 
be found in the loss of that very alert appearance which was 
a general characteristic before the Kennel Club made it illegal 
to crop the ears of such as were intended for exhibition. It 
must be admitted that until very recently there was a con- 
siderable amount of truth in the prevalent opinion, inasmuch 
as a rather heavy ear, if carried erect, was the best material 
to work upon, and from which to produce the long, fine, and 
upright, or " pricked " effect which was looked upon as being 
the correct thing in a cropped dog ; hence it followed that no 
care was taken to select breeding stock likely to produce the 
small, semi-erect, well-carried, and thin ears required to-day, 
consequently when the edict forbidding the use of scissors 
came into force there were very few small-eared dogs to be 
found. It has taken at least ten or a dozen years to eradicate 
the mischief, and even yet the cure is not complete. 

Another factor which has had a bad effect is the belief, 
which has become much too prevalent, that a great deal of 
" faking " has been practised in the past, and that it has been 
so cleverly performed as to deceive the most observant judge, 
whereby a very artificial standard of quality has been obtained. 

The standard of points by which the breed should be 
judged is as follows : 

General Appearance A terrier calculated to take his own part in the 
rat pit, and not of the Whippet type. Head The head should be long, 
flat, and narrow, level and wedge-shaped, without showing cheek 
muscles ; well filled up under the eyes, with tapering, tightly-lipped 
jaws and level teeth. Eyes The eyes should be very small, sparkling, 
and bright, set fairly close together and oblong in shape. Nose Black. 


Ears The correct carriage of ears is a debatable point since cropping 
has been abolished. Probably in the large breed the drop ear is correct, 
but for Toys either erect or semi-erect carriage of the ear is most 
desirable. Neck and Shoulders The neck should be fairly long and 
tapering from the shoulders to the head, with sloping shoulders, the 
neck being free from throatiness and slightly arched at the occiput. 
Chest The chest should be narrow but deep. Body The body should 
be moderately short and curving upwards at the loin ; ribs well sprung, 
back slightly arched at the loin and falling again at the joining of the 
tail to the same height as the shoulders. Feet The feet should be 
more inclined to be cat- than hare-footed. Tail The tail should be of 
moderate length and set on where the arch of the back ends ; thick 
where it joins the body, tapering to a point, and not carried higher 
than the back. Coat The coat should be close, smooth, short and 
glossy. Colour The coat should be jet black and rich mahogany tan, 
distributed over the body as follows : On the head the muzzle is tanned 
to the nose, which with the nasal bone is jet black. There is also a 
bright spot on each cheek and above each eye ; the underjaw and throat 
are tanned, and the hair inside the ears is the same colour ; the fore-legs 
tanned up to the knee, with black lines (pencil marks) up each toe, 
and a black mark (thumb mark) above the foot ; inside the hind-legs 
tanned, but divided with black at the hock joints ; and under the tail 
also tanned ; and so is the vent, but only sufficiently to be easily 
covered by the tail ; also slightly tanned on each side of the chest. 
Tan outside the hind-legs commonly called breeching is a serious 
defect. In all cases the black should not run into the tan, nor vice versa, 
but the division between the two colours should be well defined. 
Weight For toys not exceeding 7 Ib. ; for the large breed from 10 to 
20 Ib. is most desirable. 


THE Bull-terrier is now a gentlemanly and respectably owned 
dog, wearing an immaculate white coat and a burnished 
silver collar ; he has dealings with aristocracy, and is no longer 
contemned for keeping bad company. But a generation or 
two ago he was commonly the associate of rogues and vaga- 
bonds, skulking at the heels of such members of society as Mi . 
William Sikes, whom he accompanied at night on darksome 
business to keep watch outside while Bill was within, crack- 
ing the crib. In those days the dog's ears were closely 
cropped, not for the sake of embellishment, but as a measure 
of protection against the fangs of his opponent in the pit when 
money was laid upon the result of a well-fought fight to the 
death. For fighting was the acknowledged vocation of his 
order, and he was bred and trained to the work. He knew 
something of rats, too, and many of his kind were famed in the 
land for their prowess in this direction. Jimmy Shaw's Jacko 
could finish off sixty rats in three minutes, and on one occasion 
made a record by killing a thousand in a trifle over an hour 
and a half. 

The breed is sufficiently modern to leave no doubt as to 
its derivation. In the first quarter of the nineteenth century 
attention was being directed to the improvement of terriers 
generally, and new types were sought for. They were alert, 
agile little dogs, excellent for work in the country ; but 
the extravagant Corinthians of the time the young gamesters 
who patronised the prize-ring and the cock-pit desired to 
have a dog who should do something more than kill rats, or 


unearth the fox, or bolt the otter : which accomplishments 
afforded no amusement to the Town. They wanted a dog 
combining all the dash and gameness of the terrier with the 
heart and courage and fighting instinct of the Bulldog. 
Wherefore the terrier and the Bulldog were crossed. A large 
type of terrier was chosen, and this would be the smooth-coated 
Black and Tan, or the early English White Terrier ; but pro- 
bably both were used indifferently, and for a considerable 
period. The result gave the young bucks what they required : 
a dog that was at once a determined vermin killer and an 
intrepid fighter, upon whose skill in the pit wagers might with 
confidence be laid. 

The animal, however, was neither a true terrier nor a true 
Bulldog, but an uncompromising mongrel ; albeit he served 
his immediate purpose, and was highly valued for his pertina- 
city, if not for his appearance. In 1806 Lord Camelford 
possessed one for which he had paid the very high price of 
eighty-four guineas, and which he presented to Belcher, the 
pugilist. This dog was figured in The Sporting Magazine of 
the time. He was a short-legged, thick-set, fawn-coloured 
specimen, with closely amputated ears, a broad blunt muzzle, 
and a considerable lay-back ; and this was the kind of dog 
which continued for many years to be known as the Bull-and- 
terrier. He was essentially a man's dog, and was vastly in 
favour among the undergraduates of Oxford and Cambridge. 

Gradually the Bulldog element, at first pronounced, was 
reduced to something like a fourth degree, and, with the 
terrier character predominating, the head was sharpened, the 
limbs were lengthened and straightened until little remained of 
the Bulldog strain but the dauntless heart and the fearless 
fighting spirit, together with the frequent reversion to brindle 
colouring, which was the last outward and visible characteristic 
to disappear. 

Within the remembrance of men not yet old the Bull-terrier 
was as much marked with fawn, brindle, or even black, as are 
the Fox-terriers of our own period. But fifty years or so ago 


white was becoming frequent, and was much admired. A 
strain of pure white was bred by James Hinks, a well-known 
dog-dealer of Birmingham, and it is no doubt to Hinks that 
we are indebted for the elegant Bull-terrier of the type that 
we know to-day. These Birmingham dogs showed a refine- 
ment and grace and an absence of the crook-legs and coloured 
patches which betrayed that Hinks had been using an out- 
cross with the English White Terrier, thus getting away further 
still from the Bulldog. 

With the advent of the Hinks strain in 1862 the short-faced 
dog fell into disrepute, and pure white became the accepted 
colour. There was a wide latitude in the matter of weight. 
If all other points were good, a dog might weigh anything 
between 10 and 38 Ibs., but classes were usually divided for 
those above and those below 16 Ib. The type became fixed, 
and it was ruled that the perfect Bull-terrier " must have a 
long head, wide between the ears, level jaws, a small black eye, 
a large black nose, a long neck, straight fore-legs, a small 
hare foot, a narrow chest, deep brisket, powerful loin, long 
body, a tail set and carried low, a fine coat, and small ears well 
hung and dropping forward." 

Idstone, who wrote this description in 1872, earnestly 
insisted that the ears of all dogs should be left uncut and as 
Nature made them ; but for twenty years thereafter the ears 
of the Bull-terrier continued to be cropped to a thin, erect 
point. The practice of cropping, it is true, was even 
then illegal and punishable by law, but, although there were 
occasional convictions under the Cruelty to Animals Act, 
the dog owners who admired the alertness and perkiness of 
the cut ear ignored the risk they ran, and it was not until the 
Kennel Club took resolute action against the practice that 
cropping was entirely abandoned. 

The president of the Kennel Club, Mr. S. E. Shirley, M.P., 
had himself been a prominent owner and breeder of the Bull- 
terrier. His Nelson, bred by Joe Willock, was celebrated 
as an excellent example of the small-sized terrier, at a time, 


however, when there were not a great many competitors of the 
highest quality. His Dick, also, was a remarkably good dog. 
Earlier specimens which have left their names in the history of 
the breed were Hinks's Old Dutch, who was, perhaps, even a 
more perfect terrier than the same breeder's Madman and 

Lancashire and Yorkshire have always been noted for good 
Bull-terriers, and the best of the breed have usually been pro- 
duced in the neighbourhoods of Leeds, Bradford, Manchester, 
Bolton, and Liverpool, while Birmingham also shared in the 
reputation. At one time Londoners gave careful attention to 
the breed, stimulated thereto by the encouragement of 
Mr. Shirley and the success of Alfred George. 

Of recent years the Bull-terrier has not been a great favourite, 
and it has sadly deteriorated in type ; but there are signs 
that the variety is again coming into repute, and within the 
past two years many admirable specimens as nearly perfect, 
perhaps, as many that won honour in former generations 
have been brought into prominence. Among dogs, for 
example, there are Mr. E. T. Pimm's Sweet Lavender, Dr. 
M. Amsler's MacGregor, Mr. Chris Houlker's His Highness, 
and Mr. J. Haynes' Bloomsbury Young King. Among bitches 
there are Mrs. Kipping's Delphinium Wild and Desdemona, 
Mr. Hornby's Lady Sweetheart, Mr. W. Mayor's Mill Girl, 
Mr. T. Gannaway's Charlwood Belle, Dr. J. W. Low's Bess of 
Hardwicke, and Mrs. E. G. Money's Eastbourne Tarqueenia. 
While these and such as these beautiful and typical terriers 
are being bred and exhibited there is no cause to fear a further 
decline in popularity for a variety so eminently engaging. 

The club description is as follows : 

General Appearance The general appearance of the Bull-terrier 
is that of a symmetrical animal, the embodiment of agility, grace, 
elegance, and determination. Head The head should be long, flat, 
and wide between the ears, tapering to the nose, without cheek muscles. 
There should be a slight indentation down the face, without a stop 
between the eyes. The jaws should be long and very powerful, with a 
large black nose and open nostrils. Eyes small and very black, almond 
hape preferred. The lips should meet as tightly as possible, without 


a fold. The teeth should be regular in shape, and should meet exactly ; 
any deviation, such as pigjaw, or being underhung, is a great fault. 
Ears The ears, when cropped, should be done scientifically and accord- 
ing to fashion. Cropped dogs cannot win a prize at shows held under 
Kennel Club rules, if born after March 31st, 1895. When not cropped, 
it should be a semi-erect ear, but others do not disqualify. Neck 
The neck should be long and slightly arched, nicely set into the shoulders 
tapering to the head without any loose skin, as found in the Bulldog. 
Shoulders The shoulders should be strong, muscular, and slanting ; 
the chest wide and deep, with ribs well rounded. Back The back 
short and muscular, but not out of proportion to the general contour 
of the animal. Legs The fore-legs should be perfectly straight, with 
well-developed muscles ; not out at shoulder, but set on the racing 
lines, and very strong at the pastern joints. The hind-legs are long 
and, in proportion to the fore-legs, muscular, with good strong, straight 
hocks, well let down near the ground. Feet The feet more resemble 
those of a cat than a hare. Colour Should be white. Coat Short, 
close, and stiff to the touch, with a fine gloss. Tail Short in pro- 
portion to the size of the dog, set on very low down, thick where it 
joins the body, and tapering to a fine point. It should be carried at an 
angle of about 45 degrees, without curl, and never over the back. 
Height at Shoulders From 12 to 18 inches. Weight From 15 Ib. 
to 50 Ib. 


To attempt to set forth the origin of the Fox-terrier as we 
know him to-day would be of no interest to the general reader, 
and would entail the task of tracing back the several hetero- 
geneous sources from which he sprang. It is a matter of very 
little moment whether he owes his origin to the white English 
Terrier or to the Bull-terrier crossed with the Black and Tan, 
or whether he has a mixture of Beagle blood in his composi- 
tion, so it will suffice to take him as he emerged from the 
chaos of mongreldom about the middle of the last century,, 
rescued in the first instance by the desire of huntsmen or 
masters of well-known packs to produce a terrier somewhat 
in keeping with their hounds ; and, in the second place, to the- 
advent of dog shows. Prior to that time any dog capable, 
from his size, conformation, and pluck, of going to ground and 
bolting his fox was a Fox-terrier, were he rough or smooth,, 
black, brown, or white. 

The starting-point of the modern Fox-terrier dates from 
about the 'sixties, and no pedigrees before that are worth 

From three dogs then well known Old Jock, Trap, and 
Tartar he claims descent ; and, thanks to the Fox-terrier 
Club and the great care taken in compiling their stud-books, 
he can be brought down to to-day. Of these three dogs Old 
Jock was undoubtedly more of a terrier than the others. It is, 
a moot point whether he was bred, as stated in most records 
of the time, by Captain Percy Williams, master of the Rufford, 
or by Jack Morgan, huntsman to the Grove ; it seems,. 



however, well established that the former owned his sire, also 
called Jock, and that his dam, Grove Pepper, was the property 
of Morgan. He first came before the public at the Birming- 
ham show in 1862, where, shown by Mr. Wootton, of Notting- 
ham, he won first prize. He subsequently changed hands 
several times, till he became the property of Mr. Murchison, 
in whose hands he died in the early 'seventies. He was 
exhibited for the last time at the Crystal Palace in 1870, and 
though then over ten years old won second to the same 
owner's Trimmer. At his best he was a smart, well-baianced 
terrier, with perhaps too much daylight under him, and want- 
ing somewhat in jaw power ; but he showed far less of the 
Bull-terrier type than did his contemporary Tartar. 

This dog's antecedents were very questionable, and his 
breeder is given as Mr. Stevenson, of Chester, most of whose 
dogs were Bull-terriers pure and simple, save that they had 
drop ears and short sterns, being in this respect unlike old 
Trap, whose sire is generally supposed to have been a Black 
and Tan Terrier. This dog came from the Oakley Kennels, and 
he was supposed to have been bred by a miller at Leicester. 
However questionable the antecedents of these three terriers 
may have been, they are undoubtedly the progenitors of our 
present strain, and from them arose the kennels that we 
have to-day. 

Mention has been made of Mr. Murchison, and to him we owe 
in a great measure the start in popularity which since the 
foundation of his large kennel the Fox-terrier has enjoyed. 
Mr. Murchison 's chief opponents in the early 'seventies 
were Mr. Gibson, of Brockenhurst, with his dogs Tyke and 
Old Foiler ; Mr. Luke Turner, of Leicester, with his Belvoir 
strain, which later gave us Ch. Brockenhurst Joe, Ch. Olive 
and her son, Ch. Spice ; Mr. Theodore Bassett, Mr. Allison, 
and, a year or so later, Mr. Frederick Burbidge, the Messrs. 
Clarke, Mr. Tinne, Mr. Francis Redmond, and Mr. Vicary. 
About this time a tremendous impetus was given to the breed 
by the formation, in 1876, of the Fox-terrier Club, which 


owed its inception to Mr. Harding Cox and a party of enthu- 
siasts seated round his dinner table at 36, Russell Square, 
among whom were Messrs. Bassett, Burbidge, Doyle, Allison, 
and Redmond, the last two named being still members of the 
club. The idea was very warmly welcomed, a committee 
formed, and a scale of points drawn up which, with but one 
alteration, is in vogue to-day. Every prominent exhibitor 
or breeder then, and with few exceptions since, has been a 
member, and the club is by far the strongest of all specialist 

It will be well to give here the said standard of points. 

Head and Ears The Skull should be flat and moderately narrow, 
and gradually decreasing in width to the eyes. Not much " stop " 
should be apparent, but there should be more dip in the profile between 
the forehead and top jaw than is seen in the case of a Greyhound. The 
Cheeks must not be full. The Ears should be V-shaped and small, of 
moderate thickness, and dropping forward close to the cheek, not 
hanging by the side of the head like a Foxhound's. The Jaw, upper 
and under, should be strong and muscular ; should be of fair punishing 
strength, but not so in any way to resemble the Greyhound or modern 
English Terrier. There should not be much falling away below the 
eyes. This part of the head, should, however, be moderately chiselled 
out, so as not to go down in a straight line like a wedge. The Nose, 
towards which the muzzle must gradually taper, should be black. 
The Eyes should be dark in colour, small, and rather deep set, full of 
flre, life, and intelligence ; as nearly as possible circular in shape. The 
Teeth should be as nearly as possible level, i.e., the upper teeth on the 
outside of the lower teeth. Neck Should be clean and muscular, 
without throatiness, of fair length, and gradually widening to the 
shoulders. Shoulders and Chest The Shoulders should be long and 
sloping, well laid back, fine at the points, and clearly cut at the 
withers. The Chest deep and not broad. Back and Loin The 
Back should be short, straight, and strong, with no appear- 
ance of slackness. The Loin should be powerful and very slightly 
arched. The fore ribs should be moderately arched, the back ribs 
deep ; and the dog should be well ribbed up. Hind-quarters 
Should be strong and muscular, quite free from droop or crouch; 
the thighs long and powerful ; hocks near the ground, the dog 
standing well up on them like a Foxhound, and not straight in the 
stifle. Stern Should be set on rather high, and carried gaily, but not 
over the back or curled. It should be of good strength, anything 
approaching a " pipe-stopper " tail being especially objectionable. 
Legs and Feet The Legs viewed in any direction must be straight, 
showing little or no appearance of an ankle in front. They should be 
strong in bone throughout, short and straight to pastern. Both fore 
and hind legs should be carried straight forward in travelling, the 


stifles not turned outwards. The elbows should hang perpendicular 
to the body, working free of the side. The Feet should be round, 
compact, and not large. The soles hard and tough. The toes moderately 
arched, and turned neither in nor out. Coat Should be straight, 
flat, smooth, hard, dense, and abundant. The belly and under side 
of the thighs should not be bare. As regards colour, white should 
predominate ; brindle, red, or liver markings are objectionable. Other- 
wise this point is of little or no importance. Symmetry, Size, and 
Character The dog must present a general gay, lively, and active 
appearance ; bone and strength in a small compass are essentials ; 
but this must not be taken to mean that a Fox-terrier should be 
cloggy, or in any way coarse speed and endurance must be looked 
to as well as power, and the symmetry of the Foxhound taken as a 
model. The terrier, like the hound, must on no account be leggy, nor 
must he be too short in the leg. He should stand like a cleverly-made 
hunter, covering a lot of ground, yet with a short back, as before stated. 
He will then attain the highest degree of propelling power, together 
with the greatest length of stride that is compatible with the length of 
his body. Weight is not a certain criterion of a terrier's fitness for 
his work general shape, size and contour are the main points ; and if 
a dog can gallop and stay, and follow his fox up a drain, it matters 
little what his weight is to a pound or so, though, roughly speaking, it 
may be said he should not scale over twenty pounds in show condition. 
DISQUALIFYING POINTS : Nose White, cherry, or spotted to a 
considerable extent with either of these colours. EATS prick, tulip, 
or rose. Mouth much overshot or much undershot. 

In order to give some idea of the extraordinary way in which 
the Fox-terrier took the public taste, it will be necessary to 
hark back and give a rtsumi of the principal kennels and 
exhibitors to whom this was due. In the year in which the 
Fox-terrier Club was formed, Mr. Fred Burbidge, at one time 
captain of the Surrey Eleven, had the principal kennels. He 
was the pluckiest buyer of his day, and once he fancied a dog 
nothing stopped him till it was in his kennels. He bought 
Nimrod, Dorcas, Tweezers, and Nettle, and with them and 
other discriminating purchases he was very hard to beat on 
the show-bench. Strange to say, at this time he seemed 
unable to breed a good dog, and determined to have a clear out 
and start afresh. A few brood bitches only were retained, and 
the kennels moved from Champion Hill to Hunton Bridge, in 
Hertfordshire. From thence in a few years came Bloom, 
Blossom, Tweezers II., Hunton Baron, Hunton Bridegroom, 
and a host of others, which spread the fame of the great 


Hunton strain. When the kennel was dispersed at Mr. 
Burbidge's untimely death in 1892, the dogs, 130 lots in all, 
were sold by auction and realised 1,800 ; Hunton Tartar 
fetched 135, Justice 84, Bliss jo, and Scramble 65. 

Messrs. A. H. and C. Clarke were at this time quietly found- 
ing a kennel, which perhaps has left its mark more indelibly 
on the breed than any before or since. Brockenhurst Rally 
was a most fortunate purchase from his breeder, Mr. Herbert 
Peel, and was by Brockenhurst Joe from a Bitters bitch, as 
from this dog came Roysterer and Ruler, their dam being 
Jess, an old Turk bitch ; and from Rollick by Buff was bred 
Ruse and Ransome. Roysterer was the sire of Result, by 
many considered the best Fox-terrier dog of all time ; and 
Result's own daughter Rachel was certainly the best bitch 
of her day. All these terriers had intense quality and style, 
due for the most part to inbreeding. Very little new blood 
was introduced, with an inevitable result ; and by degrees 
the kennel died out. 

No history of the Fox-terrier could be complete without 
mention of Mr. Francis Redmond and his kennel, going back, 
as it does, to the Murchison and Luke Turner period, and 
being still to-day the most prominent one in existence. We 
can date his earlier efforts from his purchase of Deacon 
Nettle, the dam of Deacon Ruby ; Dusty was the dam of 
Ch. Diamond Dust ; Dickon he had from Luke Turner, and in 
this dog we have one of the foundation-stones of the Fox- 
terrier stud-book, as he was the sire of Splinter, who in his 
turn was the sire of Vesuvian. 

Mr. Redmond's next great winners were D'Orsay and 
Dominie, two sterling good terriers, the former of which was the 
sire of Dame D'Orsay, who, bred to Despoiler, produced Dame 
Fortune, the mother of Donna Fortuna, whose other parent 
was Dominie. Donna Fortuna, considered universally the 
best specimen of a Fox-terrier ever produced, had from the 
first a brilliant career, for though fearlessly shown on all 
occasions she never knew defeat. Some took exception to 


her want of what is called terrier character, and others would 
have liked her a shade smaller ; but we have still to see the 
Fox-terrier, taken all round, that could beat her. 

As an outcross Mr. Redmond purchased Dreadnought, one 
of the highest class dogs seen for many years, but had very 
bad luck with him, an accident preventing him from being 
shown and subsequently causing his early death. We must 
not forget Duchess of Durham or Dukedom ; but to enumerate 
all Mr. Redmond's winners it would be necessary to take the 
catalogues of all the important shows held for the past thirty 
years. To no one do we owe so much ; no one has made 
such a study of the breed, reducing it almost to a science, with 
the result that even outside his kennels no dog has any 
chance of permanently holding his own unless he has an 
ample supply of the blood. 

The great opponent of the Totteridge Kennel up to some 
few years ago was unquestionably Mr. Vicary, of Newton 
Abbot, who laid the foundation of his kennel with Vesuvian, 
who was by Splinter, out of Kohinor, and from whom came the 
long line of winners, Venio-Vesuvienne, Vice-Regal, Valuator, 
Visto, and Veracity. Fierce war raged round these kennels, 
each having its admiring and devoted adherents, until one side 
would not look at anything but a Redmond Terrier to the 
exclusion of the Vicary type. The Newton Abbot strain was 
remarkable for beautiful heads and great quality, but was 
faulty in feet and not absolute as to fronts, each of which 
properties was a sine qua non amongst the Totteridge dogs. 
Latter-day breeders have recognised that in the crossing of 
the two perfection lies, and Mr. Redmond himself has not 
hesitated to go some way on the same road. 

It is fortunate for the breed of Fox-terriers how great a 
hold the hobby takes, and how enthusiastically its votaries 
pursue it, otherwise we should not have amongst us men like 
Mr. J. C. Tinne, whose name is now a household word in the 
Fox-terrier world, as it has been any time for the past thirty 
years. Close proximity, in those days, to Mr. Gibson at Brock- 






enhurst made him all the keener, and one of his first terriers 
was a bitch of that blood by Bitters. With daughters of 
Old Foiler he did very well to wit, Pungent, sister to Dorcas, 
while through Terror we get Banquet, the granddam of Des- 
polier. He purchased from Mr. Redmond both Deacon 
Diamond and Daze, each of whom was bred to Spice, and 
produced respectively Auburn and Brockenhurst Dainty ; 
from the latter pair sprang Lottery and Worry, the granddam 
of Tom Newcome, to whom we owe Brockenhurst Agnes, 
Brockenhurst Dame, and Dinah Morris, and consequently 
Adam Bede and Hester Sorrel. 

It has always been Mr. Tinne's principle to aim at produc- 
ing the best terrier he could, irrespective of the fads of this 
kennel or that, and his judgment has been amply vindicated, 
as the prize lists of every large show will testify. And to-day 
he is the proud possessor of Ch. The Sylph, who has beaten 
every one of her sex, and is considered by many about the 
best Fox-terrier ever seen. 

No name is better known or more highly respected by dog 
owners than that of the late Mr. J. A. Doyle, as a writer, 
breeder, judge, or exhibitor of Fox-terriers. Whilst breeding 
largely from his own stock, he was ever on the look-out for a 
likely outcross. He laid great store on terrier character, and 
was a stickler for good coats ; a point much neglected in the 
present-day dog. 

Amongst the smaller kennels is that of Mr. Reeks, now 
mostly identified with Oxonian and that dog's produce, but 
he will always be remembered as the breeder of that beautiful 
terrier, Avon Minstrel. Mr. Arnold Gillett has had a good 
share of fortune's favours, as the Ridgewood dogs testify ; 
whilst the Messrs. Powell, Castle, Glynn, Dale, and Crosthwaite 
have all written their names on the pages of Fox-terrier 
history. Ladies have ever been supporters of the breed, 
and no one more prominently so than Mrs. Bennett Edwards, 
who through Duke of Doncaster, a son of Durham, has founded 
a kennel which at times is almost invincible, and which still 


shelters such grand terriers as Doncaster, Dominie, Dodger, 
Dauphine, and many others well known to fame. Mrs. J. H. 
Brown, too, as the owner of Captain Double, a terrier which 
has won, and deservedly, more prizes than any Fox-terrier 
now or in the past, must not be omitted. 

Whether the present Fox-terrier is as good, both on the score 
of utility and appearance, as his predecessors is a question 
which has many times been asked, and as many times decided 
in the negative as well as in the affirmative. It would be 
idle to pretend that a great many of the dogs now seen on the 
show bench are fitted to do the work Nature intended them 
for, as irrespective of their make and shape they are so over- 
sized as to preclude the possibility of going to ground in any 
average sized earth. 

This question of size is one that must sooner or later be 
tackled in some practical way by the Fox-terrier Club, unless 
we are to see a race of giants in the next few generations. 
Their own standard gives 20 Ib. a very liberal maximum ; 
but there are dogs several pounds heavier constantly winning 
prizes at shows, and consequently being bred from, with the 
result which we see. There are many little dogs, and good 
ones, to be seen, but as long as the judges favour the big ones 
these hold no chance, and as it is far easier to produce a good 
big one than a good little one, breeders are encouraged to use 
sires who would not be looked at if a hard-and-fast line were 
drawn over which no dogs should win a prize. There are 
hundreds of Fox-terriers about quite as capable of doing 
their work as their ancestors ever were, and there is hardly a 
large kennel which has not from time to time furnished our 
leading packs with one or more dogs, and with gratifying 
results. It is, therefore, a great pity that our leading ex- 
hibitors should often be the greatest delinquents in showing 
dogs which they know in their hearts should be kept at home 
or drafted altogether, and it is deplorable that some of our 
oldest judges should by their awards encourage them. 

Before concluding this chapter it may not be out of place to 


say a few words as to the breeding and rearing of Fox 

In the first place, never breed from an animal whose pedigree 
is not authenticated beyond a shadow of a doubt ; and re- 
member that while like may beget like, the inevitable tendency 
is to throw back to former generations. The man who elects 
to breed Fox-terriers must have the bumps of patience and 
hope very strongly developed, as if the tyro imagines that he 
has only to mate his bitch to one of the known prize-winning 
dogs of the day in order to produce a champion, he had better 
try some other breed. Let him fix in his mind the ideal dog, 
and set to work by patient effort and in the face of many 
disappointments to produce it. It is not sufficient that, 
having acquired a bitch good in all points save in head, that he 
breeds her to the best-headed dog he can find. He must 
satisfy himself that the head is not a chance one, but is an 
inherited one, handed down from many generations, good in 
this particular, and consequently potent to reproduce its 
like. So in all other points that he wishes to reproduce. In 
the writer's experience, little bitches with quality are the 
most successful. Those having masculine characteristics 
should be avoided, and the best results will be obtained from 
the first three litters, after which a bitch rarely breeds anything 
so good. See that your bitch is free from worms before she 
goes to the dog, then feed her well, and beyond a dose of castor 
oil some days before she is due to whelp, let Nature take its 
course. Dose your puppies well for worms at eight weeks old, 
give them practically as much as they will eat, and unlimited 
exercise. Avoid the various advertised nostrums, and rely 
rather on the friendly advice of some fancier or your veterin- 
ary surgeon. 

Take your hobby seriously, and you will be amply repaid, 
even if success does not always crown your efforts, as while 
the breeding of most animals is a fascinating pursuit, that of 
the Fox-terrier presents many varying delights. 


THE wire-hair Fox-terrier is, with the exception of its coat, 
identical with the smooth Fox-terrier full brother in fact to 
him. The two varieties are much interbred, and several 
litters in consequence include representatives of both ; and 
not only this, but it is quite a frequent occurrence to get a 
smooth puppy from wire-hair parents, although for some 
generations neither of the parents may have had any smooth 
cross in their pedigrees. 

The North of England and South Wales (to a lesser extent) 
have ever been the home of the wire-hair, and nearly all the 
best specimens have come originally from one or the other of 
those districts. There is no doubt that there was excellent 
stock in both places, and there is also no doubt that though 
at times this was used to the best advantage, there was a good 
deal of carelessness in mating, and a certain amount in re- 
cording the parentage of some of the terriers. With regard 
to this latter point it is said that one gentleman who had quite 
a large kennel and several stud dogs, but who kept no books, 
used never to bother about remembering which particular 
dog he had put to a certain bitch, but generally satisfied himself 
as to the sire of a puppy when it came in from " walk " by 
just examining it and saying " Oh, that pup must be by 
owd Jock or Jim," as the case might be, " 'cos he's so loike 
'im," and down he would go on the entry form accordingly. 
However this may be, there is no doubt that the sire would 
be a wire-hair Fox-terrier, and, although the pedigree there- 
fore may not have been quite right, the terrier was invariably 
pure bred. 



In the early days the smooth was not crossed with the wire 
to anything like the extent that it was later, and this fact is 
probably the cause of the salvation of the variety. The wire- 
hair has had more harm done to him by his being injudiciously 
crossed with the smooth than probably by anything else. 

The greatest care must be exercised in the matter of coat 
before any such cross is effected. The smooth that is crossed 
with the wire must have a really hard, and not too full coat, 
and, as there are very, very few smooths now being shown with 
anything like a proper coat for a terrier to possess, the very 
greatest caution is necessary. Some few years back, almost 
incalculable harm was done to the variety by a considerable 
amount of crossing into a strain of smooths with terribly soft 
flannelly coats. Good-looking terriers were produced, and 
therein lay the danger, but their coats were as bad as bad could 
be ; and, though people were at first too prone to look over 
this very serious fault, they now seem to have recovered their 
senses, and thus, although much harm was done, any serious 
damage has been averted. If a person has a full-coated wire- 
hair bitch he is too apt to put her to a smooth simply because 
it is a smooth, whom he thinks will neutralise the length of his 
bitch's jacket, but this is absolute heresy, and must not be 
done unless the smooth has the very hardest of hair on him. 
If it is done, the result is too horrible for words : you get an 
elongated, smooth, full coat as soft as cotton wool, and some- 
times as silkily wavy as a lady's hair. This is not a coat for any 
terrier to possess, and it is not a wire-hair terrier's coat, which 
ought to be a hard, crinkly, peculiar-looking broken coat on 
top, with a dense undercoat underneath, and must never be 
mistakable for an elongated smooth terrier's coat, which can 
never at any time be a protection from wind, water, or dirt, 
and is, in reality, the reverse. 

The wire-hair has had a great advertisement, for better or 
worse, in the extraordinarily prominent way he has been 
mentioned in connection with " faking " and trimming. 
Columns have been written on this subject, speeches of 


inordinate length have been delivered, motions and resolutions 
have been carried, rules have been promulgated, etc., etc., 
and the one dog mentioned throughout in connection with all 
of them has been our poor old, much maligned wire-hair. He 
has been the scapegoat, the subject of all this brilliancy and 
eloquence, and were he capable of understanding the language 
of the human, we may feel sure much amusement would be his. 

There are several breeds that are more trimmed than the 
wire-hair, and that might well be quoted before him in this 
connection. There is a vast difference between legitimate 
trimming, and what is called " faking." All dogs with long 
or wire-hair or rough coats naturally require more attention, 
and more grooming than those with short smooth coats. For 
the purposes of health and cleanliness it is absolutely necess- 
ary that such animals should be frequently well groomed. 
There is no necessity, given a wire-hair with a good and proper 
coat, to use anything but an ordinary close-toothed comb, a 
good hard brush, and an occasional removal of long old hairs 
on the head, ears, neck, legs, and belly, with the finger and 
thumb. The Kennel Club regulations for the preparation of 
dogs for exhibition are perfectly clear on this subject, and are 
worded most properly. They say that a dog " shall be dis- 
qualified if any part of his coat or hair has been cut, clipped, 
singed, or rasped down by any substance, or if any of the new 
or fast coat has been removed by pulling or plucking in any 
manner," and that " no comb shall be used which has a cutting 
or rasping edge." There is no law, therefore, against the 
removal of old coat by finger and thumb, and anyone who 
keeps long-haired dogs knows that it is essential to the dog's 
health that there should be none. 

It is in fact most necessary in certain cases, at certain times, 
to pull old coat out in this way. Several terriers with good 
coats are apt to grow long hair very thickly round the neck 
and ears, and unless this is removed when it gets old, the neck 
and ears are liable to become infested with objectionable 
little slate-coloured nits, which will never be found as long 


as the coat is kept down when necessary. Bitches in whelp 
and after whelping, although ordinarily good-coated, seem 
to go all wrong in their coats unless properly attended to in this 
way, and here again, if you wish to keep your bitch free from 
skin trouble, it is a necessity, in those cases which need it, to 
use finger and thumb. 

If the old hair is pulled out only when it is old, there is no 
difficulty about it, and no hurt whatever is occasioned to the 
dog, who does not in reality object at all. If, however, new 
or fast coat is pulled out it not only hurts the dog but it is 
also a very foolish thing to do, and the person guilty of such 
a thing fully merits disqualification. 

Most of the nonsense that is heard about trimming emanates, 
of course, from the ignoramus ; the knife, he says, is used on 
them all, a sharp razor is run over their coats, they are singed, 
they are cut, they are rasped (the latter is the favourite term). 
Anything like such a sweeping condemnation is quite in- 
accurate and most unfair. It is impossible to cut a hair 
without being detected by a good judge, and very few people 
ever do any such thing, at any rate for some months before 
the terrier is exhibited, for if they do, they know they are 
bound to be discovered, and, as a fact, are. 

When the soft-coated dogs are clipped they are operated on, 
say, two or three months before they are wanted, and the 
hair gets a chance to grow, but even then it is easily discernible, 
and anyone who, like the writer, has any experience of clipping 
dogs in order to cure them of that awful disease, follicular 
mange, knows what a sight the animal is when he grows his 
coat, and how terribly unnatural he looks. 

The wire-hair has never been in better state than he is 
to-day ; he is, generally speaking, far ahead of his prede- 
cessors of twenty-five years ago, not only from a show point of 
view, but also in working qualities. One has only to com- 
pare the old portraits of specimens of the variety with dogs of 
the present day to see this. A good many individual speci- 
mens of excellent merit, it is true, there were, but they do not 


seem to have been immortalised in this way. The portraits 
of those we do see are mostly representations of awful-looking 
brutes, as bad in shoulders, and light of bone, as they could be ; 
they appear also to have had very soft coats, somewhat akin 
to that we see on a Pomeranian nowadays, though it is true 
this latter fault may have been that of the artist, or probably 
amplified by him. 

Perhaps the strongest kennel of wire-hairs that has existed 
was that owned a good many years ago by Messrs. Maxwell 
and Cassell. Several champions were in the kennel at the 
same time, and they were a sorty lot of nice size, and won 
prizes all over the country. Jack Frost, Jacks Again, Liffey, 
Barton Wonder, Barton Marvel, and several other good ones, 
were inmates of this kennel, the two latter especially being 
high-class terriers, which at one time were owned by Sir H. 
de Trafford. Barton Marvel was a very beautiful bitch, 
and probably the best of those named above, though Barton 
Wonder was frequently put above her. Sir H. de Trafford 
had for years a very good kennel of the variety, and at that 
time was probably the biggest and best buyer. 

Mr. Carrick, of Carlisle, was also a prominent owner years 
ago, and showed some excellent terriers, the best being Carlisle 
Tack, Trick, and Tyro. The latter was an exceptionally 
good dog. 

Mr. Sam Hill, of Sheffield, had also a strong kennel, always 
well shown by George Porter, who is now, and has been for 
some years, in America, where he still follows his old love. 
Mr. Hill's name will ever be associated with that of his great 
dog Meersbrook Bristles, who has undoubtedly done the breed 
a great amount of good. Mr. Mayhew is another old fancier, 
who nearly always showed a good one. Mr. Mayhew has been 
in America now for many years. One dog of his, who it is 
believed became a champion, viz. Brittle, did at one time a 
big business at stud, perhaps not to the advantage of the 
breed, for he was possessed of a very bad fault, in that he had 
what was called a topknot ring, a bunch of soft silky hairs 


on his forehead, an unfailing sign of a soft coat all over, and a 
thing which breeders should studiously avoid. This topknot 
was at one time more prevalent than it is now. Whether it 
is a coincidence or not one cannot say, but it is a fact that in 
the writer's experience several terriers possessed of this fault 
have also blue markings, which again are almost invariably 
accompanied by a soft coat, and taking these two peculiarities 
together it would seem that at some time, years ago, a cross 
with that wonderfully game but exceedingly soft-coated 
terrier, the Bedlington, may have been resorted to, though if 
so it would appear that nowadays any effect of it is gradually 
dying out. 

Mr. George Raper is one of the old fanciers who has for 
many years owned some of the best specimens of the variety, 
Ch. Go Bang perhaps being the most notable. Go Bang was 
a beautiful terrier ; there was no denying his quality. Mr. 
Raper sold him to Mr. G. M. Carnochan, of New York, for 
something like 500, probably the biggest price that has ever 
been pajd for any Fox-terrier. Mr. Hayward Field is another 
gentleman who has been exhibiting the breed for very many 
years, and has owned several good terriers. The late Mr. 
Clear had also at one time a strong kennel, the best of which by 
a long way was Ch. Jack St. Leger. 

Mr. Wharton was a well-known exhibitor and judge some 
time back. It was he who owned that excellent little terrier 
Ch. Bushey Broom, who created quite a furore when first 
exhibited at the Westminster Aquarium. 

Mr. Harding Cox was years ago a great supporter of the 
variety. He exhibited with varying success, and was always 
much in request as a judge ; one knew in entering under him 
that he wanted firstly a terrier, and further that the terrier 
had to be sound. Mr. Cox has of course played a big part in 
the popularisation of the Fox-terrier, for, as all the world 
knows, he was the instigator of the Fox-terrier Club, it being 
founded at a meeting held at his house. His love has ever 
been for the small terrier, and certainly the specimens shown 


by him, whatever their individual faults, were invariably 
a sporting, game-looking lot. Mr. Sidney Castle has for many 
years shown wire-hair Fox-terriers of more than average merit ; 
and thoroughly understands the variety, indeed, perhaps as 
well as anybody. Messrs. Bartle, Brumby Mutter, G. Welch, 
and S. Wilson, are all old fanciers who have great experience, 
have bred and shown excellent specimens. 

In mentioning the names of celebrated men and terriers 
of years gone by, reference must be made to a terrier shown 
some time ago, which was as good, taken all round, as any 
that have so far appeared. This was Ch. Quantock Nettle, 
afterwards purchased by a gentleman in Wales and renamed 
Lexden Nettle. Of correct size, with marvellous character, 
an excellent jacket and very takingly marked with badger 
tan and black on a wonderful head and ears, this bitch swept 
the board, as they say, and unquestionably rightly so. 

No article on the wire-hair Fox-terrier would be complete 
without mentioning the name of the late Mr. S. E. Shirley, 
President of the Kennel Club. Mr. Shirley was a successful 
exhibitor in the early days of the variety, and while his 
terriers were a good-looking lot, though not up to the show 
form of to-day, they were invariably hard-bitten, game dogs, 
kept chiefly for work. 

On the question of size nearly all the principal judges of 
the Fox-terrier are agreed. Their maxim is " a good little 
one can always beat a good big one." The difficulty arises 
when the little ones are no good, and the big ones are excel- 
lent ; it is a somewhat common occurrence, and to anyone 
who loves a truly formed dog, and who knows what a truly 
formed dog can do, it is an extremely difficult thing to put 
the little above the larger. All big dogs with properly placed 
shoulders and sound formation are better terriers for work of 
any sort than dogs half their size, short on the leg, but bad 
in these points. It is in reality impossible to make an inexor- 
able rule about this question of size ; each class must be 
judged on its own merits. 


THERE is perhaps no breed of dog that in so short a time has 
been improved so much as the Airedale. He is now a very 
beautiful animal, whereas but a few years back, although 
maybe there were a few fairly nice specimens, by far the greater 
number were certainly the reverse of this. 

In place of the shaggy, soft-coated, ugly-coloured brute 
with large hound ears and big full eyes, we have now a very 
handsome creature, possessing all the points that go to make 
a really first-class terrier of taking colour, symmetrical build, 
full of character and " go," amply justifying in looks, at 
any rate its existence as a terrier. 

Whether it is common sense to call a dog weighing 40 Ib. 
to 50 Ib. a terrier is a question that one often hears discussed. 
The fact remains the dog is a terrier a sort of glorified edition 
of what we understand by the word, it is true, but in points, 
looks, and character, a terrier nevertheless, and it is impossible 
otherwise to classify him. 

People will ask : " How can he be a terrier ? Why he is 
an outrage on the very word, which can only mean a dog to 
go to ground ; and to what animal in the country of his birth 
can an Airedale go to ground ? " Above ground and in water, 
however, an Airedale can, and does, perform in a very excellent 
manner everything that any other terrier can do. As a water 
dog he is, of course, in his element ; for work on land requiring 
a hard, strong, fast and resolute terrier he is, needless to say, 
of great value ; and he is said to be also, when trained as can 
easily be imagined when one considers his power of scent, his 



strength, sagacity, and speed a most excellent gun-dog. He 
is, in fact, a general utility dog, for add to the above-mentioned 
qualities those of probably an incomparable guard and a 
most excellent companion, faithful and true, and ask yourself 
what do you want more, and what breed of dog, taken all 
round, can beat him ? 

The Airedale is not of ancient origin. He was probably first 
heard of about the year 1850. He is undoubtedly the product 
of the Otterhound and the old Black and Tan wire-haired 
terrier referred to in the chapters on the wire-hair Fox and the 
Welsh Terriers. When one considers the magnificent noble- 
ness, the great sagacity, courage, and stateliness of the Otter- 
hound, the great gameness, cheek, and pertinacity of the old 
Black and Tan wire-hair, such a cross must surely produce an 
animal of excellent type and character. 

Yorkshire, more especially that part of it round and about 
the town of Otley, is responsible for the birth of the Airedale. 
The inhabitants of the country of broad acres are, and always 
have been, exceedingly fond of any kind of sport as, 
indeed, may also be said of their brothers of the Red Rose 
but if in connection with that sport a dog has to be introduced, 
then indeed are they doubly blessed, for they have no compeers 
at the game. 

Otter-hunting was formerly much indulged in by the people 
living in the dales of the Aire and the Wharfe, and not only were 
packs of Otterhounds kept, but many sportsmen maintained 
on their own account a few hounds for their personal delecta- 
tion. These hounds were no doubt in some instances a non- 
descript lot, as, indeed, are several of the packs hunting the 
otter to-day, but there was unquestionably a good deal of 
Otterhound blood in them, and some pure bred hounds were 
also to be found. Yorkshire also has always been the great 
home of the terrier. Fox-terriers, as we now know them, had 
at this time hardly been seen. The terrier in existence then 
was the Black and Tan wire-hair, a hardy game terrier, a great 
workman on land or in water. 


Whether by design or accident is not known, but the fact 
remains that in or about the year mentioned a cross took place 
between these same hounds and terriers. It was found that 
a handier dog was produced for the business for which he was 
required, and it did not take many years to populate the district 
with these terrier-hounds, which soon came to be recognised 
as a distinct breed. The Waterside Terrier was the name first 
vouchsafed to the new variety. After this they went by the 
name of Bingley Terriers, and eventually they came to be 
known under their present appellation. 

The specimens of the Airedale which were first produced 
were not of very handsome appearance, being what would now 
be called bad in colour, very shaggy coated, and naturally 
big and ugly in ear. It, of course, took some time to breed 
the hound out at all satisfactorily ; some authorities tell us 
that for this purpose the common fighting pit Bull-terrier 
and also the Irish Terrier were used, the latter to a considerable 
extent ; and whether this is correct or not there is no doubt 
that there would also be many crosses back again into the 
small Black and Tan Terrier, primarily responsible for his 

In about twenty years' time, the breed seems to have 
settled down and become thoroughly recognised as a variety 
of the terrier. It was not, however, for some ten years after 
this that classes were given for the breed at any representative 
show. In 1883 the committee of the National Show at Birm- 
ingham included three classes for Airedales in their schedule, 
which were fairly well supported ; and three years after this 
recognition was given to the breed in the stud-book of the ruling 

From this time on the breed prospered pretty well ; several 
very good terriers were bred, the hound gradually almost 
disappeared, as also did to a great extent the bad-coloured 
ones. The best example amongst the early shown dogs was 
undoubtedly Newbold Test, who had a long and very success- 
ful career. This dog excelled in terrier character, and he was 


sound all over ; his advent was opportune he was just the 
dog that was wanted, and there is no doubt he did the breed 
a great amount of good. 

A dog called Colne Crack, who was a beautiful little terriers 
was another of the early shown ones by whom the breed has 
lostjiothing, and two other terriers whose names are much 
revered by lovers of the breed are Cholmondeley Briar and 
Briar Test. 

Some years ago, when the breed was in the stage referred to 
above, a club was formed to look after its interests, and there 
is no doubt that though perhaps phenomenal success did not 
attend its efforts, it did its best, and forms a valuable link in the 
chain of popularity of the Airedale. It was at best apparently 
a sleepy sort of concern, and never seems to have attracted 
new fanciers. Some dozen or so years ago, however, a club, des- 
tined not only to make a great name for itself, but also to do 
a thousandfold more good to the breed it espouses than ever 
the old club did, was formed under the name of the South of 
England Airedale Terrier Club, and a marvellously successful 
and popular life it has so far lived. The younger club was in 
no way an antagonist of the older one, and it has ever been 
careful that it should not be looked upon in any way as such. 
The old club has, however, been quite overshadowed by the 
younger, which, whether it wishes it or not, is now looked upon 
as the leading society in connection with the breed. 

At a meeting of the first club which went by the name of 
the Airedale Terrier Club held in Manchester some eighteen 
or twenty years ago, the following standard of perfection 
and scale of points was drawn up and adopted : 

Head Long, with flat skull, but not too broad between the ears, 
narrowing slightly to the eyes, free from wrinkle ; stop hardly visible, 
and cheeks free from fullness ; jaw deep and powerful, well filled up 
before the eyes ; lips light ; ears V-shaped with a side carriage, small 
but not out of proportion to the size of the dog ; the nose black ; the 
eyes small and dark in colour, not prominent, and full of terrier ex- 
pression ; the teeth strong and level. The neck should be of moderate 
length and thickness, gradually widening towards the shoulders and 
free from throatiness. Shoulders and Chest Shoulders long and sloping 


well into the back, shoulder-blades flat, chest deep, but not broad. 
Body Back short, strong and straight ; ribs well sprung. Hind- 
quarters Strong and muscular, with no drop ; hocks well let down ; 
the tail set on high and carried gaily, but not curled over the back. 
Legs and Feet Legs perfectly straight, with plenty of bone ; feet 
small and round with good depth of pad. Coat Hard and wiry, and 
not so long as to appear ragged ; it should also be straight and close, 
covering the dog well over the body and legs. Colour The head and 
ears, with the exception of dark markings on each side of the skull, 
should be tan, the ears being a darker shade than the rest, the legs up 
to the thigh and elbows being also tan, the body black or dark grizzle. 
Weight Dogs 40 Ib. to 45 lb., bitches slightly less. 

At the time of the formation of the Southern club the 
state of the Airedale was critical ; possessed of perhaps 
unequalled natural advantages, lovely dog as he is, he had not 
made that progress that he should have done. He had not 
been boomed in any way, and had been crawling when he 
should have galloped. From the moment the new club was 
formed, however, the Airedale had a new lease of life. Mr. 
Holland Buckley and other keen enthusiasts seem to have 
recognised to a nicety exactly what was required to give 
a necessary fillip to the breed ; they appear also to have 
founded their club at the right moment, and to have offered 
such an attractive bill of fare, that not only did everyone in 
the south who had anything to do with Airedales join at once, 
but very shortly a host of new fanciers was enrolled, and 
crowds of people began to take the breed up who had had 
nothing to do with it, or, indeed, any other sort of dog 

Some few years after the foundation of this club, a junior 
branch of it was started, and this, ably looked after by Mr. R. 
Lauder McLaren, is almost as big a success in its way as is 
the parent institution. Other clubs have been started in the 
north and elsewhere, and altogether the Airedale is very 
well catered for in this respect, and, if things go on as they are 
now going, is bound to prosper and become even more exten- 
sively owned than he is at present. To Mr. Holland Buckley, 
Mr. G. H. Elder, Mr. Royston Mills, and Mr. Marshall Lee, 
the Airedale of the present day owes much. 


The Airedales that have struck the writer as the best he 
has come across are Master Briar, Clonmel Monarch, Clonmel 
Marvel, Dumbarton Lass, Tone Masterpiece, Mistress Royal, 
Master Royal, Tone Chief, Huckleberry Lass, Fielden Fashion, 
York Sceptre and Clonmel Floriform. Nearly every one of 
these is now, either in the flesh or spirit, in the United States 
or Canada. 

In all probability, the person who knows more about this 
terrier than anyone living is Mr. Holland Buckley. He has 
written a most entertaining book on the Airedale ; he has 
founded the principal club in connection with the breed ; he 
has produced several very excellent specimens, and it goes 
without saying that he is when he can be induced to " take 
the ring " a first-rate judge. Mr. Buckley has frequently 
told the writer that in his opinion one of the best terriers he 
has seen was the aforesaid Clonmel Floriform, but, as this 
dog was sold for a big price very early in his career, the writer 
never saw him. 

Most of the articles that have been written on the Airedale 
have come from the pen of Mr. Buckley, and therefore but 
modest reference is made to the man who has worked so 
whole-heartedly, so well, and so successfully in the interests 
of the breed he loves. It would be ungenerous and unfair 
in any article on the Airedale, written by anyone but Mr. 
Buckley, if conspicuous reference were not made to the great 
power this gentleman has been, and to the great good that he 
has done. 

The Airedale is such a beautiful specimen of the canine 
race, and is, in reality, in such healthy state, that every one of 
his admirers and they are legion is naturally jealous for 
his welfare, and is wishful that all shall go well with him. 
It is gratifying to state that he has never been the tool of 
faction, though at one time he was doubtless near the brink ; 
but this was some time ago, and it would be a grievous pity 
if he ever again became in jeopardy of feeling the baneful 
influence of any such curse. 


There is one serious matter in connection with him, however, 
and that is the laxity displayed by some judges of the breed 
in giving prizes to dogs shown in a condition, with regard to 
their coats, which ought to disentitle them to take a prize 
in any company. Shockingly badly-trimmed shoulders are 
becoming quite a common thing to see in Airedales. There 
is no necessity for this sort of thing ; it is very foolish, and it 
is impossible to imagine anything more likely to do harm to a 
breed than that the idea should get abroad that this is the 
general practice in connection with it. 


THIS games! of all the terriers has been known as a distinct 
and thoroughly British breed for over a century, which is, 
I think, a fairly ancient lineage. There are various theories 
as to its original parentage, but the one which holds that he 
was the result of a cross between the Otterhound and the 
Dandie Dinmont suggests itself to me as the most probable 
one. His characteristics strongly resemble in many points 
both these breeds, and there can be but little doubt of his 
near relationship at some time or other to the Dandie. 

The earliest authentic record we have of the Bedlington 
was a dog named Old Flint, who belonged to Squire Trevelyan, 
and was whelped in 1782. The pedigree of Mr. William 
Clark's Scamp, a dog well known about 1792, is traced back 
to Old Flint, and the descendants of Scamp were traced in 
direct line from 1792 to 1873. 

A mason named Joseph Aynsley has the credit for giving 
the name of " Bedlington " to this terrier in 1825. It was 
previously known as the Rothbury Terrier, or the Northern 
Counties Fox-terrier. Mr. Thomas J. Pickett, of Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, was perhaps the earliest supporter of the breed on a 
large scale, and his Tynedale and Tyneside in especial have 
left their names in the history of the Bedlington. 

The present day Bedlington, like a good many other 
terriers, has become taller and heavier than the old day 
specimens. This no doubt is due to breeding for show points. 
He is a lathy dog, but not shelly, inclined to be flatsided, 
somewhat light in bone for his size, very lively in character, 



and has plenty of courage. If anything, indeed, his pluck is 
too insistent. 

The standard of points as adopted by the National Bedling- 
ton Terrier and The Yorkshire Bedlington Terrier Clubs is as 
follows : 

Skull Narrow, but deep and rounded ; high at the occiput, and 
covered with a nice silky tuft or topknot. Muzzle Long, tapering, 
sharp and muscular, as little stop as possible between the eyes, so as 
to form nearly a line from the nose-end along the joint of skull to the 
occiput. The lips close fitting and without flew. Eyes Should be 
small and well sunk in the head. The blues should have a dark eye, 
the blues and tans ditto, with amber shades ; livers and sandies, a 
light brown eye. Nose Large, well angled ; blues and blues and tans 
should have black noses, livers and sandies flesh-coloured. Teeth 
Level or pincher-jawed. Ears Moderately large, well formed, flat 
to the cheek, thinly covered and tipped with fine silky hair. They 
should be filbert shaped. Legs Of moderate length, not wide apart, 
straight and square set, and with good-sized feet, which are rather long. 
Tail Thick at the root, tapering to a point, slightly feathered on 
lower side, 9 inches to 11 inches long and scimitar shaped. Neck and 
Shoulders Neck long, deep at base, rising well from the shoulders, 
which should be flat. Body Long and well-proportioned, flat ribbed, 
and deep, not wide in chest, slightly arched back, well ribbed up, with 
light quarters. Coat Hard, with close bottom, and not lying flat to 
sides. Colour Dark blue, blue and tan, liver, liver and tan, sandy, 
or sandy and tan. Height About 15 inches to 16 inches. Weight 
Dogs about 24 pounds ; bitches about 22 pounds. General Appearance 
He is a light-made, lathy dog, but not shelly. 

There is a tendency nowadays towards excess of size in 
the Bedlington. It is inclined to be too long in the body and 
too leggy, which, if not checked, will spoil the type of the 
breed. It is, therefore, very important that size should be 
more studied by judges than is at present the case. The faults 
referred to are doubtless the result of breeding for exception- 
ally long heads, which seem to be the craze just now, and, of 
course, one cannot get extra long heads without proportion- 
ately long bodies and large size. If it were possible to do so, 
then the dog would become a mere caricature. 

As a sporting terrier the Bedlington holds a position in the 
first rank. He is very fast and enduring, and exceedingly 
pertinacious, and is equally at home on land and in water. 
He will work an otter, draw a badger, or bolt a fox, and he has 


no superior at killing rats and all kinds of vermin. He has 
an exceptionally fine nose, and makes a very useful dog for 
rough shooting, being easily taught to retrieve. If he has 
any fault at all, it is that he is of too jealous a disposition, 
which renders it almost impossible to work him with other 
dogs, as he wants all the fun to himself, and if he cannot get it 
he will fight for it. But by himself he is perfect. As a com- 
panion he is peculiarly affectionate and faithful, and remark- 
ably intelligent ; he makes a capital house-dog, is a good guard 
and is very safe with children. 

Bedlingtons are not dainty feeders, as most writers have 
asserted, nor are they tender dogs. If they are kept in good 
condition and get plenty of exercise they feed as well as any 
others, and are as hard as nails if not pampered. They are 
easy to breed and rear, and the bitches make excellent mothers. 
If trained when young they are very obedient, and their 
tendency to fight can in a great measure be cured when they 
are puppies ; but, if not checked then, it cannot be done 
afterwards. Once they take to fighting nothing will keep them 
from it, and instead of being pleasurable companions they 
become positive nuisances. On the other hand, if properly 
broken they give very little trouble, and will not quarrel 
unless set upon. 


THE dare-devil Irish Terrier has most certainly made his 
home in our bosom. There is no breed of dog more genuinely 
loved by those who have sufficient experience and knowledge 
to make the comparison. Other dogs have a larger share 
of innate wisdom, others are most aesthetically beautiful, 
others more peaceable ; but our rufous friend has a way of 
winning into his owner's heart and making there an abiding 
place which is all the more secure because it is gained by 
sincere and undemonstrative devotion. Perhaps one likes 
him equally for his faults as for his merits. His very failings 
are due to his soldierly faithfulness and loyalty, to his too 
ardent vigilance in guarding the threshold, to his officious 
belligerence towards other canines who offend his sense of 
proprietorship in his master. ^ His particular stature may have 
some influence in his success as a chum. He is just|tall 
enough to rest his chin upon one's knee and look up with all 
his soul into one's eyes. Whatever be the secret of his 
attraction 'tis certain that he has the Hibernian art of com- 
pelling affection and forgiveness, and that he makes one 
value him, not for the beauty of his ruddy raiment, the 
straightness of his fore-legs, the set of his eye and ear, the 
levelness of his back, or his ability to win prizes, but rather 
for his true and trusty heart, that exacts no return and 
seeks no recompense. He may be but an indifferent specimen 
of his kind, taken in as a stranger at the gates ; but when 
at length the inevitable time arrives, as it does all too soon in 
canine nature, one then discovers how surely one has been 
harbouring an angel unawares. 



Statistics would probably show that in numbers the Fox- 
terrier justifies the reputation of being a more popular breed, 
and the Scottish Terrier is no doubt a formidable competitor 
for public esteem. It is safe, however, to say that the Irish 
Terrier shares with these the distinction of being one of the 
three most popular terriers in the British Isles. 

This fact taken into consideration, it is interesting to reflect 
that thirty years ago the " Dare-Devil " was virtually unknown 
in England. Idstone, in his book on dogs, published in 1872 
did not give a word of mention to the breed, and dog shows 
had been instituted sixteen years before a class was opened for 
the Irish Terrier. The dog existed, of course, in its native 
land. It may indeed be almost truthfully said to have existed 
" as long as that country has been an island." 

About the year 1875, experts were in dispute over the Irish 
Terrier, and many averred that his rough coat and length of 
hair on forehead and muzzle were indubitable proof of Scotch 
blood. His very expression, they said, was Scotch. But 
the argument was quelled by more knowing disputants on the 
other side, who claimed that Ireland had never been without 
her terrier, and that she owed no manner of indebtedness to 
Scotland for a dog whose every hair was essentially Irish. 

In the same year at a show held in Belfast a goodly number 
of the breed were brought together, notable among them 
being Mr. D. O'Connell's Slasher, a very good-looking wire- 
coated working terrier, who is said to have excelled as a field 
and water dog. Slasher was lint white in colour, and reputed 
to be descended from a pure white strain. Two other terriers 
of the time were Mr. Morton's Fly (the first Irish Terrier to 
gain a championship) and Mr. George Jamison's Sport. 

The prominent Irish Terriers of the 'seventies varied con- 
siderably in type. Stinger, who won the first prize at Lisburn 
in 1875, was long-backed and short-legged, with a " dark 
blue grizzle coloured back, tan legs, and white turned-out 
feet." The dam of Mr. Burke's Killeney Boy was a rough 
black and tan, a combination of colours which was believed to 


accompany the best class of coats. Brindles were not un- 
common. Some were tall on the leg, some short ; some were 
lanky and others cobby; many were very small. There 
were classes given at a Dublin show in 1874 for Irish Terriers 
under 9 Ib. weight. 

Jamison's Sport is an important dog historically, for various 
reasons. He was undoubtedly more akin to our present type 
than any other Irish Terrier of his time of which there is 
record. His dark ears were uncropped at a period when cropp- 
ing was general ; his weight approximated to our modern 
average. He was an all coloured red, and his legs were of a 
length that would not now be seriously objected to. But in 
his day he was not accepted as typical, and he was not 
particularly successful in the show ring. The distinguished 
terrier of his era was Burke 's Killeney Boy, to whom, 
and to Mr. W. Graham's bitch Erin, with whom he was 
mated, nearly all the pedigrees of the best Irish Terriers 
of to-day date back. Erin was said to be superior in all 
respects to any of her breed previous to 1880. In her first 
litter by Killeney Boy were Play Boy, Pretty Lass, Poppy, 
Gerald, Pagan II., and Peggy, every one of whom became 
famous. More than one of these showed the black markings of 
their granddam, and their progeny for several generations 
were apt to throw back to the black-and-tan, grey, or brindle 
colouring. Play Boy and Poppy were the best of Erin's first 
litter. The dog's beautiful ears, which were left as Nature 
made them, were transmitted to his son Bogie Rattler, who 
was sire of Bachelor and Benedict, the latter the most successful 
stud dog of his time. Poppy had a rich red coat, and this 
colour recurred with fair regularity in her descendants. Red, 
which had not at first been greatly appreciated, came gradu- 
ally to be the accepted colour of an Irish Terrier's jacket. 
Occasionally it tended towards flaxen ; occasionally to a deep 
rich auburn ; but the black and brindle were so rigidly bred 
out that by the year 1890, or thereabout, they very seldom 
recurred. Nowadays it is not often that any other colour 


than red is seen in a litter of Irish Terriers, although a white 
patch on the breast is frequent, as it is in all self-coloured 

In addition to the early celebrities already named, Extreme 
Carelessness, Michael, Brickbat, Poppy II., Moya Doolan, 
Straight Tip, and Gaelic have taken their places in the records 
of the breed, while yet more recent Irish Terriers who have 
achieved fame have been Mrs. Butcher's Bawn Boy and Bawn 
Beauty, Mr. Wallace's Treasurer, Mr. S. Wilson's Bolton 
Woods Mixer, Dr. Smyth's Sarah Kidd, and Mr. C. J. Barnett's 
Breda Muddler. 

Naturally in the case of a breed which has departed from its 
original type, discussions were frequent before a standard of 
perfection for the Irish Terrier was fixed. His size and weight, 
the length or shortness of his limbs, the carriage of his tail, the 
form of his skull and muzzle, the colour and texture of his 
coat were the subjects of controversy. It was considered at 
one juncture that he was being bred too big, and at another 
that he was being brought too much to resemble a red wire- 
hair Fox-terrier. When once the black marking on his body 
had been eliminated no one seems to have desired that it 
should be restored. Red was acknowledged to be the one 
and only colour for an Irish Terrier. But some held that 
the correct red should be deep auburn, and others that 
wheaten colour was the tone to be aimed at. A medium 
shade between the two extremes is now generally preferred. 
As to size, it should be about midway between that of the 
Airedale and the Fox-terrier, represented by a weight of from 
22 to 27 Ib. 

The two breeds just mentioned are, as a rule, superior to 
the Irish Terrier in front legs, and feet, but in the direction 
of these points great improvements have recently been ob- 
servable. The heads of our Irish Terriers have also been 
brought nearer to a level of perfection, chiselled to the desired 
degree of leanness, with the determined expression so character- 
istic of the breed, and with the length, squareness, and strength 


of muzzle which formerly were so difficult to find. This 
squareness of head and jaw is an important point to be 
considered when choosing an Irish Terrier. 

Opinions differ in regard to slight details of this terrier's 
conformation, but the official description, issued by the 
Irish Terrier Club, supplies a guide upon which the uncertain 
novice may implicitly depend : 

Head Long ; skull flat, and rather narrow between ears, getting 
slightly narrower towards the eye ; free from wrinkles ; stop hardly 
visible except in profile. The jaw must be strong and muscular, but 
not too full in the cheek, and of a good punishing length. There should 
be a slight falling away below the eye, so as not to have a Greyhound 
appearance. Hair on face of same description as on body, but short 
(about a quarter of an inch long), in appearance almost smooth and 
straight ; a slight beard is the only longish hair (and it is only long in 
comparison with the rest) that is permissible, and this is characteristic. 
Teeth Should be strong and level. Lips Not so tight as a Bull- 
terrier's, but well-fitting, showing through the hair their black lining. 
Nose Must be black. Eyes A dark hazel colour, small, not promi- 
nent, and full of life, fire, and intelligence. Ears Small and V-shaped, 
of moderate thickness, set well on the head, and dropping forward 
closely to the cheek. The ear must be free of fringe, and the hair 
thereon shorter and darker in colour than the body. Neck Should be 
of a fair length, and gradually widening towards the shoulders, well 
carried, and free of throatiness. There is generally a slight sort of frill 
visible at each side of the neck, running nearly to the corner of the ear. 
Shoulders and Chest Shoulders must be fine, long, and sloping well 
into the back ; the chest deep and muscular, but neither full nor 
wide. Back and Loin Body moderately long; back should be strong 
and straight, with no appearance of slackness behind the shoulders ; 
the loin broad and powerful, and slightly arched ; ribs fairly sprung, 
rather deep than round, and well ribbed back. Hind-quarters 
Should be strong and muscular, thighs powerful, hocks near ground, 
stifles moderately bent. Stern Generally docked ; should be free 
of fringe or feather, but well covered with rough hair, set on pretty 
high, carried gaily, but not over the back or curled. Feet and Legs 
Feet should be strong, tolerably round, and moderately small ; toes 
arched, and neither turned out nor in ; black toe nails most desirable. 
Legs moderately long, well set from the shoulders, perfectly straight, 
-with plenty of bone and muscle ; the elbows working freely clear of 
the sides ; pasterns short and straight, hardly noticeable. Both 
fore and hind legs should be moved straight forward when travelling, 
the stifles not turned outwards, the legs free of feather, and covered, 
like the head, with as hard a texture of coat as body, but not so long. 
Coat Hard and wiry, free of softness or silkiness, not so long as to hide 
the outlines of the body, particularly in the hind-quarters, straight and 
flat, no shagginess, and free of lock or curl. Colour Should be " whole- 
coloured," the most preferable being bright red, red, wheaten, or yellow 


red. White sometimes appears on chest and feet ; it is more ob 
jectionable on the latter than on the chest, as a speck of white on chest 
is frequently to be seen in all self-coloured breeds. Size and Symmetry 
The most desirable weight in show condition is, for a dog 24 lb., and 
for a bitch 22 lb. The dog must present an active, lively, lithe, and 
wiry appearance ; lots of substance, at the same time free of clumsiness, 
as speed and endurance, as well as power, are very essential. They 
must be neither cloddy or cobby, but should be framed on the lines of 
speed, showing a graceful racing outline. Temperament Dogs that 
are very game are usually surly or snappish. The Irish Terrier as 
a breed is an exception, being remarkably good-tempered, notably 
so with mankind, it being admitted, however, that he is perhaps a little 
too ready to resent interference on the part of other dogs. There is a 
heedless, reckless pluck about the Irish Terrier which is characteristic. 
and, coupled with the headlong dash, blind to all consequences, with 
which he rushes at his adversary, has earned for the breed the proud 
epithet of " The Dare-Devils." When " off-duty " they are char- 
acterised by a quiet, caress-inviting appearance, and when one sees 
them endearingly, timidly pushing their heads into their masters' hands, 
it is difficult to realise that on occasions, at the " set on/' they can 
prove they have the courage of a lion, and will fight unto the last 
breath In their bodies. They develop an extraordinary devotion to 
and have been known to track their masters almost incredible 

It is difficult to refer to particular Irish Terriers of to-day 
without making invidious distinctions. There are so many 
excellent examples of the breed that a list even of those who 
have gained championship honours would be formidable. 
But one would hardly hesitate to head the list with the name 
of Paymaster, a dog of rare and almost superlative quality 
and true Irish Terrier character. Paymaster is the property 
of Miss Lilian Paull, of Weston-super-Mare, who bred him 
from her beautiful bitch Erasmic from Breda Muddler, the sire 
of many of the best. Side by side with Paymaster, Mr. F. 
Clifton's Mile End Barrister might be placed. It would need 
a council of perfection, indeed, to decide which is the better 
dog of the two. Very high in the list, also, would come Mr. 
Henry Ridley's Redeemer and Mr. Breakell's Killarney Sport. 
And among bitches one would name certainly Mr. Gregg's 
Belfast Erin, Mr. Clifton's Charwoman, Mr. Everill's Erminie, 
and Mr. J. S. McComb's Beeston Betty. These are but half 
a dozen, but they represent the highest level of excellence 


that has yet been achieved by scientific breeding in Irish 
Terrier type. 

Breeding up to the standard of excellence necessary in 
competition in dog shows has doubtless been the agent which 
has brought the Irish Terrier to its present condition of per- 
fection, and it is the means by which the general dog owning 
public is most surely educated to a practical knowledge of 
what is a desirable and what an undesirable dog to possess. 
But, after all, success in the show ring is not the one and only 
thing to be aimed at, and the Irish Terrier is not to be regarded 
merely as the possible winner of prizes. He is above all things 
a dog for man's companionship, and in this capacity he takes 
a favoured place. He has the great advantage of being equally 
suitable for town and country life. In the home he requires 
no pampering ; he has a good, hardy constitution, and when 
once he has got over the ills incidental to puppyhood 
worms and distemper he needs only to be judiciously fed, 
kept reasonably clean, and to have his fill of active exercise. 
If he is taught to be obedient and of gentlemanly habit, there 
is no better house dog. He is naturally intelligent and easily 
trained. Although he is always ready to take his own part, 
he is not quarrelsome, but remarkably good-tempered and a 
safe associate of children. Perhaps with his boisterous spirits 
he is prone sometimes to be over-zealous in the pursuit 
of trespassing tabbies and in assailing the ankles of intruding 
butcher boys and officious postmen. These characteristics 
come from his sense of duty, which is strongly developed, 
and careful training will make him discriminative in his 

Very justly is he classed among the sporting dogs. He is a 
born sportsman, and of his pluck it were superfluous to speak. 
Fear is unknown to him. In this characteristic as in all others,, 
he is truly a son of Erin. 


THIS breed is near akin to the wire-hair Fox-terrier, the 
principal differences being merely of colour and type. The 
Welsh Terrier is a wire-haired black or grizzle and tan. The 
most taking colouring is a jet black body and back with deep 
tan head, ears, legs, belly, and tail. Several specimens have, 
however, black foreheads, skulls, ears, and tail, and the 
black will frequently be seen also extending for a short way 
down the legs. There must be no black, however, below the 
hock, and there must be no substantial amount of white any- 
where ; a dog possessing either of these faults is, according 
to the recognised standard of the breed, disqualified. Many 
of the most successful bench winners have, nevertheless, 
been possessed of a little white on the chest and even a few 
hairs of that colour on their hind toes, and, apparently, by 
the common consent of all the judges of the breed, they have 
been in nowise handicapped for these blemishes. 

There are not so many grizzle coloured Welsh Terriers now 
as there used to be. A grizzle and tan never looks so smart 
as a black and tan ; but though this is so, if the grizzle is 
of a dark hard colour, its owner should not be handicapped as 
against a black and tan ; if, on the contrary, it is a washed- 
out, bluish-looking grizzle, a judge is entitled to handicap its 
possessor, apart altogether from the fact that any such colour 
on the back is invariably accompanied by an objectionable 
light tan on the legs, the whole being a certain sign of a soft, 
silky, unterrierlike coat. 

The coat of the Welsh Terrier slightly differs from that of the 
Avire-hair Fox-terrier in that it is, as a rule, not so abundant, 



and is, in reality, a different class of coat. It is not so broken 
as is that of the Fox-terrier, and is generally a smoother, 
shorter coat, with the hairs very close together. When 
accompanied with this there is a dense undercoat, one has, 
for a terrier used to work a good deal in water, an ideal cover- 
ing, as waterproof almost as the feathers on a duck's back. 
The other difference between the Fox and Welsh Terrier viz., 
type is very hard to define. To anyone who really under- 
stands Welsh Terriers, the selection of those of proper type 
from those of wrong type presents little if any difficulty. 

As a show-bench exhibit the Welsh Terrier is not more 
than twenty- two years old. He has, however, resided in 
Wales for centuries. 

There is no doubt that he is in reality identical with the 
old black and tan wire-haired dog which was England's first 
terrier, and which has taken such a prominent part in the 
production and evolution of all the other varieties of the 
sporting terrier. 

There are several people living in or about Carnarvonshire 
who can show that Welsh Terriers have been kept by their 
ancestors from, at any rate, a hundred to two hundred years 
ago. Notable among these is the present master of the Ynysfor 
Otterhounds, whose great grandfather, John Jones, of Ynys- 
for, owned Welsh Terriers in or about the year 1760. This 
pack of Otterhounds has always been kept by the Jones 
of Ynysfor, who have always worked and still work Welsh 
Terriers with them. From this strain some good terriers have 
sprung, and this although neither the present master nor any 
of his ancestors have concerned themselves greatly about the 
looks of their terriers, or kept anything but a head record of 
their pedigrees. They are all, however, pure bred, and are 
set much store on by their owner and his family, just as they 
always have been by their predecessors. 

Until about the year 1884 no one seems to have considered 
the question of putting specimens of the breed on the 
show bench. About that year, however, several gentlemen 


interested in the variety met together to see what could be 
done in connection with the matter, the outcome being that 
the Welsh Terrier Club was shortly afterwards founded, the 
Kennel Club recognised the breed, and the terrier himself 
began his career as a show dog. 

The specimens which were first shown were, as may be 
imagined, not a very high-class-looking lot. Although the 
breed had been kept pure, no care had been taken in the culture 
of it, except that which was necessary to produce a sporting 
game terrier, able to do its work. One can readily understand, 
therefore, that such an entirely " fancy " point as a long 
foreface and narrow, clean skull had never been thought 
of for a moment, and it was in these particulars that the Welsh 
Terrier at first failed, from a show point of view. Naturally 
enough, good shoulders, sound hind-quarters, more than fair 
legs and feet, and excellent jackets were to be found in abund- 
ance, but as the body was almost invariably surmounted by a 
very short and wedge-shaped head and jaw, often accompanied 
with a pair of heavy, round ears, an undershot mouth, and a 
light, full eye, it will be realised that the general appearance 
of the dog was not prepossessing. . 

The Welsh Terrier to-day is very much improved beyond 
what he was when first put on the bench. This improvement 
has been brought about by careful and judicious breeding 
from nothing but pure bred specimens. No outside aid has 
been invoked at any rate in the production of any of the 
best terriers and none has been required. It is a matter for 
great congratulation that the breed has been kept pure 
despite all temptation and exhortation. 

The Welsh Terrier breeds as true as steel ; you know 
what you are going to get. Had popular clamour had its way 
years ago, goodness only know what monstrosities would now 
be being bred. 

The colour of the Welsh Terrier is, of course, against him 
for working with a pack of hounds, especially in water. It 
is only fair, however, to the breed to say that, barring this 


colour drawback, there is no better terrier to hounds living. 
They are not quarrelsome, show very little jealousy one of 
another in working, can therefore easily be used, exercised, and 
kennelled together, being much better in this respect than 
any of the other breeds of terriers. They also, as a general 
rule, are dead game ; they want a bit of rousing, and are not 
so flashily, showily game as, say, the Fox-terrier ; but, just 
as with humans, when it comes to real business, when the talk- 
ing game is played out and there is nothing left but the 
doing part of the business, then one's experience invariably is 
that the quiet man, the quiet terrier, is the animal wanted 

On the formation of the Welsh Terrier Club a standard 
of perfection was drawn up and circulated with the club 
rules. This standard has remained unchanged up to the 
present day, and is as follows : 

Head The skull should be flat and rather wider between the ears 
than the wire-hair Fox-terrier. The jaw should be powerful, clean cut 
rather deeper and more punishing giving the head a more masculine 
appearance than that usually seen in a Fox-terrier. The stop not 
too defined, fair length from stop to end of nose, the latter being of a 
black colour. Ears The ears should be V-shaped, small, not too thin, 
set on fairly high, carried forward, and close to the cheek. Eyes 
The eyes should be small, not being too deeply set in or protruding out 
of skull, of a dark hazel colour, expressive and indicating abundant 
pluck. Neck The neck should be of moderate length and thickness, 
slightly arched and sloping gracefully into the shoulders. Body 
The back should be short and well ribbed up, the loin strong, good 
depth, and moderate width of chest. The shoulders should be long, 
sloping and well set back. The hind-quarters should be strong, thighs 
muscular and of good length, with the hocks moderately straight, well set 
down and fair amount of bone. The stern should be set on moderately 
high, but not too gaily carried. Legs and Feet The legs should be 
straight and muscular, possessing fair amount of bone with upright and 
powerful pasterns. The feet should be small, round and catike. 
Coat The coat should be wiry, hard, very close and abundant. Colour 
The colour should be black and tan or black grizzle and tan, free 
from black pencilling on toes. Size The height at shoulders should 
be 15 inches for dogs, bitches proportionately less. Twenty pounds 
shall be considered a fair average weight in working condition, but this 
may vary a pound or so either way. 

^^DISQUALIFYING POINTS: Nose white, cherry, or spotted to a 
considerable extent with either of these colours. Ears prick, tulip, or 
rose. Undershot jaw or pig jawed mouth. Black below hocks or white 
anywhere to any appreciable extent, black pencilling on toes. 


THE Scottish Terrier as a show dog dates from about 1877 
to 1879. He seems almost at once to have attained popularity, 
and he has progressed gradually since then, ever in an upward 
direction, until he is to-day one of the most popular and 
extensively owned varieties of the dog. Sir Paynton Pigott 
had, at the date mentioned, a very fine kennel of the breed, 
for in The Live Stock Journal of May 30th, 1879, we ^^ ms 
kennel fully reviewed in a most enthusiastic manner by a 
correspondent who visited it in consequence of a controversy 
that was going on at the time, as to whether or not there 
was such a dog at all, and who, therefore, wished to see and 
judge for himself as to this point. At the end of his report on 
the kennel the writer adds these words : "It was certainly one 
of the happiest days of my life to have the pleasure of looking 
over so many grand little dogs, but to find them in England 
quite staggered me. Four dogs and eight bitches are not a 
bad beginning, and with care and judicious selection in 
mating, I have little doubt but Mr. Pigott 's kennel will be as 
renowned for Terriers as the late Mr. Laverack's was for Setters. 
I know but few that take such a delight in the brave little 
' die-hards ' as Mr. Pigott, and he may well feel proud of the 
lot he has got together at great trouble and expense." 

The fact that there was such a kennel already in existence 
proved, of course, a strong point in favour of the bona fides 
of the breed. The best dog in it was Granite, whose portrait 
and description were given in the Journal in connection with 
the said review ; and the other animals of the kennel being of 


I'Uotograph by T. I'ull 




the same type, it was at once recognised that there was, 
in fact, such a breed, and the mouths of the doubters were 

Granite was unquestionably a typical Scottish Terrier, even 
as we know them at the present day. He was certainly longer 
in the back than we care for nowadays, and his head also was 
shorter, and his jaw more snipy than is now seen, but his 
portrait clearly shows he was a genuine Scottish Terrier, 
and there is no doubt that he, with his kennel mates, Tartan, 
Crofter, Syringa, Cavack, and Posey, conferred benefit upon 
the breed. 

To dive deeper into the antiquity of the Scottish Terrier is 
a thing which means that he who tries it must be prepared to 
meet all sorts of abuse, ridicule, and criticism. One man 
will tell you there never was any such thing as the present- 
day Scottish Terrier, that the mere fact of his having prick 
ears shows he is a mongrel ; another, that he is merely an 
offshoot of the Skye or the Dandie ; another, that the only 
Scottish Terrier that is a Scottish Terrier is a white one ; 
another, that he is merely a manufactured article from 
Aberdeen, and so on ad infinitwn. 

It is a most extraordinary fact that Scotland should have 
unto herself so many different varieties of the terrier. There is 
strong presumption that they one and all came originally from 
one variety, and it is quite possible, nay probable, that 
different crosses into other varieties have produced the 
assortment of to-day. The writer is strongly of opinion that 
there still exist in Scotland at the present time specimens 
of the breed which propagated the lot, which was what is 
called even now the Highland Terrier, a little long-backed, 
short-legged, snipy-faced, prick or drop-eared, mostly sandy 
and black-coloured terrier, game as a pebble, lively as a 
cricket, and all in all a most charming little companion ; 
and further, that to produce our present-day Scottish Terrier 
or shall we say, to improve the points of his progenitor ? 
the assistance of our old friend the Black and Tan wire-haired 


terrier of England was sought by a few astute people living 
probably not very far from Aberdeen. 

Scottish Terriers frequently go by the name of Aberdeen 
Terriers an appellation, it is true, usually heard only from 
the lips of people who do not know much about them. Mr. 
W. L. McCandlish, one of the greatest living authorities 
on the breed, in an able treatise published some time back, 
tells us, in reference to this matter, that the terrier under 
notice went at different periods under the names of Highland, 
Cairn, Aberdeen, and Scotch ; that he is now known by the 
proud title of Scottish Terrier ; and that " the only surviving 
trace of the differing nomenclature is the title Aberdeen, which 
many people still regard as a different breed a want of 
knowledge frequently turned to account by the unscrupulous 
dealer who is able to sell under the name of Aberdeen a dog 
too bad to dispose of as a Scottish Terrier." But there can be 
no doubt that originally there must have been some reason for 
the name. In a letter to the writer, Sir Paynton Pigott 
says, " Some people call them and advertise them as the 
Aberdeen Terrier, which is altogether a mistake ; but the 
reason of it is that forty years ago a Dr. Van Bust, who lived in 
Aberdeen, bred these terriers to a large extent and sold themi 
and those buying them called them, in consequence, ' Aberdeen 
Terriers,' whereas they were in reality merely a picked sort 
of Old Scotch or Highland Terrier." Sir Paynton himself, 
as appears from the columns of The Live Stock Journal (March 
2nd, 1877), bought some of the strain of Van Bust, and therein 
gives a full description of the same. 

Sir Paynton Pigott 's kennel of the breed assumed quite 
large proportions, and was most successful, several times 
winning all the prizes offered in the variety at different shows. 
He may well be called the Father of the breed in England, for 
when he gave up exhibiting, a great deal of his best blood 
got into the kennels of Mr. H. J. Ludlow, who, as everyone 
knows, has done such a tremendous amount of good in 
popularising the breed and has also himself produced 


such a galaxy of specimens of the very best class. " Mr. 
Ludlow's first terrier was' a bitch called Splinter II. The 
name of Kildee is, in the breed, almost world-famous, and it is 
interesting to note that in every line does he go back to the 
said Splinter II. Rambler called by the great authorities 
the first pillar of the stud book was a son of a dog called 
Bon-Accord, and it is to this latter dog and Roger Rough, and 
also the aforesaid Tartan and Splinter II. that nearly all of 
the best present-day pedigrees go back. This being so, it 
is unnecessary to give many more names of dogs who have in 
their generations of some years back assisted in bringing the 
breed to its present state of perfection. An exception, how- 
ever, must be made in the case of two sons of Rambler, by 
name Dundee and Alister, names very familiar in the Scottish 
Terrier pedigrees of the present day. Alister especially was 
quite an extraordinary stud dog. His progeny were legion, 
and some very good terriers of to-day own him as progenitor 
in nearly every line. The best descendants of Alister were 
Kildee, Tiree, Whinstone, Prince Alexander, and Heather 
Prince. He was apparently too much inbred to, and though 
he produced or was responsible for several beautiful terriers, 
it is much to be doubted whether in a breed which is suffering 
from the ill-effects of too much inbreeding, he was not one of 
the greatest sinners. 

The Scottish Terrier Club was formed in the year 1882. In the 
same year a joint committee drew up a standard of perfection 
for the breed, Messrs. J. B. Morison and Thomson Gray, 
two gentlemen who were looked upon as great authorities, 
having a good deal to do with it. 

Proportionately long, slightly domed and covered with short hard hair 
about | inch long or less. It should not be quite flat, as there should 
be a sort of stop or drop between the eyes. Muzzle Very powerful, 
and gradually tapering towards the nose, which should always be 
black and of a good size. The jaws should be perfectly level, and the 
teeth square, though the nose projects somewhat over the mouth 
which gives the impression of the upper jaw being longer than the under 
one. Eyes A dark-brown or hazel colour ; small, piercing, very bright 


and rather sunken. Ears Very small, prick or half prick (the former 
is preferable), but never drop. They should also be sharp pointed, 
and the hair on them should not be long, but velvety, and they should 
not be cut. The ears should be free from any fringe at the top. Neck 
Short, thick and muscular ; strongly set on sloping shoulders. Chest 
Broad in comparison to the size of the dog, and proportionately deep. 
Body Of moderate length, but not so long as a Skye's, and' rather 
flat-sided ; well ribbed up, and exceedingly strong in hind-quarters. 
Legs and Feet Both fore and hind legs should be short and very 
heavy in bone, the former being straight and well set on under the body, 
as the Scottish Terrier should not be out at elbows. The hocks should 
be bent, and the thighs very muscular, and the feet strong, small and 
thickly covered with short hair, the fore feet being larger than the 
hind ones. Tall Should be about 7 inches long, never docked, carried 
with a slight bend and often gaily. Coat Should be rather short 
(about 2 inches), intensely hard and wiry in texture, and very dense all 
over the body. Size From 15 Ib. to 20 Ib. ; the best weight being as 
near as possible 18 Ib. for-dogs, and 16 Ib. for bitches when in condition 
for work. Colour Steel or iron grey, black brindle, brown brindle, grey 
brindle, black, sandy and wheaten. White markings are objectionable, 
and can only be allowed on the chest and to a small extent. General 
Appearance The face should wear a very sharp, bright and active 
expression, and the head should be carried up. The dog (owing to the 
shortness of his coat) should appear to be higher on the leg than he 
really is ; but at the same time he should look compact and possessed 
of great muscle in his hind-quarters. In fact, a Scottish Terrier, though 
essentially a terrier, cannot be too powerfully put together, and should 
be from about 9 inches to 12 inches in height. 

SPECIAL FAULTS : Muzzle Either under or over hung. Eyes- 
Large or light-coloured. Ears Large, round at the points or drop. 
It is also a fault if they are too heavily covered with hair. Leffs 
Bent, or slightly bent, and out at elbows. Coat Any silkiness, wave 
or tendency to curl is a serious blemish, as is also an open coat. Size 
Specimens of over 20 Ib. should be discouraged. 

There have, of recent years, been many very excellent 
specimens of the Scottish Terrier bred and exhibited. Pre- 
eminent among them stands Mrs. Hannay's Ch. Heworth 
Rascal, who was a most symmetrical terrier, and probably 
the nearest approach to perfection in the breed yet seen. 
Other very first-class terriers have been the same lady's 
Ch. Gair, Mr. Powlett's Ch. Callum Dhu, Mr. McCandlish's 
Ems Cosmetic, Mr. Chapman's Heather Bob and Heather 
Charm, Mr. Kinnear's Seafield Rascal, Mr. Wood's Hyndman 
Chief, Messrs. Buckley and Mills's Clonmel Invader, and Mr. 
Deane Willis's Ch. Huntley Daisy and Ch. Carter Laddie. 

It is highly probable that of all the terrier tribe, the 


" Scottie," taken as a whole, is the best companion. He 
makes a most excellent house-dog, is not too big, does not 
leave white hairs about all over the place, loves only his master 
and his master's household, and is, withal, a capable and 
reliable guard. He is, as a rule, a game, attractive terrier, 
with heaps of brain power, and from a show point of view 
there is always some recompense in keeping him, as it will be 
found he breeds true to type and does not beget offspring of all 
sorts, shapes, and makes. 


MAN, being a hunting animal, kills the otter for his skin, and 
the badger also ; the fox he kills because the animal likes 
lamb and game to eat. Man, being unable to deal in the course 
of a morning with the rocks under and between which his 
quarry harbours, makes use of the small dog which will go 
underground, to which the French name terrier has been 

Towards the end of the reign of James the First of England 
and Sixth of Scotland, we find him writing to Edinburgh to 
have half a dozen " earth dogges or terrieres " sent care- 
fully to France as a present, and he directs that they be got 
from Argyll, and sent over in two or more ships lest they 
should get harm by the way. That was roughly three hundred 
years ago, and the King most probably would not have so 
highly valued a newly-invented strain as he evidently did 
value the " terrieres " from Argyll. We may take it then 
that in 1600 the Argyllshire terriers were considered to be the 
best in Scotland, and likely enough too, seeing the almost 
boundless opportunities the county gives for the work of the 
" earth dogges." 

But men kept their dogs in the evil pre-show days for work 
and not for points, and mighty indifferent were they whether 
an ear cocked up or lay flat to the cheek, whether the tail was 
exactly of fancy length, or how high to a hair's breadth it 
stood. These things are sine qua non on the modern show 
bench, but were not thought of in the cruel, hard fighting days 
of old. 



In those days two things and two things only were 
imperatively necessary : pluck and capacity to get at the 
quarry. This entailed that the body in which the pluck 
was enshrined must be small and most active, to get at the 
innermost recesses of the lair, and that the body must be pro- 
tected by the best possible teeth and jaws for fighting, on a 
strong and rather long neck and directed by a most capable 
brain. It is held that feet turned out a little are better for 
scrambling up rocks than perfectly straight Fox-terrier like 
feet. In addition, it was useful to have your dog of a colour 
easy to see when in motion, though no great weight was laid 
upon that point, as in the days before newspapers and trains 
men's eyes were good, as a rule. Still, the quantity of white 
in the existing terriers all through the west coast of Scotland 
shows that it must have been rather a favoured colour. 

White West Highland Terriers were kept at Poltalloch sixty 
years ago, and so they were first shown as Poltalloch Terriers. 
Yet although they were kept in their purest strain in 
Argyllshire, they are still to be found all along the west coast 
of Scotland, good specimens belonging to Ross-shire, to Skye, 
and at Baliachulish on Loch Leven, so that it is a breed with 
a long pedigree and not an invented breed of the present day. 
Emphatically, they are not simply white coloured Scottish 
Terriers, and it is an error to judge them on Scottish Terrier 
lines. They are smaller than the average Scottie, more 
" foxy " in general conformation straight limbed, rather 
long, rather low, and active in body, with a broad forehead, 
light muzzle and underjaw, and a bright, small intelligent eye. 
Colonel Malcolm, of Poltalloch, who is recognised as the great 
authority on the breed, lays stress upon the quality of the coat. 
" The outer coat," he says, " should be very soft on the fore- 
head and get gradually harder towards the haunches, but the 
harsh coat beloved of the show bench is all nonsense, and is the 
easiest thing in the world to ' fake/ as any one can try who will 
dip his own hair into the now fashionable ' anturic ' baths. 
The outer coat should be distinctly long, but not long in the 


' fancy ' or show sense. Still, it should be long enough 
to hang as a thatch over the soft, woolly real coat of the animal- 
and keep it dry so that a good shake or two will throw off 
most of the water ; while the under coat should be so thick 
and naturally oily that the dog can swim through a fair- 
sized river and not get wet, or be able to sit out through a 
drenching rain guarding something of his master's and be 
none the worse. This under coat I, at least, have never seen 
a judge look for, but for the working terrier it is most important. 
The size of the dog is perhaps best indicated by weight. The 
dog should not weigh more than 18 lb., nor the bitch more 
than 16 lb. 

" There is among judges, I find with all respect I say it 
an undue regard for weight and what is called strength, also 
for grooming, which means brushing or plucking out all the 
long hair to gratify the judge. One might as well judge of 
Sandow's strength, not by his performances, but by the kind 
of wax he puts on his moustache ! 

" The West Highland Terrier of the old sort I do not, of 
course, speak of bench dogs earned their li ving following fox, 
badger, or otter wherever these went underground, between, 
over, or under rocks that no man could get at to move, and 
some of such size that a hundred men could not move them. 
(And oh ! the beauty of their note when they came across the 
right scent !) I want my readers to understand this, and not 
to think of a Highland fox-cairn as if it were an English fox- 
earth dug in sand ; nor of badger work as if it were a question 
of locating the badger and then digging him out. No ; the 
badger makes his home amongst rocks, the small ones perhaps 
two or three tons in weight, and probably he has his ' hinner 
end ' against one of three or four hundred tons no digging 
him out and, moreover, the passages between the rocks 
must be taken as they are ; no scratching them a little wider. 
So if your dog's ribs are a trifle too big he may crush one or 
two through the narrow slit and then stick. He will never be 
able to pull himself back at least, until starvation has so 


reduced him that he will probably be unable, if set free, to win 
(as we say in Scotland) his way back to the open. 

" I remember a tale of one of my father's terriers who got so 
lost. The keepers went daily to the cairn hoping against hope. 
At last one day a pair of bright eyes were seen at the bottom 
of a hole. They did not disappear when the dog's name was 
called. A brilliant idea seized one of the keepers. The 
dog evidently could not get up, so a rabbit skin was folded 
into a small parcel round a stone and let down by a string. 
The dog at once seized the situation and the skin held on, 
was drawn up, and fainted on reaching the mouth of the hole. 
He was carried home tenderly and nursed ; he recovered." 

Referring to the characteristics of this terrier, Colonel 
Malcolm continues : " Attention to breeding as to colour has 
undoubtedly increased the whiteness, but, other points being 
good, a dog of the West Highland White Terrier breed is not 
to be rejected if he shows his descent by a slight degree of 
pale red or yellow on his back or his ears. I know an old 
Argyllshire family who consider that to improve their terriers 
they ought all to have browny yellow ears. Neither again, 
except for the show bench, is there the slightest objection to 
half drop ears i.e., the points of one or both ears just falling 

" Unfortunately, the show bench has a great tendency to 
spoil all breeds from too much attention being given to what is 
evident and ears are grand things for judges to pin their 
faith to ; also, they greatly admire a fine long face and what 
is called but wrongly called a strong jaw, meaning by that 
an ugly, heavy face. I have often pointed out that the tiger, 
the cat, the otter, all animals remarkable for their strength 
of jaw, have exceedingly short faces, but their bite is cruelly 
hard. And what, again, could be daintier than the face of a 

" The terrier of the West Highlands of Scotland has come 
down to the present day, built on what I may perhaps call the 
fox lines, and it is a type evolved by work hard and deadly 


dangerous work. It is only of late years that dogs have been 
bred for show. The so-called ' Scottish ' Terrier, which at 
present rules the roost, dates from 1879 as a show dog. 

" I therefore earnestly hope that no fancy will arise about 
these dogs which will make them less hardy, less wise, less 
companionable, less active, or less desperate fighters under- 
ground than they are at present. A young dog that I gave to a 
keeper got its stomach torn open in a fight. It came out of 
the cairn to its master to be helped. He put the entrails 
back to the best of his ability, and then the dog slipped out 
of his hands to finish the fight, and forced the fox out into the 
open ! That is the spirit of the breed ; but, alas, that cannot 
be exhibited on the show bench. They do say that a keeper 
of mine, when chaffed by the ' fancy ' about the baby faces 
of his ' lot,' was driven to ask, ' Well, can any of you gentle- 
men oblige me with a cat, and I'll show you ? ' I did not 
hear him say it, so it may only be a tale. 

" Anyhow, I have in my kennel a dog who, at ten months old, 
met a vixen fox as she was bolting out of her cairn, and he at 
once caught her by the throat, stuck to her till the pack came 
up, and then on till she was killed. In the course of one 
month his wounds were healed, and he had two other classical 
fights, one with a cat and the other with a dog fox. Not bad 
for a pup with a ' baby face ? ' 

" I trust my readers understand that the West Highland 
White Terriers are not White Aberdeens, not a new invention, 
but have a most respectable ancestry of their own. I add the 
formal list of points, but this is the work of show bench 
experts and it will be seen from what I have written that I 
do not agree with them on certain particulars. There should 
be feather to a fair degree on the tail, but if experts will not 
allow it, put rosin on your hands and pull the hair out and 
the rosin will win your prize. The eye should not be sunk, 
which gives the sulky look of the ' Scotch ' Terrier, but should 
be full and bright, and the expression friendly and confiding. 
The skull should not be narrow anywhere. It is almost 


impossible to get black nails in a dog of pure breed and the 
black soon wears off the pad work, so folk must understand 
this. On two occasions recently I have shown dogs, acknow- 
ledged, as dogs, to be quite first class, ' but, you see, they are 
not the proper type.' The judges unfortunately have as 
yet their eyes filled with the ' Scottish ' terrier type and prefer 
mongrels that show it to the real ' Simon Pure.' " 

STANDARD OF POINTS : The General Appearance of the West 
Highland White Terrier is that of a small, game, hardy-looking terrier, 
possessed with no small amount of self-esteem, with a " varminty " 
appearance, strongly built, deep in chest and back ribs, straight back 
and powerful quarters, on muscular legs and exhibiting in a marked 
degree a great combination of strength and activity. Colour White. 
Coat Very important, and seldom seen to perfection ; must be double- 
coated. The outer coat consists of hard hair, about 2$ inches long, 
and free from any curl. The under coat, which resembles fur, is short, 
soft, and close. Open coats are objectionable. Size Dogs to weigh 
from 14 to 18 lb., and bitches from 12 to 16 lb., and measure from 8 to 
12 inches at the shoulder. Skull Should not be too narrow, being in 
proportion to his powerful jaw, proportionately long, slightly domed, 
and gradually tapering to the eyes, between which there should be a 
slight indentation or stop. Eyebrows heavy. The hair on the skull 
to be from f to 1 inch long, and fairly hard. Eyes Widely set apart, 
medium in size, dark hazel in colour, sightly sunk in the head, sharp 
and intelligent, which, looking from under the heavy eyebrows, give 
a piercing look. Full eyes, and also light-coloured eyes, are very 
objectionable. Muzzle Should be powerful, proportionate in length, 
and should gradually taper towards the nose, which should be fairly 
wide, and should not project forward beyond the upper jaw. The 
jaws level and powerful, and teeth square or evenly met, well set r 
and large for the size of the dog. The nose and roof of mouth should 
be distinctly black in colour. Ears Small, carried erect or semi-erect, 
but never drop, and should be carried tightly up. The semi-erect 
ear should drop nicely over at the tips, the break being about three- 
quarters up the ear, and both forms of ears should terminate in a sharp 
point. The hair on them should be short, smooth (velvety), and they 
should not be cut. The ears should be free from any fringe at the top. 
Round, pointed, broad and large ears are very objectionable, also ears 
too heavily covered with hair. Neck Muscular, and nicely set on 
sloping shoulders. Chest Very deep, with breadth in proportion to 
the size of the dog. Body Compact, straight back, ribs deep and well 
arched in the upper half of rib, presenting a flattish side appearance. 
Loins broad and strong. Hind-quarters strong, muscular, and wide 
across the top. Legs and Feet Both fore and hind legs should be 
short and muscular. The shoulder blades should be comparatively 
broad, and well-sloped backwards. The points of the shoulder blades 
should be closely knit into the backbone, so that very little movement 
of them should be noticeable when the dog is walking. The elbow 


should be close in to the body both when moving or standing, thus 
causing the fore-leg to be well placed in under the shoulder. The fore- 
legs should be straight and thickly covered with short hard hair. 
The hind-legs should be short and sinewy. The thighs very muscular 
and not too wide apart. The hocks bent and well set in under the 
body, so as to be fairly close to each other either when standing, walking, 
or running (trotting) ; and, when standing, the hind-legs, from the 
point of the hock down to fetlock joint, should be straight or per- 
pendicular and not far apart. The fore-feet are larger than the hind 
ones, are round, proportionate in size, strong, thickly padded, and 
covered with short hard hair. The foot must point straight forward. 
The hind-feet are smaller, not quite as round as fore-feet, and thickly 
padded. The under surface of the pads of feet and all the nails should 
be distinctly black in colour. Hocks too much bent (cow hocks) 
detract from the general appearance. Straight hocks are weak. 
Both kinds are undesirable, and should be guarded against. Tail 
Six or seven inches long, covered with hard hairs, no feathers, as straight 
as possible ; carried gaily, but not curled over back. A long t;iil 
is objectionable. Movement Should be free, straight, and easy all 
round. In front, the leg should be freely extended forward by the 
shoulder. The hind movement should be free, strong, and close. 
The hocks should be freely flexed and drawn dose in under the body, 
so that, when moving off the foot, the body is thrown or pushed forward 
with some force. Stiff, stilty movement behind is very objectionable. 
FAULTS : Coat Any silkiness, wave, or tendency to curl is a serious 
blemish, as is also an open coat. Black or grey hairs disqualify for 
competition. Size Any specimens under the minimum, or above the 
maximum weight, are objectionable. Eyes Full or light coloured. 
Ears Round-pointed, drop, broad and large, or too heavily covered 
with hair. Muzzle Either under or over shot, and defective teeth. 


Photograph by T. I' all 




THE breed of terrier now known as the Dandle Dinmont is one 
of the races of the dog which can boast of a fairly ancient 
lineage. Though it is impossible now to say what was the 
exact origin of this breed, we know that it was first recognised 
under its present name after the publication of Scott's Guy 
Mannering, in the year 1814, and we know that for many 
years previously there had existed in the Border counties a 
rough-haired, short -legged race of terrier, the constant and 
very effective companion of the Border farmers and others in 
their fox-hunting expeditions. 

Various theories have been suggested by different writers 
as to the manner in which the breed was founded. Some say 
that the Dandie is the result of crossing a strain of rough-haired 
terriers with the Dachshund ; others that a rough-haired 
terrier was crossed with the Otterhound ; and others again 
assert that no direct cross was ever introduced to found the 
breed, but that it was gradually evolved from the rough-haired 
terriers of the Border district. And this latter theory is 
probably correct. 

The Dandie would appear to be closely related to the Bed- 
lington Terrier. In both breeds we find the same indomitable 
pluck, the same pendulous ear, and a light silky " topknot " 
adorning the skull of each ; but the Dandie was evolved into a 
long-bodied, short-legged dog, and the Bedlington became 
a long-legged, short-bodied dog ! Indeed to illustrate the 
close relationship of the two breeds a case is quoted of the late 
Lord Antrim, who, in the early days of dog shows, exhibited 



two animals from the same litter, and with the one obtained a 
prize or honourable mention in the Dandie classes, and with 
the other a like distinction in the Bedlington classes. 

It may be interesting to give a few particulars concerning the 
traceable ancestors of the modern Dandie. In Mr. Charles 
Cook's book on this breed, we are given particulars of one 
William Allan, of Holystone, born in 1704, and known as 
Piper Allan, and celebrated as a hunter of otters and foxes, 
and for his strain of rough-haired terriers who so ably assisted 
him in the chase. William Allan's terriers descended to his 
son James, also known as the " Piper," and born in the year 
1734. James Allan died in 1810, and was survived by a 
son who sold to Mr. Francis Somner at Yetholm a terrier dog 
named Old Pepper, descended from his grandfather's famous 
dog Hitchem. Old Pepper was the great-grandsire of Mr. 
Somner's well-known dog Shem. These terriers belonging to 
the Allans and others in the district are considered by Mr. 
Cook to be the earliest known ancestors of the modern Dandie 

Sir Walter Scott himself informs us that he did not draw the 
character of Dandie Dinmont from any one individual in 
particular, but that the character would well fit a dozen or 
more of the Lidderdale yeomen of his acquaintance. How- 
ever, owing to the circumstance of his calling all his terriers 
Mustard and Pepper, without any other distinction except 
" auld " and " young " and " little," the name came to be 
fixed by his associates upon one James Davidson, of Hindlee, 
a wild farm in the Teviotdale mountains. 

James Davidson died in the year 1820, by which time the 
Dandie Dinmont Terrier was being bred in considerable num- 
bers by the Border farmers and others to meet the demand 
for it which had sprung up since the appearance of Guy 

As a result of the controversies that were continually re- 
curring with regard to the points of a typical Dandie Dinmont 
there was formed in the year 1876 the Dandie Dinmont Terrier 


Club, with the object of settling the question for ever, and for 
this purpose all the most noted breeders and others interested 
were invited to give their views upon it. 

The standard of points adopted by the club is as follows : 

Head Strongly made and large, not out of proportion to the dog's 
size ; the muscles showing extraordinary development, more especially 
the maxillary. Skull Broad between the ears, getting gradually less 
towards the eyes, and measuring about the same from the inner corner 
of the eyes to back of skull as it does from ear to ear. The forehead 
well domed. The head is covered with very soft silky hair, which should 
not be confined to a mere topknot, and the lighter in colour and silkier 
it is the better. The cheeks, starting from the ears proportionately 
with the skull, have a gradual taper towards the muzzle, which is deep 
and strongly made, and measures about three inches in length, or in 
proportion to skull as three is to five. The muzzle is covered with hair 
of a little darker shade than the topknot, and of the same texture 
as the feather of the fore-legs. The top of the muzzle is generally 
bare for about an inch from the black part of the nose, the bareness 
coming to a point towards the eye, and being about one inch broad at 
the nose. The nose and inside of mouth black or dark coloured. The 
teeth very strong, especially the canine, which are of extraordinary 
size for such a small dog. The canines fit well into each other, so as to 
give the greatest available holding and punishing power, and the teeth 
are level in front, the upper ones very slightly overlapping the under 
ones. (Many of the finest specimens have a "swine mouth," which is 
very objectionable, but it is not so great an objection as the protrusion 
of the under jaw.) Eyes Set wide apart, large, full, round, bright, 
expressive of great determination, intelligence and dignity ; set low 
and prominent in front of the head ; colour a rich dark hazel. Ears 
Pendulous, set well back, wide apart and low on the skull, hanging close 
to the cheek, with a very slight projection at the base, broad at the 
junction of the head and tapering almost to a point, the fore part of the 
ear tapering very little, the tapering being mostly on the back part, 
the fore part of the ear coming almost straight down from its junction 
with the head to the tip. They should harmonise in colour with the 
body colour. In the case of a pepper dog they are covered with a soft, 
straight, brownish hair (in some cases almost black). In the case of 
a mustard dog the hair should be mustard in colour, a shade darker 
than the body, but not black. All should have a thin feather of light 
hair starting about two inches from the tip, and of nearly the same 
colour and texture as the topknot, which gives the ear the appearance 
of a distinct point. The animal is often one or two years old before the 
feather is shown. The cartilage and skin of the ear should not be thick, 
but rather thin. Length of ear, from three to four inches. Neck 
Very muscular, well developed, and strong ; showing great power 
of resistance, being well set into the shoulders. Body Long, strong, 
and flexible ; ribs well sprung and round, chest well developed and 
let well down between the fore-legs ; the back rather low at the shoulder, 
having a slight downward curve and a corresponding arch over the 


loins, with a very slight gradual drop from top of loins to root of tail ; 
both sides of backbone well supplied with muscle. Tail Rather short, 
say from eight inches to ten inches, and covered on the upper side with 
wiry hair of darker colour than that of the body, the hair on the under 
side being lighter in colour, and not so wiry, with a nice feather, about 
two inches long, getting shorter as it nears the tip ; rather thick at the 
root, getting thicker for about four inches, then tapering off to a point. 
It should not be twisted or curled in any way, but should come up 
with a curve like a scimitar, the Up, when excited, being in a per- 
pendicular line with the root of the tail. It should neither be set on 
too high nor too low. When not excited it is carried gaily, and a little 
above the level of the body. Legs The fore-legs short, with immense 
muscular development and bone, set wide apart, the chest coming well 
down between them. The feet well formed, and not //a/, with very 
strong brown or dark-coloured claws. Bandy legs and flat feet are 
objectionable. The hair on the fore-legs and feet of a pepper dog 
should be tan, varying according to the body colour from a rich tan 
to a pale fawn ; of a mustard dog they are of a darker shade than its 
head, which is a creamy white. In both colours there is a nice feather, 
about two inches long, rather lighter in colour than the hair on the 
fore-part of the leg. The hind-legs are a little longer than the fore ones, 
and are set rather wide apart, but not spread out in an unnatural 
manner, while the feet are much smaller, the thighs are well developed, 
and the hair of the same colour and texture as the fore ones, but having 
no feather or dew claws ; the whole claws should be dark ; but the 
claws of all vary in shade according to the colour of the dog's body. 
Coat This is a very important point ; the hair should be about two 
inches long ; that from skull to root of tail a mixture of hardish and soft 
hair, which gives a sort of crisp feel to the hand. The hair should not 
be wiry ; the coat is termed pily or pencilled. The hair on the under 
part of the body is lighter in colour and softer than that on the top. 
The skin on the belly accords with the colour of dog. Colour The 
colour is pepper or mustard. The pepper ranges from a dark bluish 
black to a light silver grey, the intermediate shades being preferred, 
the body colour coming well down the shoulder and hips, gradually 
merging into the leg colour. The mustards vary from a reddish brown 
to a pale fawn, the head being a creamy white, the legs and feet of a 
shade darker than the head. The claws are dark as in other colours. 
(Nearly all Dandie Dinmonts have some white on the chest, and some 
have also white claws.) Size The height should be from 8 to 11 inches 
at the top of shoulder. Length from top of shoulder to root of tail 
should not be more than twice the dog's height, but, preferably, one or 
two inches less. Weight From 14 Ib. to 24 Ib. the best weight as 
near 18 Ib. as possible. These weights are for dogs in good working 

In the above standard of points we have a very full and 
detailed account of what a Dandie should be like, and if only 
judges at shows would bear them in mind a little more, we 
should have fewer conflicting decisions given, and Dandie 


fanciers and the public generally would not from time to time 
be set wondering as to what is the correct type of the breed. 

A Dandie makes an excellent house guard ; for such a 
small dog he has an amazingly deep, loud bark, so that the 
stranger, who has heard him barking on the far side of the 
door, is quite astonished when he sees the small owner of the 
big voice. When kept as a companion he becomes a most 
devoted and affectionate little friend, and is very intelligent. 
As a dog to be kept in kennels there is certainly one great 
drawback where large kennels are desired, and that is the risk 
of keeping two or more dogs in one kennel ; sooner or later 
there is sure to be a fight, and when Dandies fight it is generally 
a very serious matter ; if no one is present to separate them, 
one or both of the combatants is pretty certain to be killed. 
But when out walking the Dandie is no more quarrelsome than 
other breeds of terriers, if properly trained from puppyhood. 

There is one little matter in breeding Dandies that is gener- 
ally a surprise to the novice, and that is the very great differ- 
ence in the appearance of the young pups and the adult dog. 
The pups are born quite smooth-haired, the peppers are black 
and tan in colour, and the mustards have a great deal of black 
in their colouring. The topknot begins to appear sometimes 
when the dog is a few months old, and sometimes not till he is 
a year or so old. It is generally best to mate a mustard 
to a pepper, to prevent the mustards becoming too light in 
colour, though two rich-coloured mustards may be mated 
together with good results. It is a rather curious fact that 
when two mustards are mated some of the progeny are usually 
pepper in colour, though when two peppers are mated there are 
very seldom any mustard puppies. 

The popularity of the Dandie has now lasted for nearly a 
hundred years, and there is no reason why it should not last for 
another century, if breeders will only steer clear of the exaggera- 
tion of show points, and continue to breed a sound, active, and 
hardy terrier. 


THAT the Skye Terrier should be called " the Heavenly 
Breed " is a tribute to the favour in which he is held by his 
admirers. Certainly when he is seen in perfection he is an 
exceedingly beautiful dog. As certainly there is no breed 
more affectionate, more faithful, or more lovable. Among his 
characteristics are a long-enduring patience, a prompt obedi- 
ence, and a deep-hearted tenderness, combined with fearless 
courage. He is more sensitive to rebuke and punishment 
than most dogs, and will nurse resentment to those who are 
unjust to him ; not viciously, but with an almost human 
plaintiveness which demands an immediate reconciliation. 
He is staunch and firm as his native hills to those who are kind 
to him, and for entering into battle with an enemy there is no 
dog more recklessly daring and resolute. 

Visitors to dog shows are disposed to believe that the Skye 
Terrier, with its well-groomed coat that falls in smooth cas- 
cades down its sides, and its veil of thick hair that obscures 
the tender softness of its dark and thoughtful eyes, is meant 
only to look beautiful upon the bench or to recline in com- 
fortable indolence on silken cushions. This is a mistake. 
See a team of Skyes racing up a hillside after a fugitive rabbit, 
tirelessly burrowing after a rat, or displaying their terrier 
strategy around a fox's earth or an otter's holt, and you will 
admit that they are meant for sport, and are demons at it. 
Even their peculiarity of build is a proof that they are born 
to follow vermin underground. They are long of body, with 
short, strong legs, adapted for burrowing. With the Dach- 



shund they approximate more closely than any other breeds 
to the shape of the badger, the weasel, and the otter, and so 
many animals which Nature has made long and low in order 
that they may inhabit earths and insinuate themselves into 
narrow passages in the moorland cairns. 

There can be no question that these dogs, which are so 
typically Highland in character and appearance, as well as 
the Clydesdale, the Scottish, the Dandie Dinmont, and the 
White Poltalloch terriers, are all the descendants of a purely 
native Scottish original. They are all inter-related ; but 
which was the parent breed it is impossible to determine. 

It is even difficult to discover which of the two distinct 
types of the Skye Terrier was the earlier the variety whose 
ears stand alertly erect or its near relative whose ears are 
pendulous. Perhaps it does not matter. The differences be- 
tween the prick-eared Skye and the drop-eared are so slight, 
and the characteristics which they have in common are so 
many, that a dual classification was hardly necessary. The 
earliest descriptions and engravings of the breed present 
a terrier considerably smaller than the type of to-day, carrying 
a fairly profuse, hard coat, with short legs, a body long in 
proportion to its height, and with ears that were neither erect 
nor drooping, but semi-erect and capable of being raised to 
alertness in excitement. It is the case that drop-eared puppies 
often occur in the litters of prick-eared parents, and vice 
versa. -> 

As its name implies, this terrier had its early home in the 
misty island of Skye ; which is not to say that it was not also 
to be found in Lewis, Oronsay, Colonsay and others of the 
Hebrides, as well "as on the mainland of Scotland. Dr. John- 
son, who visited these islands with Boswell in 1773, noticed 
these terriers and observed that otters and weasels were plenti- 
ful in Skye, that the foxes were numerous, and^that they 
were hunted by small dogs. He was so accurate an observer 
that one regrets he did not describe the Macleod's terriers and 
their work. They were at that time of many colours, varying 


from pure white to fawn and brown, blue-grey and black. 
The lighter coloured ones had black muzzles, ears, and tails. 
Their tails were carried more gaily than would be permitted 
by a modern judge of the breed. 

In those days the Highlander cared less for the appearance 
than he did for the sporting proclivities of his dogs, whose 
business it was to oust the tod from the earth in which it 
had taken refuge ; and for this purpose certain qualities were 
imperative. First and foremost the terrier needed to be 
small, short of leg, long and lithe in body, with ample face 
fringe to protect his eyes from injury, and possessed of 
unlimited pluck and dash. 

The Skye Terrier of to-day does not answer to each and 
every one of these requirements. He is too big decidedly he 
is too big especially in regard to the head. A noble-looking 
skull, with large, well-feathered ears may be admirable as 
ornament, but would assuredly debar its possessor from follow- 
ing into a fox's lair among the boulders. Then, again, his 
long coat would militate against the activity necessary for 
his legitimate calling. 

It was not until about 1860 that the Skye Terrier attracted 
much notice among dog lovers south of the Border, but Queen 
Victoria's admiration of the breed, of which from 1842 on- 
wards she always owned favourite specimens, and Sir Edwin 
Landseer's paintings in which the Skye was introduced, had 
already drawn public attention to the decorative and useful 
qualities of this terrier. The breed was included in the 
first volume of the Kennel Club Stud Book, and the best among 
the early dogs were such as Mr. Pratt 's Gillie and Dun vegan, 
Mr. D. W. Fyfe's Novelty, Mr. John Bowman's Dandie, and 
Mr. Macdona's Rook. These were mostly of the drop-eared 
variety, and were bred small. 

About the year 1874, fierce and stormy disputes arose 
concerning the distinctions of the Scottish breeds of terriers. 
The controversy was continued until 1879, when the Kennel 
Club was approached with the view to furnishing classes. 


The controversy was centred upon three types of Scottish 
terriers : those which claimed to be pure Skye Terriers, a dog 
described briefly as Scotch, and a third, which for a time was 
miscalled the Aberdeen. To those who had studied the 
varieties, the distinctions were clear ; but the question at 
issue was to which of the three rightly belonged the title 
of Scottish Terrier ? The dog which the Scots enthusiasts 
were trying to get established under this classification was 
the Cairn Terrier of the Highlands, known in some localities 
as the short-coated, working Skye, and in others as the Fox- 
terrier, or Tod-hunter. A sub-division of this breed was the 
more leggy " Aberdeen " variety. 

The present-day Skye is without doubt one of the most 
beautiful terriers in existence. He is a dog of medium size, 
with a weight not exceeding 25 lb., and not less than 18 Ib. 
he is long in proportion to his height, with a very level back, a 
powerful jaw with perfectly fitting teeth, a small hazel eye, 
and a long hard coat just reaching the ground. In the prick- 
eared variety the ears are carried erect, with very fine ear 
feathering, and the face fringe is long and thick. The ear 
feathering and face fall are finer in quality than the coat, which 
is exceedingly hard and weather-resisting. And here it is 
well to point out that the Skye has two distinct coats : the 
under coat, somewhat soft and woolly, and the upper, hard and 
rain-proof. This upper coat should be as straight as possible, 
without any tendency to wave or curl. The tail is not very 
long, and should be nicely feathered, and in repose never 
raised above the level of the back. 

The same description applies to the drop-eared type, except 
that the ears in repose, instead of being carried erect, fall 
evenly on each side of the head. When, however, the dog is 
excited, the ears are pricked forward, in exactly the same 
fashion as those of the Airedale Terrier. This is an important 
point, a houndy carriage of ear being a decided defect. The 
drop-eared variety is usually the heavier and larger dog of the 
two ; and for some reason does not show the quality and breed- 


ing of its neighbour. Lately, however, there has evidently 
been an effort made to improve the drop-eared type, with the 
result that some very excellent dogs have recently appeared 
at, the important shows. 

Probably Mr. James Pratt has devoted more time and 
attention to the Skye Terrier than any other now living fancier, 
though the names of Mr. Kidd and Mr. Todd are usually well 
known. Mr. Pratt's Skyes were allied to the type of terrier 
claiming to be the original Skye of the Highlands. The head 
was not so large, the ears also were not so heavily feathered, 
as is the case in the Skye of to-day, and the colours were 'very 
varied, ranging from every tint between black and white. 

In 1892 a great impetus was given to the breed by Mrs. 
Hughes, whose kennels at Wolverley were of overwhelmingly 
good quality. Mrs. Hughes was quickly followed by such 
ardent and successful fanciers as Sir Claud and Lady Alex- 
ander, of Ballochmyle, Mrs. Freeman, Miss Bowyer Smyth, and 
Miss McCheane. Lately other prominent exhibitors have 
forced their way into the front rank, among whom may be 
mentioned the Countess of Aberdeen, Mrs. Hugh Ripley, 
Mrs. Wilmer, Miss Whishaw, and Mrs. Sandwith. Mrs. Hughes' 
Wolverley Duchess and Wolverley Jock were excellent types 
of what a prick-eared Skye should be. Excellent, too, were 
Mrs. Freeman's Alister, and Sir Claud Alexander's Young 
Rosebery, Olden Times, Abbess, and Wee Mac of Adel, 
Mrs. Wilmer's Jean, and Mr. Millar's Prince Donard. But 
the superlative Skye of the period, and probably the best 
ever bred, is Wolverley Chummie, the winner of thirty 
championships which are but the public acknowledgment of 
his perfections. He is the property of Miss McCheane, who is 
also the owner of an almost equally good specimen of the 
other sex in Fair field Diamond. Among the drop-eared 
Skyes of present celebrity may be mentioned Mrs. Hugh 
Ripley's Perfection, Miss Whishaw's Piper Grey, and Lady 
Aberdeen's Cromar Kelpie. 

There are two clubs in England and one in Scotland instituted 


to protect the interests of this breed, namely, the Skye Terrier 
Club of England, the Skye and Clydesdale Club, and the Skye 
Terrier Club of Scotland. The Scottish Club's description Ts 
as follows : 

Head Long, with powerful jaws and incisive teeth closing level, 
or upper just fitting over under. Skull : wide at front of brow, narrow- 
ing between the ears, and tapering gradually towards the muzzle, with 
little falling in between or behind the eyes. Eyes : hazel, medium 
size, close set. Muzzle : always black. Ears (Prick or Pendant) 
When prick, not large, erect at outer edges, and slanting towards each 
other at inner, from peak to skull. When pendant, larger, hanging 
straight, lying flat, and close at front. Body Pre-eminently long and 
low.' Shoulders broad, chest deep, ribs well sprung and oval shaped, 
giving a flattish appearance to the sides. Hind-quarters and flank 
full and well developed. Back level and slightly declining from the 
top of the hip joint to the shoulders. The neck long and gently crested. 
Tall When hanging, the upper half perpendicular, the under half 
thrown backward in a curve. When raised, a prolongation of the 
incline of the back, and not rising higher nor curling up. Legs Short, 
straight, and muscular. No dew claws, the feet large and pointing 
forward. Coat (Double) An under, short, close, soft, and woolly. 
An over, long, averaging 5$ inches, hard, straight, flat, and free from 
crimp or curl. Hair on head, shorter, softer, and veiling the forehead 
and eyes ; on the ears, overhanging inside, falling down and mingling 
with the side locks, not heavily, but surrounding the ear like a fringe, 
and allowing its shape to appear. Tail also gracefully feathered. 
Colour (any variety) Dark or light blue or grey, or fawn with black 
points. Shade of head and legs approximating that of body. 

1. AVERAGE MEASUREMENTS : Dog Height at shoulder, 9 
inches. Length, back of skull to root of tail, 22$ inches ; muzzle 
to back of skull, 8$ inches ; root of tail to tip joint, 9 inches. Total 
length, 40 inches. Bitch Half an inch lower, and 2$ inches shorter 
than dog, all points proportional ; thus, body, 21 inches ; head, 8 
inches ; and tail, 8$ inches. Total, 37$ inches. 

2. AVERAGE WEIGHT : Dog 18 Ib. ; bitch, 16 Ib. No dog should 
be over 20 Ib., nor under 16 Ib. ; and no bitch should be over 18 Ib., nor 
under 14 Ib. 

Whereas the Scottish Club limits the approved length of 
coat to 5| inches, the English Club gives a maximum of 9 
inches. This is a fairly good allowance, but many of the 
breed carry a much longer coat than this. It is not uncommon, 
indeed, to find a Skye with a covering of 12 inches in length, 
which, even allowing for the round of the body, causes the 
hair to reach and often to trail upon the ground. 


The Clydesdale may be described as an anomaly. He stands 
as it were upon a pedestal of his own ; and unlike other 
Scotch terriers he is classified as non-sporting. Perhaps his 
marvellously fine and silky coat precludes him from the rough 
work of hunting after vermin, though it is certain his game- 
like instincts would naturally lead him to do so. Of all the 
Scottish dogs he is perhaps the smallest ; his weight seldom 
exceeding 18 Ib. He is thus described by the Skye Terrier 
Club of Scotland : 

General Appearance A long, low, level dog, with heavily fringed 
erect ears, and a long coat like the finest silk or spun glass, which hangs 
quite straight and evenly down each side, from a parting extending 
from the nose to the root of the tail. Head Fairly long, skull flat 
and very narrow between the ears, gradually widening towards the eyes 
and tapering very slightly to the nose, which must be black. The jaws 
strong and the teeth level. Eyes Medium in size, dark in colour, not 
prominent, but having a sharp, terrier-like expression, eyelids black. 
Ears Small, set very high on the top of the head, carried perfectly 
erect, and covered with long silky hah*, hanging in a heavy fringe down 
the sides of the head. Body Long, deep in chest, well ribbed up, the 
back being perfectly level. Tall Perfectly straight, carried almost 
level with the back, and heavily feathered. Legs As short and 
straight as possible, well set under the body, and entirely covered with 
silky hair. Feet round and cat-like. Coat As long and straight as 
possible, free from all trace of curl or waviness, very glossy and silky 
in texture, with an entire absence of undercoat. Colour A level, 
bright steel blue, extending from the back of the head to the root of the 
tail, and on no account intermingled with any fawn, light or dark hairs. 
The head, legs, and feet should be a clear, bright, golden tan, free from 
grey, sooty, or dark hairs. The tail should be very dark blue or black. 

The Clydesdale Terrier is rare, at any rate as regards the 
show bench ; there are never more than two or three at most 
exhibited south of the Tweed, even when classes are provided 
at the big shows and championships offered, thus indicating 
that the breed is not a popular one ; and amongst those 
kennels who do show there exists at the present time but one 
dog who can lay claim to the title of champion ; this unique 
specimen is the property of Sir Claud Alexander, Bart., of 
Ballochmyle, and is known under the name of Wee Wattie. 
There are of course several fanciers in Scotland, among whom 
may be mentioned Mr. G. Shaw, of Glasgow, who is the owner 


of several fine examples of the breed, including beautiful San 
Toy and the equally beautiful Mozart. 

As with the Skye Terrier, it seems a matter of difficulty 
to produce a perfect Clydesdale, and until the breed is taken 
up with more energy it is improbable that first class dogs will 
make an appearance in the show ring. A perfect Clydesdale 
should figure as one of the most elegant of the terrier breed ; 
his lovely silken coat, the golden brown hue of his face fringe, 
paws and legs, his well pricked and feathery ear, and his 
generally smart appearance should combine to form a picture 
exciting general admiration. 


THE most devout lover of this charming and beautiful terrier 
would fail if he were to attempt to claim for him the distinction 
of_ descent from antiquity. Bradford, and not Babylon, 
was his earliest home, and he must be candidly acknowledged 
to be a very modern manufactured variety of the dog. Yet 
it is important to remember that it was in Yorkshire that 
he was made Yorkshire, where live the cleverest breeders 
of dogs that the world has known. 

One can roughly reconstitute the process. What the 
Yorkshiremen desired to make for themselves was a pigmy, 
prick-eared terrier with a long, silky, silvery grey and tan 
coat. They already possessed the foundation in the old 
English Black and Tan wire-haired Terrier. To lengthen the 
coat of this working breed they might very well have had 
recourse to a cross with the prick-eared Skye, and to 
eliminate the wiry texture of the hair a further cross 
with the Maltese dog would impart softness and silkiness 
without reducing the length. Again, a cross with the Clydes- 
dale, which was then assuming a fixed type, would bring the 
variety yet nearer to the ideal, and a return to the black and 
tan would tend to conserve the desired colour. In all pro- 
bability the Dandie Dinmont had some share in the process. 
Evidence of origin is often to be found more distinctly in 
puppies than in the mature dog, and it is to be noted that 
the'puppies of both the Dandie and the Yorkshire are born with 
decided black and tan colouring. 

The original broken-haired Yorkshire Terrier of thirty years 



ago waso ften called a Scottish Terrier, or even a Skye, and 
there are many persons who still confound him with the 
Clydesdale, whom he somewhat closely resembles. At the 
present time he is classified as a toy dog and exhibited almost 
solely as such. It is to be regretted that until very lately 
the terrier character was being gradually bred out of him, 
and that the perkiness, the exuberance and gameness which 
once distinguished him as the companion of the Yorkshire 
operative, was in danger of being sacrificed to the desire for 
diminutive size and inordinate length of coat. 

Perhaps it would be an error to blame the breeders of 
Yorkshire Terriers for this departure from the original type as it 
appeared, say, about 1870. It is necessary to take into 
consideration the probability that what is now called the old- 
fashioned working variety was never regarded by the Yorkshire- 
men who made him as a complete and finished achievement. 
It was possibly their idea at the very beginning to produce 
just such a diminutive dog as is now to be seen in its perfec- 
tion at exhibitions, glorying in its flowing tresses of steel 
blue silk and ruddy gold ; and one must give them full credit 
for the patience and care with which during the past forty 
years they have been steadily working to the fixed design of 
producing a dwarfed breed which should excel all other breeds 
in the length and silkiness of its robe. The extreme of culti- 
vation in this particular quality was reached some years 
ago by Mrs. Troughear, whose little dog Conqueror, weighing 
5 1 lb., had a beautiful enveloping mantle of the uniform length 
of four-and-twenty inches. 

Doubtless all successful breeders and exhibitors of the 
Yorkshire Terrier have their little secrets and their peculiar 
methods of inducing the growth of hair. They regulate the 
diet with extreme particularity, keeping the dog lean rather 
than fat, and giving him nothing that they would not them- 
selves eat. Bread, mixed with green vegetables, a little meat 
and gravy, or fresh fish, varied with milk puddings and 
Spratt's " Toy Pet " biscuits, should be the staple food. 


Bones ought not to be given, as the act of gnawing them is 
apt to mar the beard and moustache. For the same reason 
it is well when possible to serve the food from the fingers. 
But many owners use a sort of mask or hood of elastic material 
which they tie over the dog's head at meal-times to hold back 
the long face-fall and whiskers, that would otherwise be smeared 
and sullied. Similarly as a protection for the coat, when 
there is any skin irritation and an inclination to scratch, linen 
or cotton stockings are worn upon the hind feet. 

Many exhibitors pretend that they use no dressing, or very 
little, and this only occasionally, for the jackets of their 
Yorkshire Terriers ; but it is quite certain that continuous 
use of grease of some sort is not only advisable but even necess- 
ary. Opinions differ as to which is the best cosmetic, but 
Hairmero, the dressing prepared for the purpose by Miss 
D. Wilmer, of Yoxford, Suffolk, could not easily be improved 
upon for this or any other long-coated breed. 

For the full display of their beauty, Yorkshire Terriers 
depend very much upon careful grooming. It is only by 
grooming that the silvery cascade of hair down the dog's 
sides and the beautiful tan face-fall that flows like a rain of 
gold from his head can be kept perfectly straight and free 
from curl or wrinkle ; and no grease or pomade, even if their 
use were officially permitted, could impart to the coat the 
glistening sheen that is given by the dexterous application of 
the brush. The gentle art of grooming is not to be taught 
by theory. Practice is the best teacher. But the novice 
may learn much by observing the deft methods employed 
by an expert exhibitor. 

Mr. Peter Eden, of Manchester, is generally credited with 
being the actual inventor of the Yorkshire Terrier. He 
was certainly one of the earliest breeders and owners, and his 
celebrated Albert was only one of the many admirable speci- 
mens with which he convinced the public of the charms of this 
variety of dog. He may have given the breed its first im- 
pulse, but Mrs. M. A. Foster, of Bradford, was for many years 


the head and centre of all that pertained to the Yorkshire 
Terrier, and it was undoubtedly she who raised the variety to 
its highest point of perfection. Her dogs were invariably good in 
type. She never exhibited a bad one, and her Huddersfield Ben, 
Toy Smart, Bright, Sandy, Ted, Bradford Hero, Bradford 
Marie, and Bradford Queen the last being a bitch weighing 
only 24 oz. are remembered for their uniform excellence. 
Of more recent examples that have approached perfection 
may be mentioned Mrs. Walton's Ashton King, Queen, and 
Bright, and her Mont Thabor Duchess. Mr. Mitchell's 
Westbrook Fred has deservedly won many honours, and Mr. 
Firmstone's Grand Duke and Mynd Damaris, and Mrs. Sin- 
clair's Mascus Superbus, stand high in the estimation of expert 
judges of the breed. Perhaps the most beautiful bitch ever 
shown was Waveless, the property of Mrs. R. Marshall, the 
owner of another admirable bitch in Little Picture. Mrs. W. 
Shaw's Ch. Sneinton Amethyst is also an admirable specimen. 
The standard of points laid down by the Yorkshire Terrier 
Club is as follows : 

General Appearance That of a long-coated pet dog, the coat hanging 
quite straight and evenly down each side, a parting extending from the 
nose to the end of the tail. The animal should be very compact and 
neat, his carriage being very sprightly ; bearing an air of importance. 
Although the frame is hidden beneath a mantle of hair, the general 
outline should be such as to suggest the existence of a vigorous and 
well-proportioned body. Head Should be rather small and flat, not 
too prominent or round in the skull ; rather broad at the muzzle, with 
a perfectly black nose ; the hair on the muzzle very long, which should 
be a rich, deep tan, not sooty or grey. Under the chin, long hah*, 
about the same colour as on the crown of the head, which should be a 
bright, golden tan, and not on any account intermingled with dark or 
sooty hairs. Hairs on the sides of the head should be very long, of a 
few shades deeper tan than that on the top of the head, especially about 
the ear-roots. Eyes Medium in size, dark in colour, having a sharp, 
intelligent expression, and placed so as to look directly forward. They 
should not be prominent. The edges of the eyelids should be dark. 
Ears Small, V-shaped, and carried semi-erect, covered with short hair ; 
colour to be a deep rich tan. Mouth Good even mouth ; teeth as 
sound as possible. A dog having lost a tooth or two, through accident 
or otherwise, is not to disqualify, providing the jaws are even. Body 
Very compact, with a good loin, and level on the top of the back. 
Coat The hair, as long and as straight as possible (not wavy), should 


be glossy, like silk (not woolly), extending from the back of the head 
to the root of the tail ; colour, a bright steel blue, and on no account 
intermingled with fawn, light or dark hairs. AH tan should be darker 
at the roots than at the middle of the hairs, shading off to a still lighter 
tan at the tips. Legs Quite straight, should be of a bright golden tan, 
well covered with hair, a few shades lighter at the end than at the roots. 
Feet As round as possible ; toe-nails black. Tall Cut to medium 
length ; with plenty of hair, darker blue than the rest of the body, 
especially at the end of the tail, which is carried slightly higher than the 
level of the back. Weight Divided into two classes ; under 5 Ib. and 
over 5 Ib. to 12 Ib. 


LONG before the Pomeranian dog was common in Great 
Britain, this breed was to be met with in many parts of Europe, 
especially in Germany ; and he was known under different 
names, according to his size and the locality in which he 
flourished. The title of Pomeranian is not admitted by the 
Germans at all, who claim this as one of their national breeds, 
and give it the general name of the German Spitz. 

At Athens, in the Street of Tombs, there is a representation 
of a little Spitz leaping up to the daughter of a family as she is 
taking leave of them, which bears the date equivalent to 56 
B.C., and in the British Museum there is an ancient bronze jar 
of Greek workmanship, upon which is engraved a group of 
winged horses at whose feet there is a small dog of undoubted 
Pomeranian type. The date is the second century, B.C. 

It is now generally accepted that, wherever our Pomeranian 
originated, he is a Northern or Arctic breed. Evidence goes 
to show that his native land in prehistoric times was the land 
of the Samoyedes, in the north of Siberia, along the shores of 
the Arctic Ocean. The Samoyede dog is being gradually intro- 
duced into England, and good specimens can be frequently 
seen at the principal shows. The similarity between our 
large white Pomeranian and the Samoyede is too great to be 
accidental. And we are drawn to the conclusion that in 
prehistoric times a migration of the Samoyedes was made from 
their native land into Pomerania, the most eastern province 
of Prussia bordering on the Baltic Sea, and that these people 
took with them their dogs, which were the progenitors of the 
present race of Pomeranian or Spitz. 



But in any case the Pomeranian dog, so called, has been a 
native of various parts of Europe from very early times. His 
advent into England has been of comparatively recent date, 
at least in any great numbers, so far as can be ascertained, 
since no ancient records exist on this question. Gainsborough, 
however, painted the famous actress, Mrs. Robinson, with a 
large white Pomeranian sitting by her side. 

In Rees' Encyclopedia, published in 1816, a good picture 
of a white Pomeranian is given with a fairly truthful des- 
cription. In this work he is said to be " larger than the 
common sheep dog." Rees gives his name as Canis Pomer- 
anius, from Linnaeus, and Chien Loup, from Buffon. From 
these examples, therefore, we may infer that the large Pomer- 
anian, or Wolf Spitz, was already known in England towards 
the end of the eighteenth century at least. There are, how- 
ever, no systematic registers of Pomeranians prior to the year 

Even ten years later than this last date, so little was the 
breed appreciated that a well-known writer on dogs began an 
article on the Pomeranian with the words " The Pomeranian 
is admittedly one of the least interesting dogs in existence, 
and consequently his supporters are few and far 

The founders of the Kennel Club held their first dog show 
in 1870, and in that year only three Pomeranians were exhi- 
bited. For the next twenty years little or no permanent 
increase occurred in the numbers of Pomeranians entered at 
the chief dog show in England. The largest entry took place 
in 1881, when there were fifteen ; but in 1890 there was not a 
single Pomeranian shown. From this time, however, the 
numbers rapidly increased. Commencing in 1891 with 
fourteen, increasing in 1901 to sixty, it culminated in 1905 
with the record number of one hundred and twenty-five. 
Such a rapid advance between the years 1890 and 1905 is 
unprecedented in the history of dog shows, although it is 
right to add that this extraordinarily rapid rise into popularity 


has since been equalled in the case of the now fashionable 

This tendency to advancement in public favour was con- 
temporaneous with the formation of the Pomeranian Club of 
England, which was founded in 1891, and through its fostering 
care the Pomeranian has reached a height of popularity far in 
advance of that attained by any other breed of toy dog. 
One of the first acts of the club was to draw up a standard of 
points as follows : 

Appearance The Pomeranian should be a compact, short coupled 
dog, well knit in frame. He should exhibit great intelligence in his 
expression, and activity and buoyancy in his deportment. Head and 
Nose Should be foxy in outline or wedge-shaped, the skull being 
slightly flat, large in proportion to the muzzle, which should finish 
rather fine and free from lippiness. The teeth should be level, and 
should on no account be undershot. The hair on the head and face 
should be smooth and short-coated. The nose should be black in 
white, orange and sable dogs ; but in other colours may be self, but 
never parti-colour or white. Ears Should be small, not set too far 
apart, nor too low down, but carried perfectly erect like those of a fox, 
and, like the head, should be covered with short, soft hair. Eyes 
Should be medium in size, not full, nor set too wide apart, bright and 
dark in colour, showing great intelligence ; in white, shaded sable, or 
orange dogs the rims round the eyes should be black. Neck and Body 
The neck should be rather short, well set in. The back must be short 
and the body compact, being well ribbed up and the barrel well rounded. 
The chest must be fairly deep and not too wide, but in proportion to the 
size of the dog. Legs The fore-legs must be well feathered, perfectly 
straight, of medium length, and not such as would be termed " leggy " 
or " low " on leg, but in due proportion in length and strength to a 
well-balanced frame. Must be fine in bone and free in action. The 
hind-legs and thighs must be well feathered, neither contracted nor 
wide behind ; the feet small and compact in shape. Shoulders should 
be clean, and well laid back. Tail The tail is one of the characteristics 
of the breed, and should be turned over the back and carried flat and 
straight, being profusely covered with long, harsh, spreading hair. 
Coat There should be two coats, an undercoat and an overcoat ; the 
one a soft fluffy undercoat, the other a long, perfectly straight coat, 
harsh in texture, covering the whole of the body, being very abundant 
round the neck and fore part of the shoulders and chest where it should 
form a frill of profuse standing off straight hair, extending over the 
shoulders. The hind-quarters should be clad with long hair or feather- 
ing, from the top of the rump to the hock. Colour All whole colours 
are admissible, but they should be free from white or shadings, and the 
whites must be quite free from lemon or any other colour. A few 
white hairs in any of the self colours shall not necessarily disqualify. 
At present the whole coloured dogs are : White, black, brown (light 


or dark), blue (as pale as possible), orange (which should be as deep and 
even in colour as possible), beaver, or cream. Dogs, other than white, 
with white foot or feet, leg or legs, are decidedly objectionable and 
should be discouraged, and cannot compete as whole coloured specimens. 
In parti-coloured dogs the colours should be evenly distributed on the 
body in patches ; a dog with white or tan feet or chest would not be a 
parti-colour. Shaded sables should be shaded throughout with three 
or more colours, the hairs to be as " uniformly shaded " as possible, 
with no patches of self colour. In mixed classes where whole coloured 
and parti-coloured Pomeranians compete together, the preference 
should, if in other points they are equal, be given to the whole coloured 
specimens. Where classification is not by colours the following is 
recommended for adoption by show committees : 1. Not exceeding 
7 Ib. (Pomeranian Miniatures). 2. Exceeding 7 Ib. (Pomeranians). 
3. Pomeranians and Pomeranian Miniatures mixed. 

The early type of a Pomeranian was that of a dog varying 
from 10 Ib. or 12 Ib. weight up to 20 Ib. weight, or even more, 
and some few of about 12 Ib. and over are still to be met with ; 
but the tendency among present-day breeders is to get them 
as small as possible, so that diminutive specimens weighing 
less than 5 Ib. are now quite common, and always fetch higher 
prices than the heavier ones. The dividing weight, as arranged 
some ten years ago by the Pomeranian Club, is 8 Ib., and the 
Kennel Club has recently divided the breed into two classes 
of Pomeranians and Pomeranians Miniature. 

As a rule the white specimens adhere more nearly to the 
primitive type, and are generally over 8 Ib. in weight, but 
through the exertions of many breeders, several are now to be 
seen under this limit. 

The principal breeders of this colour in England to-day are 
Miss Hamilton of Rozelle, Miss Chell, Miss Lee-Roberts, Mrs. 
Pope, and Mrs. Goodall-Copestake. The first two whites to 
become full champions under Kennel Club rules were Rob of 
Rozelle and Konig of Rozelle, both belonging to Miss Hamilton 
of Rozelle. 

More black Pomeranians have been bred in England than of 
any other colour, and during the last fifteen years the number 
of good specimens that have appeared at our great exhibitions 
has been legion. There do not seem to be so many really 
good ones to-day as heretofore ; this is explained, perhaps, 


by the fact that other colours are now receiving more and 
more attention from breeders. A typical small black of to- 
day is Billie Tee, the property of Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Mappin. 
He scales only 5j lb., and is therefore, as to size and weight 
as well as shape, style, and smartness of action, a good type 
of a toy Pomeranian. He was bred by Mrs. Gates, and is the 
winner of over fifty prizes and many specials. To enumerate 
all the first-class blacks during the last thirty years would be 
impossible, but those which stand out first and foremost 
have been Black Boy, King Pippin, Kaffir Boy, Bayswater 
Swell, Kensington King, Marland King, Black Prince, Hatcham 
Nip, Walkley Queenie, Viva, Gateacre Zulu, Glympton King 
Edward, and Billie Tee. 

The brown variety has for a long time been an especial 
favourite with the public, and many good ones have been bred 
during the last ten years. There are many different shades of 
browns, varying from a dark chocolate to a light beaver, but 
in all cases they should be whole-coloured. 

An admirable example of the brown Pomeranians is the 
incomparable Ch. Tina. This beautiful little lady was bred by 
Mrs. Addis from Bayswater Swell ex Kitsey, and scaled a little 
under 5 lb. She won over every Pomeranian that competed 
against her, besides having been many times placed over all 
other dogs of any breed in open competition. 

The shaded sables are among the prettiest of all the various 
colours which Pomeranians may assume. They must be 
shaded throughout with three or more colours, as uniformly 
as possible, with no patches of self-colour. They are be- 
coming very popular, and good specimens are much sought 
after at high prices. Mrs. Hall- Walker has been constant 
in her devotion to this variety for several years, and she 
possesses a very fine team in Champions Dainty Boy, Dainty 
Belle, Bibury Belle, and in Gateacre Sable Sue. Mrs. Vale 
Nicolas also has recently been most successful with shaded 
sables. Ch. Nanky Po, over 8 lb., and Champions Sable Mite 
and Atom bear witness to this statement. Her lovely Mite 


is a typical example of a small Pomeranian of this colour. He 
was bred by Mr. Hirst, by Little Nipper ex Laurel Fluffie, 
and scales only 4$ Ib. Mention should also be made of Miss 
Ives' Dragon Fly, Mrs. Boutcher's Lady Wolfino, Miss Bland's 
Marland Topaz, Mr. Walter Winans' Morning Light, and Mr. 
Fowler's May Duchess. 

The blues, or smoke-coloured Pomeranians, have likewise 
their admirers, and among those who have taken up these as 
a speciality may be mentioned Miss Ives, Mrs. Parker, Mrs. 
Loy, and Miss Ruby Cooke. 

Another colour which has attained of late years increasing 
popularity in England is orange. These should be self- 
coloured throughout, and light shadings, though not dis- 
qualifying, should be discouraged. The principal breeder of 
the orange Pomeranian to-day is Mr. W. Brown, of Raleigh, 
Essex, who has probably more specimens in his kennels than 
any other breeder of this colour. Tiny Boy, The Boy, and 
Orange Boy are his best, and all three are approved sires. 
Mrs. Hall- Walker is an admirer of this colour, and her Gateacre 
Philander, Lupino, and Orange Girl are great prize-winners. 
Miss Hamilton of Rozelle has for many years bred " oranges," 
and has given to the Pomeranian Club, of which she is Presi- 
dent, two challenge cups for Pomeranians of this colour. 
Mrs. Birch also is a lover of this hue, and possesses such good 
dogs as Rufus Rusticus and Cheriwinkle. 

There is still another variety which bears the name of parti- 
coloured. As the name implies, these dogs must be of more 
than one colour, and the colours should be evenly distributed 
on the body in patches ; for example, a black dog with a 
white foot or leg or chest would not be a parti-colour. As a 
matter of fact, there have been bred in England very few parti- 
coloured Pomeranians ; they seem to be freaks which are rarely 
produced. It does not follow that by mating a black dog to a 
white bitch, or vice versa, a parti-coloured will be necessarily 
obtained ; on the contrary, it is more likely that the litter 
will consist of some whole-coloured blacks, and some whole- 


coloured whites. Miss Hamilton's Maf eking of Rozelle, 
and Mrs. Vale Nicolas's Shelton Novelty, are the two most 
prominent specimens at the present time, although Mrs. 
Harcourt-Clare's Magpie and Mr. Temple's Leyswood Tom Tit 
were perhaps better known some time ago. 

Among toy dogs this particular breed has enjoyed an un- 
precedented popularity ; the growth in the public favour 
among all classes has been gradual and permanent during the 
last fifteen years, and there are no signs that it is losing its 
hold on the love and affection of a large section of the English 
people. His handsome appearance, his activity, and hardi- 
hood, his devotedness to his owner, his usefulness as a house- 
dog, and his many other admirable qualities will always make 
the Pomeranian a favourite both in the cottage and in the 


IN the fourth chapter of Macaulay's History of England 
we read of King Charles II. that " he might be seen before the 
dew was off the grass in St. James's Park, striding among the 
trees playing with his Spaniels and flinging corn to his ducks, 
and these exhibitions endeared him to the common people, 
who always like to see the great unbend." 

Queen Elizabeth's physician, Dr. Caius, described these 
little Spaniels as " delicate, neate, and pretty kind of dogges, 
called the Spaniel gentle or the comforter," and further said : 
" These dogges are little, pretty, proper, and fyne, and sought 
for to satisfie the delicatenesse of daintie dames and wanton 
women's wills, instruments of folly for them to play and dally 
withall, to tryfle away the treasure of time, to withdraw their 
mindes from their commendable exercises. These puppies the 
smaller they be, the more pleasure they provoke as more meete 
playfellowes for minsing mistrisses to beare in their bosoms, 
to keepe company withall in their chambers, to succour with 
sleepe in bed, and nourishe with meate at board, to lie in their 
lappes, and licke their lippes as they ryde in their waggons, 
and good reason it should be so, for coursenesse with fynenesse 
hath no fellowship, but featnesse with neatnesse hath neigh- 
bourhood enough." 

There would appear to be much divergence of opinion 
as to the origin of this breed, and the date of its first appear- 
ance in England, but it was certainly acclimatised here 
as early as the reign of Henry VIII., and it is generally thought 
that it is of Japanese origin, taken from Japan to Spain by 



the early voyagers to the East, and thence imported into 
England. The English Toy Spaniels of to-day, especially the 
Blenheim variety, are also said by some to be related to some 
sporting Spaniels which belonged to Queen Mary about the 
year 1555, and might have been brought over from Germany. 
Mary kept a pack of Spaniels for hunting purposes. 

There is another theory advanced, and with some reason 
that the English Toy Spaniel of the present day derived its 
origin from the Cocker Spaniel, as these larger dogs have the 
same colours and markings, black and tan, tricolour, and red 
and white. The Cocker also occasionally has the spot on the 
forehead which is a characteristic of the Blenheim. 

Be the origin of the King Charles Spaniel, and its advent in 
this country, what it may, King Charles II. so much indulged 
and loved these little friends that they followed him hither and 
thither as they pleased, and seem to have been seldom sepa- 
rated from him. By him they were loved and cherished, and 
brought into great popularity ; in his company they adorn 
canvas and ancient tapestries, and are reputed to have been 
allowed free access at all times to Whitehall, Hampton Court, 
and other royal palaces. 

There are now four recognised varieties of the English Toy 
Spaniel, or, more properly speaking, five, as the Marlborough 
Blenheims are considered a distinct type. The latter are said 
by some to be the oldest of the Toy Spaniels ; by others to 
have been first brought over from Spain during the reign of 
Charles II. by John Churchill, first Duke of Marlborough, 
from whose home, Blenheim Palace, the name was derived, and 
has ever since been retained. 

If we may take the evidence of Vandyck, Watteau, Francois 
Boucher, and Greuze, in whose pictures they are so frequently 
introduced, all the toy Spaniels of bygone days had much 
longer noses and smaller, flatter heads than those of the 
present time, and they had much longer ears, these in many 
instances dragging on the ground. 

The Marlborough Blenheim has retained several of the 


ancestral points. Although this variety is of the same family, 
and has the same name, as the short-nosed Blenheim of 
the present day, there is a great deal of difference between the 
two types. The Marlborough is higher on the legs, which 
need not be so fully feathered. He has a much longer muzzle 
and a flatter and more contracted skull. The Marlborough 
possesses many of the attributes of a sporting Spaniel ; but 
so also does the modern Blenheim, although perhaps in a 
lesser degree. He has a very good scent. Mr. Rawdon B. 
Lee states that " the Blenheims of Marlborough were excellent 
dogs to work the coverts for cock and pheasant, and that 
excepting in colour there is in reality not much difference 
in appearance between the older orange and white dogs (not 
as they are to-day, with their abnormally short noses, round 
skulls, and enormous eyes), and the liver and white Cockers 
which H. B. Chalon drew for Daniel's Rural Sports in 1801." 

This will bear out the statement that the smaller type of 
Spaniel may be descended from the Cockers. 

The ground colour of this dog is white, with chestnut 
encircling the ears to the muzzle, the sides of the neck are 
chestnut, as are also the ears. There is a white blaze on the 
forehead, in the centre of which should be a clear lozenge- 
shaped chestnut spot, called the beauty spot, which by in- 
breeding with other varieties is fast being lost. Chestnut 
markings are on the body and on the sides of the hind-legs. 
The coat should incline to be curly ; the head must be flat, 
not broad, and the muzzle should be straight. The chestnut 
should be of a rich colour. 

The four varieties the King Charles, Tricolour or (as he has 
been called) Charles I. Spaniel, the modern Blenheim, and the 
Ruby have all the same points, differing from one another in 
colour only, and the following description of the points as 
determined by the Toy Spaniel Club serves for all : 

Head Should be well domed, and in good specimens is absolutely 
semi-globular, sometimes even extending beyond the half-circle, and 
projecting over the eyes, so as nearly to meet the upturned nose. Eyes 


The eyes are set wide apart, with the eyelids square to the line of the 
face, not oblique or fox-like. The eyes themselves are large, and dark 
as possible, so as to be generally considered black, their enormous 
pupils, which are absolutely of that colour, increasing the description. 
There is always a certain amount of weeping shown at the inner angles. 
This is owing to a defect in the lachrymal duct. Stop The " stop " 
or hollow between the eyes is well marked, as in the Bulldog, or even 
more so ; some good specimens exhibit a hollow deep enough to bury 
a small marble. Nose The nose must be short and well turned up 
between the eyes, and without any indication of artificial displacement 
afforded by a deviation to either side. The colour of the end should 
be black, and it should be both deep and wide with open nostrils. 
Jaw The muzzle must be square and deep, and the lower jaw wide 
between the branches, leaving plenty of space for the tongue, and 
for the attachment of the lower lips, which should completely conceal 
the teeth. It should also be turned up or " finished," so as to allow of 
its meeting the end of the upper jaw turned up in a similar way, as above 
described. Ears The ears must be long, so as to approach the ground. 
In an average-sized dog they measure twenty inches from tip to tip, 
and some reach twenty-two inches, or even a trifle more. They should 
be set low on the head, hang flat to the sides of the cheeks, and be 
heavily feathered. In this last respect the King Charles is expected to 
exceed the Blenheim, and his ears occasionally extend to twenty-four 
inches. Size The most desirable size is indicated by the accepted 
weight of from 7 Ib. to 10 Ib. Shape In compactness of shape these 
Spaniels almost rival the Pug, but the length of coat adds greatly 
to the apparent bulk, as the body, when the coat is wetted, looks 
small in comparison with that dog. Still, it ought to be decidedly 
" cobby," with strong, stout legs, short broad back and wide chest. 
The symmetry of the King Charles is of importance, but it is seldom 
that there is any defect in this respect. Coat The coat should be 
long, silky, soft and wavy, but not curly. In the Blenheim there 
should be a profuse mane, extending well down in the front of the 
chest. The feather should be well displayed on the ears and feet, and 
in the latter case so thickly as to give the appearance of their being 
webbed. It is also carried well up the backs of the legs. In the Black 
and Tan the feather on the ears is very long and profuse, exceeding that 
of the Blenheim by an inch or more. The feather on the tail (which 
is cut to the length of three and a half to four inches) should be silky, 
and from five to six inches in length, constituting a marked " flag " 
of a square shape, and not carried above the level of the back. Colour 
The colour differs with the variety. The Black and Tan is a rich 
glossy black and deep mahogany tan ; tan spots over the eyes, and the 
usual markings on the muzzle, chest, and legs are also required. The 
Ruby is a rich chestnut red, and is whole-coloured. The presence of a 
few white hairs intermixed with the black on the chest of a Black and 
Tan, or intermixed with the red on the chest of a Ruby Spaniel, shall 
carry weight against a dog, but shall not in itself absolutely disqualify ; 
but a white patch on the chest or white on any other part of a Black 
and Tan or Ruby Spaniel shall be a disqualification. The Blenheim 
must on no account be whole-coloured, but should have a ground of 


pure pearly white, with bright rich chestnut or ruby red markings 
evenly distributed in large patches. The ears and cheeks should be 
red, with a blaze of white extending from the nose up the forehead, and 
ending between the ears in a crescentic curve. In the centre of this 
blaze at the top of the forehead there should be a clear " spot " of red, 
of the size of a sixpence. Tan ticks on the fore-legs and on the white 
muzzle are desirable. The Tricolour should in part have the tan of the 
Black and Tan, with markings like the Blenheim in black instead 
of red on a pearly-white ground. The ears and under the tail should 
also be lined with tan. The Tricolour has no " spot," that beauty being 
peculiarly the property of the Blenheim. The All Red King Charles 
is known by the name of " Ruby Spaniel " ; the colour of the nose is 
black. The points of the " Ruby " are the same as those of the " Black 
and Tan/' differing only in colour. 

The King Charles variety used to consist of black and tan 
and black and white Spaniels, and it is thought that by the 
inter-breeding of the two specimens the Tricolour was pro- 
duced. The colour of the King Charles now is a glossy black 
with rich mahogany tan spots over the eyes and on the 
cheeks. There should also be some tan on the legs and under 
the tail. 

The Prince Charles, or Tricolour, should have a pearly-white 
ground with glossy black markings evenly distributed over 
the body in patches. The ears should be lined with tan ; 
tan must also be seen over the eyes, and some on the cheeks. 
Under the tail also tan must appear. 

The Blenheim must also have a pearly- white ground with 
bright rich chestnut or ruby red markings evenly distributed 
in patches over the body. The ears and cheeks must be red, 
and a white blaze should stretch from the nose to the forehead 
and thence in a curve between the ears. In the middle of the 
forehead there should be, on the white blaze, a clear red spot 
about the size of a sixpence. This is called the " Blenheim 
spot," which, as well as the profuse mane, adds greatly to the 
beauty of this particular Toy Spaniel. Unfortunately, in a 
litter of Blenheims the spot is often wanting. 

The Ruby Spaniel is of one colour, a rich, unbroken red. 
The nose is black. There are now some very beautiful speci- 
mens of Ruby Spaniels, but it is only within the last quarter of 


a century that this variety has existed. It seems to have 
originally appeared in a litter of King Charles puppies, when 
it was looked upon as a freak of nature, taking for its entire 
colour only the tan markings and losing the black ground. 

The different varieties of Toy Spaniels have been so much 
interbred that a litter has been reputed to contain the four 
kinds, but this would be of very rare occurrence. The Blen- 
heim is now often crossed with the Tricolour, when the litter 
consist of puppies quite true to the two types. The crossing 
of the King Charles with the Ruby is also attended with very 
good results, the tan markings on the King Charles becoming 
very bright and the colour of the Ruby also being improved. 
Neither of these specimens should be crossed with either 
the Blenheim or the Tricolour, as white must not appear ia 
either the King Charles or the Ruby Spaniel. 

It is regretted by some of the admirers of these dogs that 
custom has ordained that their tails should be docked. As 
portrayed in early pictures of the King Charles and the 
Blenheim varieties, the tails are long, well flagged, and 
inclined to curve gracefully over the back, and in none of the 
pictures of the supposed ancestors of our present Toy 
Spaniels even so recent as those painted by Sir Edwin 
Landseer do we find an absence of the long tail. 

If left intact, the tail would take two or three years to attain 
perfection, but the same may be said of the dog generally,, 
which improves very much with age, and is not at its best until 
it is three years old, and even then continues to improve. 

Although the Toy Spaniels are unquestionably true aristo- 
crats by nature, birth, and breeding, and are most at home in 
a drawing-room or on a well-kept lawn, they are by no means 
deficient in sporting proclivities, and, in spite of their short 
noses, their scent is very keen. They thoroughly enjoy a 
good scamper, and are all the better for not being too much 
pampered. They are very good house-dogs, intelligent 
and affectionate, and have sympathetic, coaxing little ways. 
One point in their favour is the fact that they are not noisy,. 


and do not yap continually when strangers go into a room 
where they are, or at other times, as is the habit with some 
breeds of toy dogs. 

Those who have once had King Charles Spaniels as pets 
seldom care to replace them by any other variety of dog, 
fearing lest they might not find in another breed such engaging 
little friends and companions, " gentle " as of yore and also 
" comforters." 

Although these dogs need care, they possess great powers of 
endurance. They appreciate warmth and comfort, but do not 
thrive so well in either extreme heat or intense cold. One 
thing to be avoided is the wetting of their feathered feet, or, 
should this happen, allowing them to remain so ; and, as in 
the case of all dogs with long ears, the interior of the ears 
should be carefully kept dry to avoid the risk of canker. 

In going back to a period long before the last century was 
half-way through, we find that a great number of these orna- 
mental pets were in the hands of working men living in the 
East End of London, and the competition among them to 
own the best was very keen. They held miniature dog shows 
at small taverns, and paraded their dogs on the sanded floor 
of tap-rooms, their owners sitting around smoking long church- 
warden pipes. The value of good specimens in those early 
days appears to have been from 5 to 250, which latter sum 
is said to have been refused by a comparatively poor man for 
a small black and tan with very long ears, and a nose much 
too long for our present-day fancy. Among the names of some 
old prominent breeders and exhibitors may be mentioned those 
of C. Aistrop, J. Garwood, J. A. Buggs, and Mrs. Forder. 

It is interesting to note, on looking over a catalogue of the 
Kennel Club Show, that in 1884 the classes for Toy Spaniels 
numbered five, with two championship prizes, one each for 
Blenheims and Black and Tans, and the total entries were 19. 
At this date neither Tricolours nor Rubies were recognised as 
a separate variety by the Kennel Cub, and they had no place 
:in the register of breeds until the year 1902. At the Kennel 


Club show in 1904 thirty-one classes were provided and eight 
challenge certificate prizes were given, the entries numbering 

The formation of the Toy Spaniel Club in 1885, and the 
impetus given to breeders and exhibitors by the numerous 
shows with good classification, have caused this beautiful 
breed to become more popular year by year. Fifty years ago 
the owners might be almost counted on the fingers of one's 
hands ; now probably the days of the year would hardly cover 

Among the most successful exhibitors of late years have 
been the Hon. Mrs. McLaren Morrison, the Hon. Mrs. Lytton, 
Mrs. Graves, Mrs. L. H. Thompson, Miss Young, Mrs. H. B. 
Looker, Mrs. Privette, Miss Hall, the Misses Clarkson and 
Grantham, Mrs. Dean, Mr. H. Taylor, Mrs. Bright, Mrs. 
Adamson, Miss Spofforth, Mrs. Hope Paterson, Mrs. Lydia 
Jenkins, and Miss E. Taylor. 

The novice fancier, desirous of breeding for profit, exhibition, 
or pleasure, when price is an object for consideration, is often 
better advised to purchase a healthy puppy from a breeder of 
repute rather than to be deluded with the notion that a good 
adult can be purchased for a few pounds, or to be carried away 
with the idea that a cheap, indifferently bred specimen will 
produce first-class stock. It takes years to breed out bad 
points, but good blood will tell. 

When you are purchasing a bitch with the intention of 
breeding, many inquiries should be made as to the stock from 
which she comes. This will influence the selection of the sire 
to whom she is to be mated, and he should excel in the points 
in which she is deficient. It is absolutely necessary to have 
perfectly healthy animals, and if the female be young, and small 
stock is desired, her mate should be several years her senior. 
A plain specimen of the right blood is quite likely to produce 
good results to the breeder ; for example, should there be two 
female puppies in a well-bred litter, one remarkable as 
promising to have all the requirements for a coming champion, 


the other large and plain, this latter should be selected for 
breeding purposes as, being stronger, she will make a better 
and more useful mother than her handsome sister, who 
should be kept for exhibition, or for sale at a remunerative price. 

The modern craze for small specimens makes them quite 
unsuitable for procreation. A brood bitch should not be less 
than 9 Ib. in weight, and even heavier is preferable. A sire 
the same size will produce small and far more typical stock 
than one of 5 Ib. or 6 Ib., as the tendency is to degenerate, 
especially in head points ; but small size can be obtained by 
suitably selecting the parents. 

The early spring is the best season for breeding, as it gives 
the puppies a start of at least six months in which to grow and 
get strong before the cold weather sets in, although, of course, 
they can be bred at any time, but autumn and winter puppies 
are more troublesome to rear. It is always wise to administer 
occasionally, both to puppies and adults, a dose of worm 
medicine, so as to give no chance to internal parasites the 
most troublesome ill with which the dog owner has to wrestle, 
causing even more mortality than the dreaded scourge of 

The rules of hygiene cannot be overlooked, as upon them 
hangs the success of the breeder ; plenty of fresh air, light, 
and sunshine are as necessary as food. Puppies of this breed 
are essentially delicate, and must be kept free from cold and 
draughts, but they require liberty and freedom to develop and 
strengthen their limbs, otherwise they are liable to develop 
rickets. Their food should be of the best quality, and after the 
age of six months, nothing seems more suitable than stale brown 
bred, cut up dice size, and moistened with good stock gravy, 
together with minced, lean, underdone roast beef, with the 
addition, two or three times a week, of a little well-cooked green 
vegetable, varied with rice or suet pudding and plain biscuits. 
Fish may also be given occasionally. 

When only two or three dogs are kept, table scraps will 
generally be sufficient, but the pernicious habit of feeding at all 


times, and giving sweets, pastry, and rich dainties, is most 
harmful, and must produce disastrous results to the unfortun- 
ate animal. Two meals a day at regular intervals are quite 
sufficient to keep these little pets in the best condition, although 
puppies should be fed four times daily in small quantities. 
After leaving the mother they will thrive better if put on dry 
food, and a small portion of scraped or finely minced lean meat 
given them every other day, alternately with a chopped hard- 
boiled egg and stale bread-crumbs. 


FEW of the many breeds of foreign dogs now established in 
England have attained such a measure of popularity in so 
short a time as the Pekinese. Of their early history little is 
known, beyond the fact that at the looting of the Summer 
Palace of Pekin, in 1860, bronze effigies of these dogs, known to 
be more than two thousand years old, were found within the 
sacred precincts. The dogs were, and are to this day, jealously 
guarded under the supervision of the Chief Eunuch of the 
Court, and few have ever found their way into the outer 

So far as the writer is aware, the history of the breed in 
England dates from the importation in 1860 of five dogs taken 
from the Summer Palace, where they had, no doubt, been 
forgotten on the flight of the Court to the interior. Admiral 
Lord John Hay, who was present on active service, gives a 
graphic account of the finding of these little dogs in a part of 
the garden frequented by an aunt of the Emperor, who had 
committed suicide on the approach of the Allied Forces. 
Lord John and another naval officer, a cousin of the late 
Duchess of Richmond's, each secured two dogs ; the fifth 
was taken by General Dunne, who presented it to Queen 
Victoria. Lord John took pains to ascertain that none had 
found their way into the French camp, and he heard then that 
the others had all been removed to Jehal with the Court. 
It is therefore reasonable to suppose that these five were the 
only Palace dogs, or Sacred Temple dogs of Pekin, which 
reached England, and it is from the pair which lived to a 



Photograph by 7 . Fall 

Photograph by T. Fall 

Photograph by Russell 




respectable'old age at Goodwood that so many of the breed 
now in England trace their descent. 

Many years ago Mr. Alfred de Rothschild tried, through his 
agents in China, to secure a specimen of the Palace dog for the 
writer, in order to carry on the Goodwood strain, but without 
success, even after a correspondence with Pekin which lasted 
more than two years ; but we succeeded in obtaining con- 
firmation of what we had always understood : namely, that 
the Palace dogs are rigidly guarded, and that their theft is 
punishable by death. At the time of the Boxer Rebellion 
only Spaniels, Pugs, and Poodles were found in the Imperial 
Palace when it was occupied by the Allied Forces, the little 
dogs having once more preceded the court in the flight to 

The Duchess of Richmond occasionally gave away a dog 
to intimate friends, such as the Dowager Lady Wharncliffe, 
Lady Dorothy Nevill, and others, but in those days the Pekinese 
was practically an unknown quantity, and it can therefore be 
more readily understood what interest was aroused about 
eleven years ago by the appearance of a small dog, similar in 
size, colour, and general type to those so carefully cherished 
at Goodwood. This proved to be none other than the since 
well-known sire Ah Cum, owned by Mrs. Douglas Murray, 
whose husband, having extensive interests in China, had 
managed after many years to secure a true Palace dog, 
smuggled in a box of hay, placed inside a crate which 
contained Japanese deer ! 

Ah Cum was mated without delay to two Goodwood bitches, 
the result being, in the first litters, Ch. Goodwood Lo and 
Goodwood Put-Sing. To these three sires, some of the bluest 
Pekinese blood is traceable, vide Ch. Goodwood Chum, Ch. 
Chu-Erh of Alderbourne, Ch. Gia-Gia, Manchu Tao-Tai, 
Goodwood Ming, Marland Myth, and others. 

It must, however, be clearly admitted that since the popu- 
larity of the breed has become established we unluckily see 
scores of Pekinese in the show-ring who have lost all 


resemblance to the original type, and for this the Pekinese 
Club is in some measure to blame. The original points for the 
guidance of breeders and judges were drawn up by Lady 
Samuelson, Mrs. Douglas Murray, and Lady Algernon Gordon- 
Lennox, who fixed the maximum size at 10 Ib. a very gener- 
ous margin. Since then the club has amended the scale of 
points, no doubt in order to secure a larger membership, and 
the maximum now stands at 18 Ib. 

Is it therefore to be wondered at that confusion exists as to 
what is the true type ? At shows there should be two distinct 
classes ; the Palace dog and the Pekin Spaniel, or any 
other name which would enable the breeds to be kept 

The following is the scale of points as issued by the Pekinese 
Club : 

Head Massive, broad skull, wide and flat between the ears (not 
dome shaped) ; wide between the eyes. Note Black, broad, very 
short and flat. Eyes Large, dark, prominent, round, lustrous. 
Stop Deep. Ears Heart-shaped ; not set too high ; leather never 
long enough to come below the muzzle ; not carried erect, but rather 
drooping, long feather. Muni* Very short and broad ; not under- 
hung nor pointed ; wrinkled. Mane Profuse, extending beyond 
shoulder blades, forming ruff or frill round front of neck. Shape of 
Body Heavy in front ; broad chest falling away lighter behind ; 
lion-like ; not too long in the body. Coat and Feather and Condition 
Long, with thick undercoat ; straight and flat, not curly nor wavy ; 
rather coarse but soft ; feather on thighs, legs, tail and toes, long and 
profuse. Colour All colours allowable, red, fawn, black, black and 
tan, sable, brindle, white and parti-coloured. Black masks, and 
spectacles round the eyes, with lines to the ears, are desirable. Legs 
Short ; fore-legs heavy, bowed out at elbows ; hind-legs lighter, but 
firm and well shaped. Feet Flat, not round ; should stand well up 
on toes, not on ankles. Tail Curled and carried well up on loins ; 
long, profuse straight feather. Size Being a toy dog the smaller the 
better, provided type and points are not sacrificed. Anything over 
18 Ib. should disqualify. When divided by weight, classes should be 
over 10 Ib., and under 10 Ib. Action Free, strong and high ; crossing 
feet or throwing them out in running should not take off marks ; weak- 
ness of joints should be penalised. 

Lady Algernon Gordon-Lennox has occasionally been criti- 
cised for her advocacy of whole-coloured specimens, but in 
support of this preference it can be proved that the original 
pair brought to Goodwood, as well as Mrs. Murray's Ah Cum, 


were all of the golden chestnut shade ; and, as no brindled, 
parti-coloured, or black dog has ever been born at Goodwood 
or Broughton, we have some authority for looking upon whole- 
colour as an important point. This view was in the first place 
confirmed by the late Chinese Ambassador in London, and 
further by Baron Speck von Sternberg, who was for many 
years Minister at Pekin and had very special facilities for 
noting the points of the Palace dogs. 

In every case a black muzzle is indispensable, also black 
points to the ears, with trousers, tail and feathering a some- 
what lighter shade than the body. There is considerable 
divergence of opinion as to the penalisation of what, in other 
breeds, is known as a " Dudley " nose, but on this point there 
must be some difficulty at shows ; in the Pekinese the colour 
of the nose varies in a remarkable way, especially in the case 
of the bitches. For instance, a pinkish tinge was always 
visible on the nose of Goodwood Meh before the birth of her 
puppies ; but it resumed its normal colour when the puppies 
were a few weeks old. As a representative type, Chu-Erh of 
Alderbourne resembles most nearly the old Goodwood dogs. 
He has the same square, cobby appearance, broad chest, 
bowed legs, profuse feather, and large, lustrous eyes points 
which are frequently looked for in vain nowadays and his 
breeder and owner may well be proud of him. 

The Pekinese differs from the Japanese dog in that it appears 
to be far stronger in constitution, and withstands the changes 
of the English climate with much greater ease ; in fact, they 
are as hardy, under healthy conditions, as any English breed, 
and the only serious trouble seems to be the weakness which is 
developing in the eyes. Small abscesses frequently appear 
when the puppies are a few months old, and, although they 
may not affect the sight, they almost inevitably leave a bluish 
mark, while in some cases the eye itself becomes contracted. 
Whether this is one of the results of in-breeding it is difficult 
to say, and it would be of interest to know whether the same 
trouble is met with in China. 


The Pekinese bitches are excellent mothers, provided they 
are not interfered with for the first few days. This was 
discovered at Goodwood years ago by the fact that, on 
two or three occasions, one Celestial lady, who had been given 
greater attention than she considered necessary, revenged 
herself by devouring her own family of puppies ! One thing 
seems from experience to be especially advisable as far as 
can be arranged, to breed in the spring rather than autumn. 
The puppies need all the open air and exercise that is possible, 
and where rickety specimens are so frequently met with it is 
only natural that a puppy who starts life with the summer 
months ahead is more likely to develop well than one born in 
the autumn. Great attention should be paid with reference 
to the frequent almost certain presence of worms, which 
trouble seems more prevalent with Pekinese than with any 
other breed. Wherever possible, fish should be given as part 
of the dietary ; some Pekinese devour it with relish ; others 
will not touch it, but there is no doubt it is a useful item in 
the bill of fare. Bread well soaked in very strong stock, 
sheep's head, and liver are always better as regular diet than 
meat, but in cases of debility a little raw meat given once a day 
is most beneficial. 

It would not be fitting to close an article on Pekinese 
without bearing testimony to their extraordinarily attractive 
characteristics. They are intensely affectionate and faithful, 
and have something almost cat-like in their domesticity. They 
display far more character than the so-called " toy dog " 
usually does, and for this reason it is all-important that pains 
should be taken to preserve the true type, in a recognition of 
the fact that quality is more essential than quantity. 

As their breed-name implies, these tiny black and white, long- 
haired lap dogs are reputed to be natives of the land of the 
chrysanthemum. The Japanese, who have treasured them 
for centuries, have the belief that they are not less ancient 
than the dogs of Malta. There seems to be a probability, 


however, that the breed may claim to be Chinese just as surely 
as Japanese. The Hon. Mrs. McLaren Morrison, an authority 
on exotic dogs whose opinion must always be taken with 
respect, is inclined to the belief that they are related to the 
short-nosed Spaniels of Thibet ; while other experts are 
equally of opinion that the variety is an offshoot from the 
Spaniels of Pekin. It is fairly certain that they are indigenous 
to the Far East, whence we have derived so many of our small 
snub-nosed, large-eyed, and long-haired pets. The Oriental 
peoples have always bred their lap dogs to small size, con- 
venient for carrying in the sleeve. The "sleeve dog " and 
the " chin dog " are common and appropriate appellations in 
the East. 

The Japanese Spaniel was certainly known in England half a 
century ago, and probably much earlier. Our seamen often 
brought them home as presents for their sweethearts. These 
early imported specimens were generally of the larger kind, 
and if they were bred from which is doubtful it was by 
crossing with the already long-established King Charles or 
Blenheim Spaniels. Their colours were not invariably white 
and black. Many were white and red, or white with lemon- 
yellow patches. The colouring other than white was usually 
about the long-fringed ears and the crown of the head, with a 
line of white running from the point of the snub black nose 
between the eyes as far as the occiput. This blaze up the face 
was commonly said to resemble the body of a butterfly, 
whose closed wings were represented by the dog's expansive 

The white and black colouring is now the most frequent. 
The points desired are a broad and rounded skull, large in 
proportion to the dog's body ; a wide, strong muzzle and a 
turned-up lower jaw. Great length of body is not good ; 
the back should be short and level. The legs are by pre- 
ference slender and much feathered, the feet large and well 
separated. An important point is the coat. It should be 
abundant, particularly about the neck, where it forms a ruffle, 


and it ought to be quite straight and very silky. The Japanese 
Spaniel is constitutionally delicate, requiring considerable care 
in feeding. A frequent almost a daily change of diet is to 
be recommended, and manufactured foods are to be avoided. 
Rice usually agrees well ; fresh fish, sheep's head, tongue, 
chicken livers, milk or batter puddings are also suitable; 
and occasionally give oatmeal porridge, alternated with a 
little scraped raw meat as an especial favour. For puppies 
newly weaned it is well to limit the supply of milk foods and 
to avoid red meat. Finely minced rabbit, or fish are better. 

Of the Japanese Spaniels which have recently been promi- 
nent in competition, may be mentioned Miss Serena's Cham- 
pion Fuji of Kobe, a remarkably beautiful bitch, who was under 
5 Ib. in weight, and who in her brief life gained six full cham- 
pionships. Mrs. Gregson's Ch. Tora of Braywick, a fine 
red and white dog, somewhat over 7 Ib., is also to be remem- 
bered as a typical example of the breed, together with Kara, 
the smallest Jap ever exhibited or bred in this country, weigh- 
ing only 2j Ib. when 2j years old ; Lady Samuelson's Togo 
and O'Toyo of Braywick, and Mrs. Hull's Ch. Daddy Jap. 

There has lately been a tendency to lay too much stress upon 
diminutive size in this variety of the dog, to the neglect of 
well-formed limbs and free movement ; but on the whole it 
may be stated with confidence that the Japanese is prosper- 
ing in England, thanks largely to the energetic work of the 
Japanese Chin Club, which was formed some three years ago 
to promote the best interests of the breed. 

The following is the official standard issued by the Club : 

Head Should be large for size of animal, very broad and with slightly 
rounded skull. Muzzle Strong and wide ; very short from eyes to 
nose ; upper jaw should look slightly turned up between the eyes ; 
lower jaw should be also turned up or finished so as to meet it, but 
should the lower jaw be slightly underhung it is not a blemish provided 
the teeth are not shown in consequence. Nose Very short in the 
muzzle part. The end or nose proper should be wide, with open nostrils, 
and must be the colour of the dog's marking, i.e., black in black-marked 
dogs, and red or deep flesh colour in red or lemon marked dogs. Eyes 
Large, dark, lustrous, rather prominent, and set wide apart. Ears 
Small and V-shaped, nicely feathered, set wide apart and high on 


the head and carried slightly forward. Neck Should be short and 
moderately thick. Body Very compact and squarely built, with a 
short back, rather wide chest, and of generally " cobby " shape. The 
body and legs should really go into a square, i.e., the length of the dog 
should be about its height. Legs The bones of the legs should be 
small, giving them a slender appearance, and they should be well 
feathered. Feet Small and shaped, somewhat long ; the dog stands up 
on its toes somewhat. If feathered, the tufts should never increase the 
width of the foot, but only its length a trifle. Tall Carried in a tight 
curl over the back. It should be profusely feathered so as to give the 
appearance of a beautiful " plume " on the animal's back. Coat 
Profuse, long, straight, rather silky. It should be absolutely free from 
wave or curl, and not lie too flat, but have a tendency to stand out, 
especially at the neck, so as to give a thick mane or ruff, which with 
profuse feathering on thighs and tail gives a very showy appearance. 
Colour Either black and white or red and white, i.e., parti-coloured. 
The term red includes all shades, sable, brindle, lemon or orange, but 
the brighter and clearer the red the better. The white should be clear 
white, and the colour, whether black or red, should be evenly dis- 
tributed in patches over the body, cheeks, and ears. Height at Shoulder 
About ten inches. Weight The size desirable is from 4 Ib. to 9 Ib. 
The smaller size is preferable if good shape. 


No doubt has been cast upon the belief that the small, white, 
silky Cams Melitaus is the most ancient of all the lap dogs of 
the Western world. It was a favourite in the time of Phidias ; 
it was an especial pet of the great ladies of Imperial Rome. 
It appears to have come originally from the Adriatic island of 
Melita rather than from the Mediterranean Malta, although 
this supposition cannot be verified. There is, however, no 
question that it is of European origin, and that the breed, as 
we know it to-day, has altered exceedingly little in type and 
size since it was alluded to by Aristotle more than three hundred 
years before the Christian era. One may gather from various 
references in literature, and from the evidence of art, that it 
was highly valued in ancient times. " When his favourite 
dog dies," wrote Theophrastus in illustration of the vain man, 
" he deposits the remains in a tomb, and erects a monument 
over the grave, with the inscription, ' Offspring of the stock of 
Malta.' " 

The " offspring of the stock of Malta " were probably first 
imported into England during the reign of Henry VIII. 
It is certain that they were regarded as " meet playfellows 
for mincing mistresses " in the reign of Elizabeth, whose 
physician, Dr. Caius, alluded to them as being distinct from 
the Spaniel, " gentle or comforter." 

Early writers aver that it was customary when Maltese 
puppies were born to press or twist the nasal bone with the 
fingers " in order that they may seem more elegant in the sight 
of men " a circumstance which goes to show that our fore- 


fathers were not averse to improving artificially the points of 
their dogs. 

The snowy whiteness and soft, silky texture of its coat must 
always cause the Maltese dog to be admired ; but the variety 
has never been commonly kept in England a fact which is, 
no doubt, due to the difficulty of breeding it and to the trouble 
in keeping the dog's long jacket clean and free from tangle. 
Thirty or forty years ago it was more popular as a lap dog than 
it has ever been since, and in the early days of dog shows many 
beautiful specimens were exhibited. This popularity was 
largely due to the efforts of Mr. R. Mandeville, of Southwark, 
who has been referred to as virtually the founder of the modern 
Maltese. His Fido and Lily were certainly the most perfect 
representatives of the breed during the decade between 1860 
and 1870, and at the shows held at Birmingham, Islington, 
the Crystal Palace, and Cremorne Gardens, this beautiful 
brace was unapproachable. 

It is a breed which to be kept in perfection requires more 
than ordinary attention, not only on account of its silky 
jacket, which is peculiarly liable to become matted, and is 
difficult to keep absolutely clean without frequent washing, 
but also on account of a somewhat delicate constitution, the 
Maltese being susceptible to colds and chills. If affected 
by such causes, the eyes are often attacked, and the water 
running from them induces a brown stain to mar the beauty 
of the face. Skin eruptions due to unwise feeding, or para- 
sites due to uncleanliness, are quickly destructive to the silky 
coat, and constant watchfulness is necessary to protect the 
dog from all occasion for scratching. The diet is an im- 
portant consideration always, and a nice discernment is 
imperative in balancing the proportions of meat and vegetable. 
Too much meat is prone to heat the blood, while too little 
induces eczema. Scraps of bread and green vegetables well 
mixed with gravy and finely-minced lean meat form the best 
dietary for the principal meal of the day, and plenty of 
exercise is imperative. 


The following is the standard description and points of the 
Maltese Club of London : 

Head Should not be too narrow, but should be of a Terrier shape, 
not too long, but not apple-headed. Ears Should be long and well 
feathered, and hang close to the side of the head, the hair to be wi-11 
mingled with the coat at the shoulders. Eyes Should be a dark 
brown, with black eye rims and not too far apart. Nose Should be 
pure black. Legs and Feet Legs should be short and straight, feet 
round, and the pads of the feet should be black. Body and Shape 
Should be short and cobby, low to the ground, and the back should be 
straight from the top of the shoulders to the tail. Tail and Carriage 
Should be well arched over the back and well feathered. Coat, Length 
and Texture Should be a good length, the longer the better, of a silky 
texture, not in any way woolly, and should be straight. Colour 
It is desirable that they should be pure white, but slight lemon marks 
should not count against them. Condition and Appearance Should 
be of a sharp Terrier appearance, with a lively action, the coat should 
not be stained, but should be well groomed in every way. Size The 
most approved weights should be from 4 Ib. to 9 lb., the smaller the 
better, but it is desirable that they should not exceed 10 lb. 

There seems to be no doubt that the fawn-coloured Pug 
enjoys the antiquity of descent that is attached to the Grey- 
hound, the Maltese dog, and some few other venerable breeds. 

Although much has been written on the origin of these 
dogs, nothing authentic has been discovered in connection with 
it. Statements have appeared from time to time to the effect 
that the Pug was brought into this country from Holland. 
In the early years of the last century it was commonly styled 
the Dutch Pug. But this theory does not trace the history 
far enough back, and it should be remembered that at that 
period the Dutch East India Company was in constant com- 
munication with the Far East. Others declare that Muscovy 
was the original home of the breed, a supposition for which 
there is no discernible foundation. The study of canine 
history receives frequent enlightenment from the study of the 
growth of commercial intercourse between nations, and the 
trend of events would lead one to the belief that the Pug had 
its origin in China, particularly in view of the fact that it is 
with that country that most of the blunt-nosed toy dogs, 
with tails curled over their backs, are associated. 

THE PUG 299 

The Pug was brought into prominence in Great Britain 
about sixty years ago by Lady Willoughby de Eresby, of 
Grimthorpe, near Lincoln, and Mr. Morrison, of Walham 
Green, who each independently established a kennel of these 
dogs, with such success that eventually the fawn Pugs were 
spoken of as either the Willoughby or the Morrison Pugs. 
At that period the black variety was not known. The 
Willoughby Pug was duller in colour than the Morrison, 
which was of a brighter, ruddier hue, but the two varieties 
have since been so much interbred that they are now un- 
distinguishable, and the fact that they were ever familiarly 
recognised as either Willoughbys or Morrisons is almost 
entirely forgotten. A " fawn " Pug may now be either silver 
grey or apricot, and equally valuable. 

Whatever may have been the history of the Pug as regards 
its nativity, it had not been long introduced into England 
before it became a popular favourite as a pet, and it shared 
with the King Charles Spaniel the affection of the great 
ladies of the land. The late Queen Victoria possessed one, 
of which she was very proud. The Pug has, however, now 
fallen from his high estate as a ladies' pet, and his place has 
been usurped by the Toy Pomeranian, the Pekinese, and 
Japanese, all of which are now more highly thought of in 
the drawing-room or boudoir. But the Pug has an advantage 
over all these dogs as, from the fact that he has a shorter coat, 
he is cleaner and does not require so much attention. 

It was not until the establishment of the Pug Dog Club in 
1883 that a fixed standard of points was drawn up for the 
guidance of judges when awarding the prizes to Pugs. Later 
on the London and Provincial Pug Club was formed, and 
standards of points were drawn up by that society. These, 
however, have never been adhered to. The weight of a 
dog or bitch, according to the standard, should be from 
13 Ib. to 17 lb., but there are very few dogs indeed that are 
winning prizes who can draw the scale at the maximum 
weight. One of the most distinctive features of a fawn Pug 


is the trace, which is a line of black running along the top 
of the back from the occiput to the tail. It is the exception 
to find a fawn Pug with any trace at all now. The muzzle 
should be short, blunt, but not upfaced. Most of the winning 
Pugs of the present day are undershot at least half an inch, 
and consequently must be upfaced. Only one champion of 
the present day possesses a level mouth. The toe-nails 
should be black according to the standard, but this point 
is ignored altogether. In fact, the standard, as drawn up by 
the Club, should be completely revised, for it is no true guide. 
The colour, which should be either silver or apricot fawn ; 
the markings on the head, which should show a thumb- 
mark or diamond on the forehead, together with the orthodox 
size, are not now taken into consideration, and the prizes are 
given to over-sized dogs with big skulls that are patchy in 
colour, and the charming little Pugs which were once so highly 
prized are now the exception rather than the rule, while the 
large, lustrous eyes, so sympathetic in their expression, are 
seldom seen. 

The black Pug is a recent production. He was brought 
into notice in 1886, when Lady Brassey exhibited some at the 
Maidstone Show. By whom he was manufactured is not a 
matter of much importance, as with the fawn Pug in existence 
there was not much difficulty in crossing it with the shortest- 
faced black dog of small size that could be found, and then back 
again to the fawn, and the thing was done. Fawn and black 
Pugs are continually being bred together, and, as a rule, if 
judgment is used in the selection of suitable crosses, the puppies 
are sound in colour, whether fawn or black. In every respect 
except markings the black Pug should be built on the same 
lines as the fawn, and be a cobby little dog with short back and 
well-developed hind-quarters, wide in skull, with square and 
blunt muzzle and tightly-curled tail. 


AWAY back in the 'seventies numbers of miners in Yorkshire 
and the Midlands are said to have possessed little wiry- 
coated and wiry-dispositioned red dogs, which accompanied 
their owners to work, being stowed away in pockets of over- 
coats until the dinner hour, when they were brought out 
to share their masters' meals, perchance chasing a casual 
rat in between times. Old men of to-day who remember these 
little " red tamers " tell us that they were the originals of the 
present-day Brussels Griffons, and to the sporting propensities 
of the aforesaid miners is attributed the gameness which is 
such a characteristic of their latter-day representatives. 

No one who is well acquainted with the Brussels Griffon 
would claim that the breed dates back, like the Greyhound, 
to hoary antiquity, or, indeed, that it has any pretensions 
to have " come over with the Conqueror." The dog is not 
less worthy of admiration on that account. It is futile to 
inquire too closely into his ancestry ; like Topsy, " he growed " 
and we must love him for himself alone. 

Even in the last fifteen years we can trace a certain advance 
in the evolution of the Brussels Griffon. When the breed 
was first introduced under this name into this country, under- 
jaw was accounted of little or no importance, whereas now a 
prominent chin is rightly recognised as being one of the most 
important physical characteristics of the race. Then, again, 
quite a few years ago a Griffon with a red pin-wire coat 
was rarely met with, but now this point has been generally 
rectified, and every show specimen of any account whatever 
possesses the much-desired covering. 



The first authentic importations of Brussels Griffons into 
this country were made by Mrs. Kingscote, Miss Adela Gordon, 
Mrs. Frank Pearce, and Fletcher, who at that time (circa 1894) 
kept a dog-shop in Regent Street. Mrs. Handley Spicer 
soon followed, and it was at her house that, in 1896, the 
Griffon Bruxellois Club was first suggested and then formed. 
The Brussels Griffon Club of London was a later offshoot of 
this club, and, like many children, would appear to be more 
vigorous than its parent. Griffons soon made their appear- 
ance at shows and won many admirers, though it must be 
admitted that their progress up the ladder of popularity 
was not so rapid as might have been expected. The breed is 
especially attractive in the following points : It is hardy, 
compact, portable, very intelligent, equally smart and alert 
in appearance, affectionate, very companionable, and, above 
all, it possesses the special characteristic of wonderful eyes, 
ever changing in expression, and compared with which the 
eyes of many other toy breeds appear as a glass bead to a 
fathomless lake. 

Griffons are hardy little dogs, though, like most others, 
they are more susceptible to damp than to cold. While not 
greedy, like the Terrier tribe, they are usually good feeders 
and good doers, and not tiresomely dainty with regard to food, 
as is so often the case with Toy Spaniels. It must be admitted 
that Griffons are not the easiest of dogs to rear, particularly 
at weaning time. From five to eight weeks is always a critical 
period in the puppy hood of a Griffon, and it is necessary to 
supersede their maternal nourishment with extreme caution. 
Farinaceous foods do not answer, and usually cause trouble 
sooner or later. A small quantity of scraped raw beef an 
eggspoonful at four weeks, increasing to a teaspoonful at 
six may be given once a day, and from four to five weeks 
two additional meals of warm milk goat's for preference 
and not more than a tablespoonful at a time should be given. 
From five to six weeks the mother will remain with the 
puppies at night only, and three milk meals may be given 


during the day, with one of scraped meat, at intervals of 
about four hours, care being taken to give too little milk 
rather than too much. At six weeks the puppies may usually 
be taken entirely from the mother, and at this time it is 
generally advisable to give a gentle vermifuge, such as Ruby. 
A very little German rusk may also be added to the milk 
meals, which may be increased to one and a-half tablespoon- 
fuls at a time, but it must always be remembered that, in nine 
cases out of ten, trouble is caused by overfeeding rather than 
underfeeding, and until the rubicon of eight weeks has been 
passed, care and oversight should be unremitting. At eight 
weeks' old, Force or brown breadcrumbs may be added to the 
morning milk, chopped meat may be given instead of scraped at 
midday, the usual milk at tea-time, and a dry biscuit, such 
as Plasmon, for supper. At ten weeks old the milk at tea- 
time may be discontinued and the other meals increased ac- 
cordingly, and very little further trouble need be feared, for 
Griffons very rarely suffer from teething troubles. 

Brussels Griffons are divided into three groups, according 
to their appearance, and representatives of each group may 
be, and sometimes are, found in one and the same litter. 
First and foremost, both in importance and in beauty, comes 
the Griffon Bruxellois, a cobby, compact little dog, with wiry 
red coat, large eyes, short nose, well turned up, and sloping 
back, very prominent chin, and small ears. Secondly come 
the Griffons of any other colour, or, as they are termed in 
Brussels, Griffons Beiges. These are very often Griffons of the 
usual colour, with a mismark of white or black, or occasionally 
they may be grey or fawn. But the most approved colour, 
and certainly the most attractive, is black and tan. The 
third group of Brussels Griffons is that termed " smooth," 
or, in Brussels, Griffons Brabancons. The smooth Griffon is 
identical with the rough in all points except for being short- 
haired. As is well known, smooth Griffons are most useful 
for breeding rough ones with the desired hard red coat, and 
many well-known show dogs with rough coats have been bred 


from smooth ones : for example, Sparklets, Ch. Copthorne 
Lobster, Ch. Copthorne Treasure, Ch. Copthorne Talk-o'- 
the-Town, and Copthorne Blunderbuss. This and many other 
facts in connection with breeding Griffons will be learnt 
from experience, always the best teacher. 
The descriptive particulars of the Brussels Griffon are : 

Central Appearance A lady's little dog intelligent, sprightly, robust, 
of compact appearance reminding one of a cob, and captivating the 
attention by a quasi-human expression. Head Hounded, furnished 
with somewhat hard, irregular hairs, longer round the eyes, on the 
nose and cheeks. Ear* Erect when cropped as in Belgium, semi- 
erect when uncropped. Eyes Very large, black, or nearly black ; 
eyelids edged with black, eyelashes long and black, eyebrows covered 
with hairs, leaving the eye they encircle perfectly uncovered. Nose 
Always black, short, surrounded with hair converging upward to meet 
those which surround the eyes. Very pronounced stop. Lips 
Edged with black, furnished with a moustache. A little black in the 
moustache is not a fault. Chin Prominent without showing the teeth, 
and edged with a small beard. Chest Rather wide and deep. Left 
As straight as possible, of medium length. Tall Erect, and docked to 
two-thirds. Colour In the Griffons Bruzellois, red ; in the Griffons 
Beiges, preferably black and tan, but also grey or fawn ; in the Petit 
Brabancon, red or black and tan. Texture of Coal Harsh and wiry, 
irregular, rather long and thick. In the Braban9on it is smooth 
and short. Weljht Light weight, 5 Ib. maximum ; and heavy 
weight, 9 Ib. maximum. Faults The faults to be avoided are light 
eyes, silky hair on the head, brown nails, teeth showing, a hanging 
tongue or a brown nose. 

Photograph by Russell 






EXCEPT in the matter of size, the general appearance and 
qualifications of the Miniature Black and Tan Terrier should be 
as nearly like the larger breed as possible, for the standard of 
points applies to both varieties, excepting that erect, or what 
are commonly known as tulip ears, of semi-erect carriage, are 
permissible in the miniatures. The officially recognised weight 
for the toy variety is given as " under seven pounds," but none 
of the most prominent present-day winners reach anything 
like that weight ; some in fact are little more than half of it, 
and the great majority are between 4 Ib. and 5 Ib. 

Probably the most popular specimens of the miniature 
Black and Tan at the present time are Mr. Whaley's Glenart- 
ney Sport and Mr. Richmond's Merry Atom. Merry Atom is 
only 4J Ib. in weight, and he is beautifully proportioned, with 
a fine, long head, a small, dark eye, small ears, and the true 
type of body. His markings of deep black and rich tan are 
good, and his coat is entirely free from the bare patches which 
so often mar the appearance of these toys, giving the 
suggestion of delicacy. 

The Miniature Black and Tan is certainly not a robust dog, 
and he has lost much of the terrier boisterousness of character 
by reason of being pampered and coddled ; but it is a fallacy 
to suppose that he is necessarily delicate. He requires to be 
kept warm, but exercise is better for him than eiderdown quilts 
and silken cushions, and judicious feeding will protect him from 
the skin diseases to which he is believed to be liable. Under 
proper treatment he is no more delicate than any other toy 
u 305 


dog, and his engaging manners and cleanliness of habit ought 
to place him among the most favoured of lady's pets and lap- 
dogs. It is to be hoped that the efforts now being made 
by the Black and Tan Terrier Club will be beneficial to the 
increased popularity of this diminutive breed. 

For the technical description and scale of points the reader 
is referred to the chapter on the larger variety of Black and 
Tan Terrier (see p. 196). 

Of late years Toy Bull-terriers have fallen in popularity. 
This is a pity, as their lilliputian self-assertion is most amusing. 
As pets they are most affectionate, excellent as watch-dogs, 
clever at acquiring tricks, and always cheerful and com- 
panionable. They have good noses and will hunt diligently ; 
but wet weather or thick undergrowth will deter them, and 
they are too small to do serious harm to the best stocked game 

The most valuable Toy Bull-terriers are small and very light 
in weight, and these small dogs usually have " apple-heads." 
Pony Queen, the former property of Sir Raymond Tyrwhitt 
Wilson, weighed under 3 lb., but the breed remains " toy " 
up to 15 lb. When you get a dog with a long wedge-shaped 
head, the latter in competition with small " apple-headed " 
dogs always takes the prize, and a slightly contradictory state 
of affairs arises from the fact that the small dog with an 
imperfectly shaped head will sell for more money than a dog 
with a perfectly shaped head which is larger. 

In drawing up a show schedule of classes for this breed 
it is perhaps better to limit the weight of competitors to 12 
lb. .-The Bull-terrier Club put 15 lb. as the lowest weight 
allowed for the large breed, and it seems a pity to have 
an interregnum between the large and miniature variety ; 
still, in the interests of the small valuable specimens, this 
seems inevitable, and opportunist principles must be applied 
to doggy matters as to other business in this world. At 
present there is a diversity of opinion as to their points, but 


roughly they are a long flat head, wide between the eyes and 
tapering to the nose, which should be black. Ears erect and 
bat-like, straight legs and rather distinctive feet ; some 
people say these are cat-like. 

Toy Bull-terriers ought to have an alert, gay appearance, 
coupled with refinement, which requires a nice whip tail. 
The best colour is pure white. A brindle spot is not amiss, 
and even a brindle dog is admissible, but black marks are 
wrong. The coat ought to be close and stiff to the touch. 
Toy Bull-terriers are not delicate as a rule. They require 
warmth and plenty of exercise in all weathers. 

The most elegant, graceful, and refined of all dogs are the 
tiny Italian Greyhounds. Their exquisitely delicate lines, 
their supple movements and beautiful attitudes, their soft 
large eyes, their charming colouring, their gentle and loving 
nature, and their scrupulous cleanliness of habit all these 
qualities justify the admiration bestowed upon them as draw- 
ing-room pets. They are fragile, it is true fragile as egg- 
shell china not to be handled roughly. But their constitu- 
tion is not necessarily delicate, and many have been known to 
live to extreme old age. Miss Mackenzie's Jack, one of the 
most beautiful of the breed ever known, lived to see his 
seventeenth birthday, and even then was strong and healthy. 
Their fragility is more apparent than real, and if they are not 
exposed to cold or damp, they require less pampering than 
they usually receive. This cause has been a frequent source 
of constitutional weakness, and it was deplorably a fault in 
the Italian Greyhounds of half a century ago. 

One cannot be quite certain as to the derivation of the Italian 
Greyhound. Its physical appearance naturally suggests a 
descent from the Gazehound of the ancients, with the added 
conjecture that it was purposely dwarfed for the convenience 
of being nursed in the lap. Greek art presents many examples 
of a very small dog of Greyhound type, and there is a pro- 
bability that the diminutive breed was a familiar ornament 


in the atrium of most Roman villas. In Pompeii a dwarfed 
Greyhound was certainly kept as a domestic pet, and there is 
therefore some justification for the belief that the Italian 
prefix is not misplaced. 

In very early times the Italian Greyhound was appreciated. 
Vandyck, Kneller, and Watteau frequently introduced the 
graceful figures of these dogs as accessories in their portraits 
of the Court beauties of their times, and many such portraits 
may be noticed in the galleries of Windsor Castle and Hampton 
Court. Mary, Queen of Scots is supposed to have been fond 
of the breed, as more surely were Charles I. and Queen Anne. 
Some of the best of their kind were in the possession of Queen 
Victoria at Windsor and Balmoral, where Sir Edwin Landseer 
transferred their graceful forms to canvas. 

Among the more prominent owners of the present time are 
the Baroness Campbell von Laurentz, whose Rosemead Laura 
and Una are of superlative merit alike in outline, colour* 
style, length of head, and grace of action ; Mrs. Florence 
Scarlett, whose Svelta, Saltarello, and Sola are almost equally 
perfect ; Mrs. Matthews, the owner of Ch. Signor, our smallest 
and most elegant show dog ; and Mr. Charlwood, who has 
exhibited many admirable specimens, among them Sussex 
Queen and Sussex Princess. 

The Italian Greyhound Club of England has drawn up the 
following standard and scale of points : 

General Appearance A miniature English Greyhound, more slender 
in all proportions, and of ideal elegance and grace in shape, symmetry, 
and action. Head Skull long, flat and narrow. Muzzle very fine. 
Nose dark in colour. Ears rose shaped, placed well back, soft and 
delicate, and should touch or nearly touch behind the head. Eyes 
large, bright, and full of expression. Body Neck long and gracefully 
arched. Shoulders long and sloping. Back curved and drooping at the 
quarters. Legs and Feet Fore-legs straight, well set under the 
shoulder ; fine pasterns ; small delicate bone. Hind-legs, hocks well 
let down; thighs muscular. Feet long hare foot. Tall, Coat and 
Colour Tail rather long and with low carriage. Skin fine and supple. 
Hair thin and glossy like satin. Preferably self-coloured. The colour 
most prized is golden fawn, but all shades of fawn red, mouse, cream 
and white are recognised. Blacks, brindles and pied are considered 


less desirable. Action High stepping and free. Weight Two 
classes, one of 8 Ib. and under, the other over 8 Ib. 

The diminutive Shetland Sheepdog has many recommenda- 
tions as a pet. Like the sturdy little Shetland pony, this dog 
has not been made small by artificial selection. It is a Collie 
in miniature, no larger than a Pomeranian, and it is perfectly 
hardy, wonderfully sagacious, and decidedly beautiful. At 
first glance the dog might easily be mistaken for a Belgian 
Butterfly dog, for its ears are somewhat large and upstanding, 
with a good amount of feather about them ; but upon closer 
acquaintance the Collie shape and nature become more 

The body is long and set low, on stout, short legs, which end 
in long-shaped, feathered feet. The tail is a substantial brush, 
beautifully carried, and the coat is long and inclined to 
silkiness, with a considerable neck-frill. The usual weight is 
from six to ten pounds, the dog being of smaller size than 
the bitch. The prettiest are all white, or white with rich 
sable markings, but many are black and tan or all black. 
The head is short and the face not so aquiline as that of 
the large Collie. The eyes are well proportioned to the 
size of the head, and have a singularly soft round brightness, 
reminding one of the eye of a woodcock or a snipe. 

The Shetlanders use them with the sheep, and they are 
excellent little workers, intelligent and very active, and as 
hardy as terriers. Dog lovers in search of novelty might do 
worse than take up this attractive and certainly genuine breed. 


MANY people are deterred from keeping dogs by the belief 
that the hobby is expensive and that it entails a profitless 
amount of trouble and anxiety ; but to the true dog-lover 
the anxiety and trouble are far outbalanced by the pleasures 
of possession, and as to the expense, that is a matter which can 
be regulated at will. A luxuriously appointed kennel of 
valuable dogs, who are pampered into sickness, may, indeed, 
become a serious drain upon the owner's banking account, 
but if managed on business principles the occupation is capable 
of yielding a very respectable income. One does not wish 
to see dog-keeping turned into a profession, and there seems 
to be something mean in making money by our pets ; but the 
process of drafting is necessary when the kennel is overstocked, 
and buying and selling are among the interesting accessories 
of the game, second only to the pleasurable excitement of 
submitting one's favourites to the judgment of the show-ring. 
The delights of breeding and rearing should be their own 
reward, as they usually are, yet something more than mere 
pin-money can be made by the alert amateur who possesses 
a kennel of acknowledged merit, and who knows how to turn 
it to account. A champion ought easily to earn his own 
living : some are a source of handsome revenue. 

Occasionally one hears of very high prices being paid for 
dogs acknowledged to be perfect specimens of their breed. 
For the St. Bernard Sir Belvidere sixteen hundred pounds 
were offered. Plinlimmon was sold for a thousand, the same 
sum that was paid for the Bulldog Rodney Stone. For the 



Collies Southport Perfection and Ormskirk Emerald Mr 
Megson paid a thousand sovereigns each. Size is no criterion 
of a dog's market value ; Mrs. Ashton Cross is said to have 
refused two thousand pounds for her celebrated Pekinese 
Chu Erh, and there are many lap-dogs now living that could 
not be purchased for that high price. These are sums which 
only a competent judge with a long purse would dream of 
paying for an animal whose tenure of active life can hardly be 
more than eight or ten years, and already the dog's value 
must have been attested by his success in competition. It 
requires an expert eye to perceive the potentialities of a 
puppy, and there is always an element of speculative risk for 
both buyer and seller. Many a dog that has been sold for a 
song has grown to be a famous champion. At Cruft's show 
in 1905 the Bulldog Mahomet was offered for ten pounds. 
No one was bold enough to buy him, yet eighteen monthi 
afterwards he was sold and considered cheap at a thousand. 
Uncertainty adds zest to a hobby that is in itself engaging. 

Thanks to the influence of the Kennel Club and the institu- 
tion of dog shows, which have encouraged the improvement of 
distinct breeds, there are fewer nondescript mongrels in our 
midst than there were a generation or so ago. A fuller 
knowledge has done much to increase the pride which the 
British people take in their canine companions, and our 
present population of dogs has never been equalled for good 
quality in any other age or any other land. 

The beginner cannot easily go wrong or be seriously cheated, 
but it is well when making a first purchase to take the advice 
of an expert and to be very certain of the dog's pedigree, age, 
temper, and condition. The approved method of buying a 
dog is to select one advertised for sale in the weekly journals 
devoted to the dog. A better way still, if a dog of distin- 
guished pedigree is desired, is to apply direct to a well-known 
owner of the required breed, or to visit one of the great annual 
shows, such as Cruft's, Manchester, The Ladies' Kennel 
Association, The Kennel Club (Crystal Palace, in October), 


The Scottish Kennel Club, or Birmingham, and there choose 
the dog from the benches, buying him at his catalogue price. 

In determining the choice of a breed it is to be remembered 
that some are better watchdogs than others, some more 
docile, some safer with children. The size of the breed should 
be relative to the accommodation available. To have a St. 
Bernard or a Great Dane galumphing about a small house is 
an inconvenience, and sporting dogs which require constant 
exercise and freedom are not suited to the confined life of a 
Bloomsbury flat. Nor are the long-haired breeds at their 
best draggling round in the wet, muddy streets of a city. 
For town life the clean-legged Terrier, the Bulldog, the Pug, 
and the Schipperke are to be preferred. Bitches are cleaner 
in the house and more tractable than dogs. The idea that 
they are more trouble than dogs is a fallacy. The difficulty 
arises only twice in a twelvemonth for a few days, and if you 
are watchful there need be no misadventure. 

If only one dog, or two or three of the smaller kinds, be kept, 
there is no imperative need for an outdoor kennel, although 
all dogs are the better for life in the open air. The house-dog 
may be fed with meat-scraps from the kitchen served as an 
evening meal, with rodnim or a dry biscuit for breakfast. 
The duty of feeding him should be in the hands of one person 
only. When it is everybody's and nobody's duty he is apt 
to be neglected at one time and overfed at another. Regu- 
larity of feeding is one of the secrets of successful dog-keeping. 
It ought also to be one person's duty to see that he has frequent 
access to the yard or garden, that he gets plenty of clean drink- 
ing water, plenty of outdoor exercise, and a comfortable bed. 

For the toy and delicate breeds it is a good plan to have a 
dog-room set apart, with a suitable cage or basket-kennel for 
each dog. 

Even delicate Toy dogs, however, ought not to be per- 
manently lodged within doors, and the dog-room is only com- 
plete when it has as an annexe a grass plot for playground 
and free exercise. Next to wholesome and regular food, 


fresh air and sunshine are the prime necessaries of healthy 
condition. Weakness and disease come more frequently from 
injudicious feeding and housing than from any other cause. 
Among the free and ownerless pariah dogs of the East disease 
is almost unknown. 

For the kennels of our British-bred dogs, perhaps a southern 
or a south-western aspect is the best, but wherever it is placed 
the kennel must be sufficiently sheltered from rain and wind, 
and it ought to be provided with a covered run in which the 
inmates may have full liberty. An awning of some kind is 
necessary. Trees afford good shelter from the sun-rays, but 
they harbour moisture, and damp must be avoided at all 
costs. When only one outdoor dog is kept, a kennel can be 
improvised out of a packing-case, supported on bricks above 
the ground, with the entrance properly shielded from the 
weather. No dog should be allowed to live in a kennel in 
which he cannot turn round at full length. Properly con- 
structed, portable, and well- ventilated kennels for single 
dogs are not expensive and are greatly to be preferred to any 
amateurish makeshift. A good one for a terrier need not 
cost more than a pound. It is usually the single dog that 
suffers most from imperfect accommodation. His kennel is 
generally too small to admit of a good bed of straw, and if 
there is no railed-in run attached he must needs be chained 
up. The dog that is kept on the chain becomes dirty in his 
habits, unhappy, and savage. His chain is often too short and 
is not provided with swivels to avert kinks. On a sudden 
alarm, or on the appearance of a trespassing tabby, he will 
often bound forward at the risk of dislocating his neck. 
The yard-dog's chain ought always to be fitted with a stop 
link spring to counteract the effect of the sudden jerk. The 
method may be employed with advantage in the garden for 
several dogs, a separate rope being used for each. Unfriendly 
dogs can thus be kept safely apart and still be to some extent 
at liberty. 

There is no obvious advantage in keeping a watch-dog 


on the chain rather than in an enclosed compound, unless he 
is expected to go for a possible burglar and attack him. 
A wire-netting enclosure can easily be constructed at very 
little expense. For the more powerful dogs the use of wrought- 
iron railings is advisable, and these can be procured cheaply 
from Spratt's or Boulton and Paul's, fitted with gates and 
with revolving troughs for feeding from the outside. 

Opinions differ as to the best material for the flooring of 
kennels and the paving of runs. Asphalte is suitable for 
either in mild weather, but in summer it becomes uncomfort- 
ably hot for the feet, unless it is partly composed of cork. 
Concrete has its advantages if the surface can be kept dry. 
Flagstones are cold for winter, as also are tiles and bricks. 
For terriers, who enjoy burrowing, earth is the best ground 
for the run, and it can be kept free from dirt and buried bones 
by a rake over in the morning, while tufts of grass left round 
the margins supply the dogs' natural medicine. The movable 
sleeping bench must, of course, be of wood, raised a few 
inches above the floor, with a ledge to keep in the straw or 
other bedding. Wooden floors are open to the objection that 
they absorb the urine ; but dogs should be taught not to 
foul their nest, and in any case a frequent disinfecting with a 
solution of Pearson's or J eyes' fluid should obviate impurity, 
while fleas, which take refuge in the dust between the planks, 
may be dismissed or kept away with a sprinkling of paraffin. 
Whatever the flooring, scrupulous cleanliness in the kennel is 
a prime necessity, and the inner walls should be frequently 
limewashed. It is important, too, that no scraps of rejected 
food or bones should be left lying about to become putrid or 
to tempt the visits of rats, which bring fleas. If the dogs do 
not finish their food when it is served to them, it should be 
removed until hunger gives appetite for the next meal. 

Many breeders of the large and thick-coated varieties, such 
as St. Bernards, Newfoundlands, Old English Sheepdogs, 
and rough-haired Collies, give their dogs nothing to lie upon 
but clean bare boards. The coat is itself a sufficient cushion. 


but in winter weather straw gives added warmth, and for 
short-haired dogs something soft, if it is only a piece of carpet 
or a sack, is needed as a bed to protect the hocks from abrasion. 
With regard to feeding, this requires to be studied in rela- 
tion to the particular breed. One good meal a day, served by 
preference in the evening, is sufficient for the adult if a dry 
dog-cake or a handful of rodnim be given for breakfast, and 
perhaps a large bone to gnaw at. Clean cold water must al- 
ways be at hand in all weathers, and a drink of milk coloured 
with tea is nourishing. Goat's milk is particularly suitable 
for the dog: many owners keep goats on their premises to 
give a constant supply. It is a mistake to suppose, as many 
persons do, that meat diet provokes eczema and other skin 
troubles ; the contrary is the case. The dog is by nature a 
carnivorous animal, and wholesome flesh, either cooked or 
raw, should be his staple food. Horseflesh, which is frequently 
used in large establishments, is not so fully to be relied upon 
as ordinary butcher meat. There is no serious objection to 
bullocks' heads, sheeps' heads, bullocks' tripes and paunches 
and a little liver given occasionally is an aperient food which 
most dogs enjoy. But when it can be afforded, wholesome 
butcher's meat is without question the proper food. Oatmeal 
porridge, rice, barley, linseed meal, and bone meal ought 
only to be regarded as occasional additions to the usual meat 
diet, and are not necessary when dog cakes are regularly 
supplied. Well-boiled green vegetables, such as cabbage, 
turnip-tops, and nettle-tops, are good mixed with the meat ; 
potatoes are questionable. Of the various advertised dog 
foods, many of which are excellent, the choice may be left to 
those who are fond of experiment, or who seek for convenient 
substitutes for the old-fashioned and wholesome diet of the 
household. Sickly dogs require invalid's treatment ; but the 
best course is usually the simplest, and, given a sound consti- 
tution to begin with, any dog ought to thrive if he is only 
properly housed, carefully fed, and gets abundant exercise. 


THE modern practice of dog-breeding in Great Britain has 
reached a condition which may be esteemed as an art. At no 
other time, and in no other country, have the various canine 
types been kept more rigidly distinct or brought to a higher 
level of perfection. Formerly dog-owners apart from the 
keepers of packs of hounds paid scant attention to the 
differentiation of breeds and the conservation of type, and 
they considered it no serious breach of duty to ignore the 
principles of scientific selection, and thus contribute to the 
multiplication of mongrels. Discriminate breeding was rare, 
and if a Bulldog should mate himself with a Greyhound, or a 
Spaniel with a Terrier, the alliance was regarded merely as an 
inconvenience. So careless were owners in preventing the 
promiscuous mingling of alien breeds that it is little short 
of surprising so many of our canine types have been preserved 
in their integrity. 

The elimination of the nondescript cur is no doubt largely 
due to the work of the homes for lost dogs that are instituted 
in most of our great towns. Every year some 26,000 homeless 
and ownerless canines are picked up by the police in the streets 
of London, and during the forty-seven years which have elapsed 
since the Dogs' Home at Battersea was established, upwards 
of 800,000 dogs have passed through the books, a few to be 
reclaimed or bought, the great majority to be put to death. 
A very large proportion of these have been veritable mongrels, 
not worth the value of their licences diseased and maimed 
curs, or bitches in whelp, turned ruthlessly adrift to be 



consigned to the oblivion of the lethal chamber, where the 
thoroughbred seldom finds its way. And if as many as 500 
undesirables are destroyed every week at one such institution, 
'tis clear that the ill-bred mongrel must soon altogether 
disappear. But the chief factor in the general improvement 
of our canine population is due to the steadily growing care 
and pride which are bestowed upon the dog, and to the 
scientific skill with which he is being bred. 

Admitting that the dogs seen at our best contemporary 
shows are superlative examples of scientific selection, one has 
yet to acknowledge that the process of breeding for show points 
has its disadvantages, and that, in the sporting and pastoral 
varieties more especially, utility is apt to be sacrificed to 
ornament and type, and stamina to fancy qualities not always 
relative to the animal's capacities as a worker. The stand- 
ards of perfection and scales of points laid down by the 
specialist clubs are usually admirable guides to the uninitiated, 
but they are often unreasonably arbitrary in their insistence 
upon certain details of form generally in the neighbourhood 
of the head while they leave the qualities of type and 
character to look after themselves or to be totally ignored. 

It is necessary to assure the beginner in breeding that points 
are essentially of far less moment than type and a good con- 
stitution. The one thing necessary in the cultivation of the 
dog is to bear in mind the purpose for which he is supposed 
to be employed, and to aim at adapting or conserving his 
physique to the best fulfilment of that purpose, remembering 
that the Greyhound has tucked-up loins to give elasticity and 
bend to the body in running, that a Terrier is kept small to 
enable him the better to enter an earth, that a Bulldog is 
massive and undershot for encounters in the bullring, that the 
Collie's ears are erected to assist him in hearing sounds from 
afar, as those of the Bloodhound are pendant, the more 
readily to detect sounds coming to him along the ground while 
his head is bent to the trail. Nature has been discriminate 
in her adaptations of animal forms, and the most perfect 


dog yet bred is the one which approaches nearest to Nature's 
wise intention. 

The foregoing chapters have given abundant examples of 
how the various breeds of the dog have been acquired, 
manufactured, improved, resuscitated, and retained. Broadly 
speaking, two methods have been adopted : The method of 
introducing an outcross to impart new blood, new strength, 
new character ; and the method of inbreeding to retain an 
approved type. An outcross is introduced when the breed 
operated upon is declining in stamina or is in danger 
of extinction, or when some new physical or mental 
quality is desired. New types and eccentricities are 
hardly wanted, however, and the extreme requirements of 
an outcross may nowadays be achieved by the simple process 
of selecting individuals from differing strains of the same 
breed, mating a bitch which lacks the required points with a 
dog in whose family they are prominently and consistently 

Inbreeding is the reverse of outcrossing. It is the practice 
of mating animals closely related to each other, and it is, 
within limits, an entirely justifiable means of preserving and 
intensifying family characteristics. It is a law in zoology 
that an animal cannot transmit a quality which it does not 
itself innately possess, or which none of its progenitors has 
ever possessed. By mating a dog and a bitch of the same 
family, therefore, you concentrate and enhance the uniform 
inheritable qualities into one line instead of two, and you 
reduce the number of possibly heterogeneous ancestors by 
exactly a half right back to the very beginning. There is no 
surer way of maintaining uniformity of type, and an examina- 
tion of the extended pedigree of almost any famous dog will 
show how commonly inbreeding is practised. Inbreeding is 
certainly advantageous when managed with judgment and 
discreet selection, but it has its disadvantages also, for it is 
to be remembered that faults and blemishes are inherited as 
well as merits, and that the faults have a way of asserting 


themselves with annoying persistency. Furthermore, breed- 
ing between animals closely allied in parentage is prone to 
lead to degeneracy, physical weakness, and mental stupidity, 
while impotence and sterility are frequent concomitants, and 
none but experienced breeders should attempt so hazardous 
an experiment. Observation has proved that the union of 
father with daughter and mother with son is preferable to an 
alliance between brother and sister. Perhaps the best 
union is that between cousins. For the preservation of 
general type, however, it ought to be sufficient to keep to one 
strain and to select from that strain members who, while 
exhibiting similar characteristics, are not actually too closely 
allied in consanguinity. To move perpetually from one 
strain to another is only to court an undesirable confusion of 

In founding a kennel it is advisable to begin with the posses- 
sion of a bitch. As a companion the female is to be preferred 
to the male ; she is not less affectionate and faithful, and she is 
usually much cleaner in her habits in the house. If it is 
intended to breed by her, she should be very carefully chosen 
and proved to be free from any serious fault or predisposition 
to disease. Not only should her written pedigree be scrupu- 
lously scrutinised, but her own constitution and that of her 
parents on both sides should be minutely inquired into. 

A bitch comes into season for breeding twice in a year ; 
the first time when she is reaching maturity, usually at the 
age of from seven to ten months. Her condition will readily 
be discerned by the fact of an increased attentiveness of the 
opposite sex and the appearance of a mucous discharge from 
the vagina. She should then be carefully protected from the 
gallantry of suitors. Dogs kept in the near neighbourhood 
of a bitch on heat, who is not accessible to them, go off their 
feed and suffer in condition. With most breeds it is unwise 
to put a bitch to stud before she is eighteen months old, but 
Mr. Stubbs recommends that a Bull bitch should be allowed to 
breed at her first heat, while her body retains the flexibility of 


youth ; and there is no doubt that with regard to the Bulldog 
great mortality occurs in attempting to breed from maiden 
bitches exceeding three years old. In almost all breeds it is 
the case that the first three litters are the best. It is accord- 
ingly important that a proper mating should be considered 
at the outset, and a prospective sire selected either through 
the medium of stud advertisements or by private arrangement 
with the owner of the desired dog. For the payment of 
the requisite stud fee, varying from a guinea to ten or fifteen 
pounds, the services of the best dogs of the particular breed 
can usually be secured. It is customary for the bitch to be 
the visitor, and it is well that her visit should extend to two or 
three days at the least. When possible a responsible person 
should accompany her. 

If the stud dog is a frequenter of shows he can usually be 
depended upon to be in sound physical condition. No dog 
who is not so can be expected to win prizes. But it ought to 
be ascertained before hand that he is what is known as a good 
stock-getter. The fee is for his services, not for the result of 
them. Some owners of stud dogs will grant two services, 
and this is often desirable, especially in the case of a maiden 
bitch or of a stud dog that is over- wrought, as so many are. 
It is most important that both the mated animals should be 
free from worms and skin disorders. Fifty per cent, of the 
casualties among young puppies are due to one or other of 
the parents having been in an unhealthy condition when 
mated. A winter whelping is not advisable. It is best 
for puppies to be born in the spring or early summer, thus 
escaping the rigours of inclement weather. 

During the period of gestation the breeding bitch should 
have ample but not violent exercise, with varied and whole- 
some food, including some preparation of bone meal ; and at 
about the third week, whether she seems to require it or not, 
she should be treated for worms. At about the sixtieth day 
she will begin to be uneasy and restless. A mild purgative 
should be given ; usually salad oil is enough, but if constipa- 


tion is apparent castor oil may be necessary. On the sixty- 
second day the whelps may be expected, and everything ought 
to be in readiness for the event. 

A coarsely constituted bitch may be trusted to look after 
herself on these occasions ; no help is necessary, and one may 
come down in the morning to find her with her litter com- 
fortably nestling at her side. But with the Toy breeds, and 
the breeds that have been reared in artificial conditions, 
difficult or protracted parturition is frequent, and human 
assistance ought to be at hand in case of need. The owner 
of a valuable Bull bitch, for example, would never think of 
leaving her to her own unaided devices. All undue inter- 
ference, however, should be avoided, and it is absolutely 
necessary that the person attending her should be one with 
whom she is fondly familiar. 

In anticipation of a possibly numerous litter, a foster-mother 
should be arranged for beforehand. Comfortable quarters 
should be prepared in a quiet part of the house or kennels, 
warm, and free from draughts. Clean bedding of wheat en 
straw should be provided, but the bitch should be allowed to 
make her nest in her own instinctive fashion. Let her have 
easy access to drinking water. She will probable refuse food 
for a few hours before her time, but a little concentrated 
nourishment, such as Brand's Essence or a drink of warm milk, 
should be offered to her. In further preparation for the 
confinement a basin of water containing antiseptic for washing 
in, towels, warm milk, a flask of brandy, a bottle of ergotine, 
and a pair of scissors are commodities which may all be 
required in emergency. The ergot, which must be used with 
extreme caution and only when the labour pains have com- 
menced, is invaluable when parturition is protracted, and there 
is difficult straining without result. Its effect is to contract 
the womb and expel the contents. But when the puppies are 
expelled with ease it is superfluous. For a bitch of 10 Ib. 
in weight ten drops of the extract of ergot in a teaspoonful of 
water should be ample, given by the mouth. The scissors are 


for severing the umbilical cord if the mother should fail to do 
it in her own natural way. Sometimes a puppy may be en- 
closed within a membrane which the dam cannot readily open 
with tongue and teeth. If help is necessary it should be given 
tenderly and with clean fingers. Occasionally a puppy may 
seem to be inert and lifeless, and after repeatedly licking it 
the bitch may relinquish all effort at restoration and turn her 
attention to another that is being born. In such a circum- 
stance the rejected little one may be discreetly removed, and a 
drop of brandy on the point of the finger smeared upon its 
tongue may revive animation, or it may be plunged up to the 
neck in warm water. The object should be to keep it warm 
and to make it breathe. When the puppies are all born, their 
dam may be given a drink of warm milk and then left alone 
to their toilet and to suckle them. If any should be dead, these 
ought to be disposed of. Curiosity in regard to the others 
should be temporarily repressed, and inspection of them 
delayed until a more fitting opportunity. If any are then seen 
to be malformed or to have cleft palates, these had better 
be removed and mercifully destroyed. 

It is the experience of many observers that the first whelps 
born in a litter are the strongest, largest, and healthiest. If 
the litter is a large one, the last born may be noticeably puny, 
and this disparity in size may continue to maturity. The wise 
breeder will decide for himself how many whelps should be 
left to the care of their dam. The number should be relative 
to her health and constitution, and in any case it is well not 
to give her so many that they will be a drain upon her Those 
breeds of dogs that have been most highly developed by man 
and that appear to have the greatest amount of brain and 
intelligence are generally the most prolific as to the number of 
puppies they produce. St. Bernards, Pointers, Setters are 
notable for the usual strength of their families. St. Bernards 
have been known to produce as many as eighteen whelps at 
a birth, and it is no uncommon thing for them to produce from 
nine to twelve. A Pointer of Mr. Barclay Field's produced 


fifteen, and it is well known that Mr. Statter's Setter Phoebe 
produced twenty-one at a birth. Phoebe reared ten of these 
herself, and almost every one of the family became celebrated. 
It would be straining the natural possibilities of any bitch 
to expect her to bring up eighteen puppies healthily. Half that 
number would tax her natural resources to the extreme. 
But Nature is extraordinarily adaptive in tempering the wind 
to the shorn lamb, and a dam who gives birth to a numerous 
litter ought not to have her family unduly reduced. It was 
good policy to allow Phcebe to have the rearing of as many 
as ten out of her twenty-one. A bitch having twelve will 
bring up nine very well, one having nine will rear seven with- 
out help, and a bitch having seven will bring up five better 
than four. 

Breeders of Toy-dogs often rear the overplus offspring by 
hand, with the help of a Maw and Thompson feeding-bottle, 
peptonised milk, and one or more of the various advertised 
infants' foods or orphan puppy foods. Others prefer to 
engage or prepare in advance a foster-mother. The foster- 
mother need not be of the same breed, but she should be 
approximately of similar size, and her own family ought to be 
of the same age as the one of which she is to take additional 
charge. One can usually be secured through advertisement 
in the canine press. Some owners do not object to taking 
one from a dogs' home, which is an easy method, in con- 
sideration of the circumstance that by far the larger number 
of " lost " dogs are bitches sent adrift because they are in 
whelp. The chief risk in this course is that the unknown foster- 
mother may be diseased or verminous or have contracted the 
seeds of distemper, or her milk may be populated with embryo 
worms. These are dangers to guard against. A cat makes 
an excellent foster-mother for Toy-dog puppies. 

Worms ought not to be a necessary accompaniment of 
puppyhood, and if the sire and dam are properly attended 
to in advance they need not be. The writer has attended 
at the birth of puppies, not one of whom has shown the 


remotest sign of having a worm, and the puppies have almost 
galloped into healthy, happy maturity, protected from all the 
usual canine ailments by constitutions impervious to disease. 
He has seen others almost eaten away by worms. Great 
writhing knots of them have been ejected ; they have been 
vomited ; they have wriggled out of the nostrils ; they have 
perforated the stomach and wrought such damage that most 
of the puppies succumbed, and those that survived were 
permanently deficient in stamina and liable to go wrong on the 
least provocating. The puppy that is free from worms starts 
life with a great advantage. 



THE experienced dog-owner has long ago realised that cleanliness, 
wholesome food, judicious exercise and a dry, comfortable and well- 
ventilated kennel are the surest safeguards of health, and that attention 
to these necessaries saves him an infinitude of trouble and anxiety 
by protecting his dogs from disease. On the first appearance of illness 
in his kennels the wise dog-owner at once calls in the skill of a good 
veterinary surgeon, but there are some of the minor ailments which he 
can deal with himself whilst he ought at least to be able to recognise 
the first symptoms of the dreaded Distemper and give first aid until the 
vet. arrives to apply his remedies and give professional advice. 


Although more than one hundred years have elapsed since this 
was first imported to this country from France, a great amount of 
misunderstanding still prevails among a large section of dog-breeders 
regarding its true nature and origin. The fact is, the disease came 
to us with a bad name, for the French themselves deemed it incurable. 
In this country the old-fashioned plan of treatment was wont to be 
the usual rough remedies emetics, purgatives, the seton, and the 
lancet. Failing in this, specifics of all sorts were eagerly sought for 
and tried, and are unfortunately still believed in to a very great extent. 

Distemper has a certain course to run, and in this disease Nature 
seems to attempt the elimination of the poison through the secretions 
thrown out by the naso-pharyngeal mucous membrane. 

Our chief difficulty in the treatment of distemper lies in the 
complications thereof. We may, and often do, have the organs of 
respiration attacked; we have sometimes congestion of the liver, or 
mucous inflammation of the bile ducts, or some lesion of the brain or 
nervous structures, combined with epilepsy, convulsions, or chorea. 
Distemper is also often complicated with severe disease of the bowels, 
and at times with an affection of the eyes. 

Causes Whether it be that the distemper virus, the poison seedling 
of the disease, really originates in the kennel, or is the result of contact 
of one dog with another, or whether the poison floats to the kennel on 
the wings of the wind, or is carried there on a shoe or the point of a 
walking-stick, the following facts ought to be borne in mind : (1) Any- 
thing that debilitates the body or weakens the nervous system paves 



the way for the distemper poison ; (2) the healthier the dog the more 
power does he possess to resist contagion ; (3) when the disease is 
epizootic, it can often be kept at bay by proper attention to diet and 
exercise, frequent change of kennel straw, and perfect cleanliness ; 
(4) the predisposing causes which have come more immediately under 
my notice are debility, cold, damp, starvation, filthy kennels, un- 
wholesome food, impure air, and grief. 

The Age at which Dogs take Distemper They may take distemper 
at any age ; the most common time of life is from the fifth till the 
eleventh or twelfth month. 

Symptoms There is, first and foremost, a period of latency or of 
incubation, in which there is more or less of dullness and loss of appetite, 
and this glides gradually into a state of feverishness. The fever may 
be ushered in with chills and shivering. The nose now becomes hot 
and dry, the dog is restless and thirsty, and the conjunctiva; of the eyes 
will be found to be considerably injected. Sometimes the bowels 
are at first constipated, but they are more usually irregular. Sneezing 
will also be frequent, and in some cases cough, dry and husky at first. 
The temperature should be taken, and if there is a rise of two or three 
degrees the case should be treated as distemper, and not as a common 

At the commencement there is but little exudation from the eyes 
and nose, but as the disease advances this symptom will become more 
marked, being clear at first. So, too, will another symptom which 
is partially diagnostic of the malady, namely, increased heat of body 
combined with a rapid falling of! in flesh, sometimes, indeed, proceeding 
quickly on to positive emaciation. 

As the disease creeps downwards and inwards along the air-passages, 
the chest gets more and more affected, the discharge of mucus and pus 
from the nostrils more abundant, and the cough loses its dry character, 
becoming moist. The discharge from the eyes is simply mucus and pus, 
but if not constantly dried away will gum the inflamed lids together, 
that from the nostrils is not only purulent, but often mixed with dark 
blood. The appetite is now clean gone, and there is often vomiting 
and occasional attacks of diarrhoea. 

Now in mild cases we may look for some abatement of the symptoms 
about the fourteenth day. The fever gets less, inflammation decreases 
in the mucous passages, and appetite is restored as one of the first signs 
of returning health. More often, however, the disease becomes 

Diagnosis The diagnostic symptoms are the severe catarrh, 
combined not only with /ever, but speedy emaciation. 

Pneumonia, as we might easily imagine, is a very likely complication, 
and a very dangerous one. There is great distress in breathing, the 
animal panting rapidly. The countenance is anxious, the pulse small 
and frequent, and the extremities cold. The animal would fain sit up 
on his haunches, or even seek to get out into the fresh air, but sickness, 
weakness, and prostration often forbid his movements. If the ear 
or stethoscope be applied to the chest, the characteristic signs of 
pneumonia will be heard ; these are sounds of moist crepitations, etc. 

Bronchitis is probably the most common complication ; in fact, 


it is always present, except in very mild cases. The cough becomes 
more severe, and often comes on in tearing paroxysms, causing sickness 
and vomiting. The breathing is short and frequent, the mouth hot 
and filled with viscid saliva, while very often the bowels are constipated. 
If the liver becomes involved, we shall very soon have the jaundiced 
eye and the yellow skin. Diarrhoea is another very common com- 
plication. We have frequent purging and, maybe, sickness and 
vomiting. Fits of a convulsive character are frequent concomitants of 
distemper. Epilepsy is sometimes seen, owing, no doubt, to degenera- 
tion of the nerve centres caused by blood-poisoning. There are many 
other complications, and skin complaints are common after it. 

Treatment This consists firstly in doing all in our power to guide 
the specific catarrhal fever to a safe termination ; and, secondly, 
in watching for and combating complications. Whenever we see a 
young dog ailing, losing appetite, exhibiting catarrhal symptoms, 
and getting thin, with a rise in temperature, we should not lose an hour. 
If he be an indoor dog, find him a good bed in a clean, well-ventilated 
apartment, free from lumber and free from dirt. If it be summer, 
have all the windows out or opened ; if winter, a little fire will be 
necessary, but have half the window opened at the same time ; only 
take precautions against his lying in a draught. Fresh air in cases 
of distemper, and, indeed, in fevers of all kinds, cannot be too highly 

The more rest the dog has the better ; he must be kept free from 
excitement, and care must be taken to guard him against cold and wet 
when he goes out of doors to obey the calls of Nature. The most 
perfect cleanliness must be enjoined, and disinfectants used, such as 
permanganate of potash, carbolic acid, Pearson's, or Izal. If the 
sick dog, on the other hand, be one of a kennel of dogs, then quarantine 
must be adopted. The hospital should be quite removed from the 
vicinity of all other dogs, and as soon as the animal is taken from the 
kennel the latter should be thoroughly cleansed and disinfected, and 
the other dogs kept warm and dry, well fed, and moderately exercised. 

Food and Drink For the first three or four days let the food be light 
and easily digested. In order to induce the animal to take it, it should 
be as palatable as possible. For small dogs you cannot have anything 
better than milk porridge.* At all events, the dog must, if possible, 
be induced to eat ; he must not be " horned " unless there be great 
emaciation ; he must not over-eat, but what he gets must be good. 
As to drink, dogs usually prefer clean cold water, and we cannot do 
harm by mixing therewith a little plain nitre. 

Medicine Begin by giving a simple dose of castor oil, just enough 
and no more than will clear out the bowels by one or two motions. 
Drastic purgatives, and medicines such as mercury, jalap, aloes, and 
podophyllyn, cannot be too highly condemned. For very small 
Toy dogs, such as Italian Greyhounds, Yorkshire Terriers, etc., I should 
not recommend even oil itself, but manna one drachm to two drachms 
dissolved in milk. By simply getting the bowels to act once or twice, 
we shall have done enough for the first day, and have only to make 
the dog comfortable for the night. 

* Oatmeal porridge made with milk instead of water. 


On the next day begin with a mixture such as the following : Solution 
of acetate of ammonia, 30 drops to 120 ; sweet spirits of nitre, 15 drops 
to 60 ; salicylate of soda, 2 grains to 10. Thrice daily in a little camphor 

If the cough be very troublesome and the fever does not run very 
high, the following may be substituted for this on the second or third 
day : Syrup of squills, 10 drops to 60 ; tincture of henbane, 10 drops 
to 60 ; sweet spirits of nitre, 10 drops to 60, in camphor water. 

A few drops of dilute hydrochloric acid should be added to the dog's 
drink, and two teaspoonfuls (to a quart of water) of the chlorate of 
potash. This makes an excellent fever drink, especially if the dog 
can be got to take decoction of barley barley-water instead of plain 
cold water, best made of Keen and Robinson's patent barley. 

If there be persistent sickness and vomiting, the medicine must 
be stopped for a time. Small boluses of ice frequently administered 
will do much good, and doses of dilute prussic acid, from one to four 
drops in a little water, will generally arrest the vomiting. 

If constipation be present, we must use no rough remedies to get 
rid of it. A little raw meat cut into small pieces minced, in fact 
or a small portion of raw liver, may be given if there be little fever ; 
if there be fever, we are to trust for a time to injections of plain soap- 
and- water. Diarrhoea, although often a troublesome symptom, is, 
it must be remembered, a salutary one. Unless, therefore, it becomes 
excessive, do not interfere ; if it does, give the simple chalk mixture 
three times a day, but no longer than is needful. 

The discharge from the mouth and nose is to be wiped away with a 
soft rag or, better still, some tow, which is afterwards to be burned 
wetted with a weak solution of carbolic. The forehead, eyes, and nose 
may be fomented two or three times a day with moderately hot water 
with great advantage. 

It is not judicious to wet a long-haired dog much, but a short-haired one 
may have the chest and throat well fomented several times a day, and 
well rubbed dry afterwards. Heat applied to the chests of long-haired 
dogs by means of a flat iron will also effect good. 

The following is an excellent tonic : Sulphate of quinine, i to 3 grains ; 
powdered rhubarb, 2 to 10 grains ; extract of taraxacum, 3 to 20 
grains ; make a bolus. Thrice daily. 

During convalescence good food, Virol, Spratts' invalid food and 
invalid biscuit, moderate exercise, fresh air, and protection from cold. 
These, with an occasional mild dose of castor oil or rhubarb, are to be 
our sheet-anchors. I find no better tonic than the tablets of Phos- 
ferine. One quarter of a tablet thrice daily, rolled in tissue paper, for 
a Toy dog, up to two tablets for a dog of Mastiff size. 


Dogs that have been exposed to wet, or that have been put to lie in 
a damp or draughty kennel with insufficient food, are not less liable 
than their masters to catch a severe cold, which, if not promptly 
attended to, may extend downward to the lining membranes of bronchi 
or lungs. In such cases there is always symptoms more or less of fever, 
with fits of shivering and thirst, accompanied with dullness, a tired appear- 


ance and loss of appetite. The breath is short, inspirations painful, and 
there is a rattling of mucus in chest or throat. The most prominent 
symptom, perhaps, is the frequent cough. It is at first dry, ringing, 
and evidently painful ; in a few days, however, or sooner, it softens, 
and there is a discharge of frothy mucus with it, and, in the latter 
stages, of pus and ropy mucus. 

Treatment Keep the patient in a comfortable, well-ventilated 
apartment, with free access in and out if the weather be dry. Let the 
bowels be freely acted upon to begin with, but no weakening discharge 
from the bowels must be kept up. After the bowels have been moved 
we should commence the exhibition of small doses of tartar emetic 
with squills and opium thrice a day. If the cough is very troublesome, 
give this mixture : Tincture of squills, 5 drops to 30 ; paregoric, 10 
drops to 60 ; tartar emetic, one-sixteenth of a grain to 1 grain ; syrup 
and water a sufficiency. Thrice daily. 

We may give a full dose of opium every night. In mild cases car- 
bonate of ammonia may be tried ; it often does good, the dose being 
from two grains to ten in camphor water, or even plain water. 

The chronic form of bronchitis will always yield, if the dog is young, 
to careful feeding, moderate exercise, and the exhibition of cod-liver 
oil with a mild iron tonic. The exercise, however, must be moderate, 
and the dog kept from the water. A few drops to a teaspoonful of 
paregoric, given at night, will do good, and the bowels should be kept 
regular, and a simple laxative pill given now and then. 


or looseness of the bowels, or purging, is a very common disease among 
dogs of all ages and breeds. It is, nevertheless, more common among 
puppies about three or four months old, and among dogs who have 
reached the age of from seven to ten years. It is often symptomatic 
of other ailments. 

Causes Very numerous. In weakly dogs exposure alone will 
produce it. The weather, too, has no doubt much to do with the 
production of diarrhoea. In most kennels it is more common in the 
months of July and August, although it often comes on in the very dead 
of winter. Puppies, if overfed, will often be seized with this trouble- 
some complaint. A healthy puppy hardly ever knows when it has 
had enough, and it will, moreover, stuff itself with all sorts of garbage ; 
acidity of the stomach follows, with vomiting of the ingesta, and 
diarrhoea succeeds, brought on by the acrid condition of the chyme, 
which finds its way into the duodenum. This stuff would in itself act 
as a purgative, but it does more, it abnormally excites the secretions 
of the whole alimentary canal, and a sort of sub-acute mucous in- 
flammation is set up. The liver, too, becomes mixed up with the 
mischief, throws out a superabundance of bile, and thus aids in keeping 
up the diarrhrea. 

Among other causes, we find the eating of indigestible food, drinking 
foul or tainted water, too much green food, raw paunches, foul kennels, 
and damp, draughty kennels. 

Symptoms The purging is, of course, the principal symptom, and the 
stools are either quite liquid or semi-fluid, bilious-looking, dirty-brown 


or clay-coloured, or mixed with slimy mucus. In some cases they 
resemble dirty water. Sometimes, as already said, a little blood will 
be found in the dejection, owing to congestion of the mucous mem- 
brane from liver obstruction. In case there be blood in the stools, 
a careful examination is always necessary in order to ascertain the real 
state of the patient. Blood, it must be remembered, might come 
from piles or polypi, or it might be dysenteric, and proceed from ulcera- 
tion of the rectum and colon. In the simplest form of diarrhoea, unless 
the disease continues for a long time, there will not be much wasting, 
and the appetite will generally remain good but capricious. 

In bilious diarrhoea, with large brown fluid stools and complete loss 
of appetite, there is much thirst, and in a few days the dog gets rather 
thin, although nothing like so rapidly as in the emaciation of distemper. 
The Treatment will, it need hardly be said, depend upon the cause, 
but as it is generally caused by the presence in the intestine of some 
irritating matter, we can hardly err by administering a small dose 
of castor oil, combining with it, if there be much pain which you can 
tell by the animal's countenance from 5 to 20 or 30 drops of laudanum, 
or of the solution of the muriate of morphia. This in itself will often 
suffice to cut short an attack. The oil is preferable to rhubarb, but 
the latter may be tried the simple, not the compound powderdose 
from 10 grains to 2 drachms in bolus. 

If the diarrhoea should continue next day, proceed cautiously 
remember there is no great hurry, and a sudden check to diarrhoea 
is at times dangerous to administer dog doses of the aromatic chalk 
and opium powder, or give the following medicine three times a day : 
Compound powdered catechu, 1 grain to 10 ; powdered chalk with 
opium, 3 grains to 30. Mix. If the diarrhoea still continues, good 
may accrue from a trial of the following mixture : Laudanum, 5 to 30 
drops ; dilute sulphuric acid, 2 to 15 drops ; in camphor water. 

This after every liquid motion, or, if the motions may not be ob- 
served, three times a day. If blood should appear in the stools give 
the following : Kino powder, 1 to 10 grains ; powder ipecac., J to 3 
grains ; powdered opium $ to 2 grains. This may be made into a bolus 
with any simple extract, and given three times a day. 

The food is of importance. The diet should be changed ; the food 
requires to be of a non-stimulating kind, no meat being allowed, but 
milk and bread, sago, or arrowroot or rice, etc. The drink either 
pure water, with a pinch or two of chlorate and nitrate of potash in it, 
or patent barley-water if the dog will take it. 

The bed must be warm and clean, and free from draughts, and, 
in all cases of diarrhoea, one cannot be too particular with the cleanliness 
and disinfection of the kennels. 


more commonly called costiveness, is also a very common complaint. 
It often occurs in the progress of other diseases, but is just as often a 
separate ailment. 

Perhaps no complaint to which our canine friends are liable is less 
understood by the non-professional dog doctor and by dog owners 
themselves. Often caused by weakness in the coats of the intestine. 


The exhibition of purgatives can only have a temporary effect in reliev- 
ing the symptoms, and is certain to be followed by reaction, and 
consequently by further debility. Want of exercise and bath common 

Youatt was never more correct in his life than when he said : " Many 
dogs have a dry constipated habit, often greatly increased by the 
bones on which they are fed. This favours the disposition to mange, 
etc. It produces indigestion, encourages worms, blackens the teeth , 
and causes fetid breath." 

Symptoms The stools are hard, usually in large round balls, and 
defecation is accomplished with great difficulty, the animal often 
having to try several times before he succeeds in effecting the act, and 
this only after the most acute suffering. The faeces are generally 
covered with white mucus, showing the heat and semi-dry condition of 
the gut. The stool is sometimes so dry as to fall to pieces like so 
much oatmeal. 

There is generally also a deficiency of bile in the motions, and, 
in addition to simple costiveness, we have more or less loss of appetite, 
with a too pale tongue, dullness, and sleepiness, with slight redness 
of the conjunctiva. Sometimes constipation alternates with diarrhoea, 
the food being improperly commingled with the gastric and other 
juices, ferments, spoils, and becomes, instead of healthy blood-produc- 
ing chyme, an irritant purgative. 

Treatment Hygienic treatment more than medicinal. Mild doses 
of castor oil, compound rhubarb pill, or olive oil, may at first be neces- 
sary. Sometimes an enema will be required if the medicine will not act. 

Plenty of exercise and a swim daily (with a good run after the swim), 
or instead of the swim a bucket bath water thrown over the dog. 

Give oatmeal, rather than flour or fine bread, as the staple of his 
diet, but a goodly allowance of meat is to be given as well, with cabbage 
or boiled liver, or even a portion of raw liver. Fresh air and exercise 
in the fields. You may give a bolus before dinner, such as the follow- 
ing : Compound rhubarb pill, 1 to 5 grains ; quinine, $ to 2 grains ; 
extract of taraxacum, 2 to 10 grains. Mix. 


Whatever be the cause, they are very alarming. In puppies they are 
called CONVULSIONS, and resemble epileptic fits. Keep the dog very 
quiet, but use little force, simply enough to keep him from hurting 
himself. Keep out of the sun, or in a darkened room. When he can 
swallow give from 2 to 20 grains (according to size) of bromide of 
potassium in a little camphor water thrice daily for a few days. Only 
milk food. Keep quiet. 


In the whole range of dog ailments included in the term canine 
pathology there are none more bothersome to treat successfully nor 
more) difficult to diagnose than those of the skin. There are none either 
that afford the quack or patent-nostrum monger a larger field for the 
practice of his fiendish gifts. If I were to be asked the questions, 
" Why do dogs suffer so much from skin complaints ? " and " Why 


does it appear to be so difficult to treat them ? " I should answer the 
first thus : Through the neglect of their owners, from want of cleanli- 
ness, from injudicious feeding, from bad kennelling, and from per- 
mitting their favourites such free intercourse with other members of 
the canine fraternity. Overcrowding is another and distinct source of 
skin troubles. 

My answer to the second question is that the layman too often treats 
the trouble in the skin as if it were the disease itself, whereas it is, 
generally, merely a symptom thereof. Examples : To plaster medi- 
cated oils or ointments all over the skin of a dog suffering from con- 
stitutional eczema is about as sensible as would be the painting white 
of the yellow skin in jaundice in order to cure the disordered liver. 

But even those contagious diseases that are caused by skin germs 
or animalcules will not be wholly cured by any applications whatever. 
Constitutional remedies should go hand in hand with these. And, 
indeed, so great is the defensive power of strong, pure blood, rich in its 
white corpuscles or leucocytes, that I believe I could cure even the worst 
forms of mange by internal remedies, good food, and tonics, etc., 
without the aid of any dressing whatever except pure cold water. 

In treating of skin diseases it is usual to divide them into three 
sections : (1) The non-contagious, (2) the contagious, and (3) ailments 
caused by external parasites. 

(1) THE MOM-CONTAGIOUS. (A) ERYTHEMA. This is a redness, with 
slight inflammation of the skin, the deeper tissues underneath not being 
involved. Examples That seen between the wrinkles of well-bred 
Pugs, Mastiffs, or Bulldogs, or inside the thighs of Greyhounds, etc. 
If the skin breaks there may be discharges of pus, and if the case is 
not cured the skin may thicken and crack, and the dog make matters 
worse with his tongue. 

Treatment Review and correct the methods of feeding. A dog 
should be neither too gross nor too lean. Exercise, perfect cleanliness, 
the early morning sluice-down with cold water, and a quassia tonic. 
He may need a laxative as well. 

Locally Dusting with oxide of zinc or the violet powder of the 
nurseries, a lotion of lead, or arnica. Fomentation, followed by cold 
water, and, when dry, dusting as above. A weak solution of boracic 
acid (any chemist) will sometimes do good. 

(B) PRURIOO. Itching all over, with or without scurf. Sometimes 

Treatment Regulation of diet, green vegetables, fruit if he will 
take it, brushing and grooming, but never roughly. Try for worms 
and for fleas. 

(c) ECZEMA. The name is not a happy one as applied to the usual 
itching skin disease of dogs. Eczema proper is an eruption in which 
the formed matter dries off into scales or scabs, and dog eczema, so- 
called, is as often as not a species of lichen. Then, of course, it is often 
accompanied with vermin, nearly always with dirt, and it is irritated 
out of all character by the biting and scratching of the dog himself. 

Treatment Must be both constitutional and local. Attend to the 
organs of digestion. Give a moderate dose of opening medicine, to clear 
away offending matter. This simple aperient may be repeated occasion- 


ally, say once a week, and if diarrhoea be present it may be checked 
by the addition of a little morphia or dilute sulphuric acid. Cream of 
tartar with sulphur is an excellent derivative, being both diuretic 
and diaphoretic, but it must not be given in doses large enough to 
purge. At the same time we may give thrice daily a tonic pill like the 
following : 

Sulphate of quinine, $ to 3 grains ; sulphate of iron, $ grain to 5 
grains ; extract of hyoscyamus, i to 3 grains ; extract of taraxacum 
and glycerine enough to make a pill. 

Locally Perfect cleanliness. Cooling lotions patted on to the 
sore places. Spratts' Cure. (N.B. I know what every remedy 
contains, or I should not recommend it.) Benzoated zinc ointment 
after the lotion has dried in. Wash carefully once a week, using the 
ointment when skin is dry, or the lotion to allay irritation. 

(2) CONTAGIOUS SKIN DISEASES. These are usually called mange 
proper and follicular mange, or scabies. I want to say a word on the 
latter first. It depends upon a microscopic animalcule called the 
Acarus folliculorum. The trouble begins by the formation of patches, 
from which the hair falls off, and on which may be noticed a few pimples. 
Scabs form, the patches extend, or come out on other parts of the body, 
head, legs, belly, or sides. Skin becomes red in white-haired dogs. 
Odour of this trouble very offensive. More pain than itching seems 
to be the symptomatic rule. Whole body may become affected. 

Treatment Dress the affected parts twice a week with the 

Creosote, 2 drachms ; linseed oil, 7 ounces ; solution of potash, 1 
ounce. First mix the creosote and oil, then add the solution and 
shake. Better to shave the hair off around the patches. Kennels 
must be kept clean with garden soap and hot water, and all bedding 
burned after use. From three months to six will be needed to cure bad 

MANGE PROPER is also caused by a parasite or acarus, called the 
Sarcops canus. Unlike eczema, this mange is spread from dog to dog 
by touch or intercommunication, just as one person catches the itch 
from another. 

The Symptoms At first these may escape attention, but there are 
vesicles which the dog scratches and breaks, and thus the disease spreads. 
The hair gets matted and falls off. Regions of the body most com- 
monly affected, head, chest, back, rump, and extremities. There may 
not be much constitutional disturbance from the actual injury to the 
skin, but from his suffering so much from the irritation and the want of 
rest the health suffers. 

Treatment Avoid the use of so-called disinfectants. Most of those 
sold as such are simply deodorisers, and, applied to the skin, are useless. 
Nor are they of much use in cleaning the kennels. Nothing suits 
better for woodwork than, first, carbolic wash, and then a thorough 
scrubbing with hot water and garden soap. 

Some ointment must be used to the skin, and as I am writing for 
laymen only I feel chary in recommending such strong ones as the 
green iodide of mercury. If you do use it mix it with twice its bulk 
of the compound sulphur ointment. Do over only a part or two at 


a time. The dog to be washed after three days. But the compound 
sulphur ointment itself is a splendid application, and it is not dangerous. 

(3) SKIN COMPLAINTS FROM VERMIN. The treatment is obvious 
get rid of the cause. 

A$ their diagnosis is so difficult, whenever the dog-owner is in doubt, 
make certain by treating the dog not only by local applications but 
constitutionally as well. In addition to good diet, perfect cleanliness 
of coat, kennel, and all surroundings, and the application of the oint- 
ment or oil, let the dog have all the fresh air possible, and exercise, 
but never over-exciting or too fatiguing. Then a course of arsenic 
seldom fails to do good. 

I do not believe in beginning the exhibition of arsenic too soon. 
I prefer paying my first attentions to the digestive organs and state of 
the bowels. The form of exhibition which 1 have found suit as well as 
any is the tasteless Liquor arsenicalis. It is easily administered. It 
ought to be given mixed with the food, as it ought to enter the blood 
with the chyle from the diet. It ought, day by day, to be gradually, 
not hurriedly, increased. Symptoms of loathing of food and redness 
of conjunctiva call for the cessation of its use for two or three days at 
least, when it is to be recommended at the same size of dose given when 
left off. 

There are two things which assist the arsenic, at least to go well with 
it ; they are, iron in some form and Virol. The latter will be needed 
when there is much loss of flesh. A simple pill of sulphate of iron 
and extract of liquorice may be used. Dose of Liquor arsenicalis 
from 1 to 6 drops ter die to commence with, gradually increased to 5 
to 20 drops. 

DANDRUFF. A scaly or scurfy condition of the skin, with more or less 
of irritation. It is really a shedding of the scaly epidermis brought on 
by injudicious feeding or want of exercise as a primary cause. The 
dog, in cases of this kind, needs cooling medicines, such as small doses 
of the nitrate and chlorates of potash, perhaps less food. Bowels 
to be seen to by giving plenty of green food, with a morsel of sheep's 
melt or raw liver occasionally. Wash about once in three weeks, a 
very little borax in the last water, say a drachm to a gallon. Use 
mild soap. Never use a very hard brush or sharp comb. Tar soap 
(Wright's) may be tried. 


We have, roughly speaking, two kinds of worms to treat in the dog : 
(1) the round, and (2) the tape. 

(1) Round-worms They are in shape and size not unlike the garden 
worm, but harder, pale, and pointed. 

Symptoms Sometimes these are alarming, for the worm itself 
is occasionally seized with the mania for foreign travel, and finds its 
way into the throat or nostrils, causing the dog to become perfectly 
furious, and inducing such pain and agony that it may seem charity to 
end its life. The worms may also crawl into the stomach, and give rise 
to great irritation, but are usually dislodged therefrom by the violence 
accompanying the act of vomiting. 


Their usual habitat, however, is the small intestines, where they 
occasion great distress to their host. The appetite is always depraved 
and voracious. At times there is colic, with sickness and perhaps 
vomiting, and the bowels are alternately constipated or loose. The 
coat is harsh and staring, there usually is short, dry cough from reflex 
irritation of the bronchial mucous membrane, a bad-smelling breath 
and emaciation or at least considerable poverty of flesh. 

The disease is most common in puppies and in young dogs. The 
appearance of the ascaris in the dog's stools is, of course, the diagnostic 

Treatment I have cured many cases with santonin and areca-nut 
powder (betel-nut), dose 10 grains to 2 drachms ; or turpentine, dose 
from 10 drops to 1$ drachms, beaten up with yolk of egg. 

But areca-nut does better for tape-worm, so we cannot do better 
than trust to pure santonin. The dose is from 1 grain for a Toy up to 
6 grains for a Mastiff. Mix it with a little butter, and stick it well back 
in the roof of the dog's mouth. He must have fasted previously for 
twelve hours, and had a dose of castor oil the day before. In four 
or five hours after he has swallowed the santonin, let him have a 
dose of either olive oil or decoction of aloes. Dose, 2 drachms to 2 
ounces or more. Repeat the treatment in five days. Spratts' cure 
may be safely depended on for worms.* 

The perfect cleanliness of the kennel is of paramount importance. 

The animal's general health requires looking after, and he may be 
brought once more into good condition by proper food and a course 
of vegetable tonics. If wanted in show condition we have Plasmon to 
fall back upon, and Burroughs and Wellcome's extract of malt. 

There is a round-worm which at times infests the dog's bladder, and 
may cause occlusion of the urethra ; a whip-worm inhabiting the 
caecum ; another may occupy a position in the mucous membrane of 
the stomach ; some infest the blood, and others the eye. 

(2) Tape-worms There are several kinds, but the treatment is the 
same in all cases. The commonest in the country is the Cucumerine. 

This is a tape-worm of about fifteen inches in average length, 
although I have taken them from Newfoundland pups fully thirty 
inches long. It is a semi-tansparent entozoon ; each segment is long 
compared to its breadth, and narrowed at both ends. _ Each joint 
has, when detached, an independent sexual existence. 

The dog often becomes infested with this parasite from eating sheeps' 
brains, and dogs thus afflicted and allowed to roam at pleasure over 
fields and hills where sheep are fed sow the seeds of gid in our flocks 
to any extent. We know too well the great use of Collie dogs to the 
shepherd or grazier to advise that dogs should not be employed as 
assistants, but surely it would be to their owners' advantage to see 
that they were kept in a state of health and cleanliness. 

Treatment We ought to endeavour to prevent as well as to cure. 
We should never allow our dogs to eat the entrails of hares or rabbits. 
Never allow them to be fed on raw sheep's intestines, nor the brains 
of sheep. Never permit them to lounge around butchers' shops, nor 

* Many dog owners swear by the preparation called Ruby, which can be 
recommended as a cure for worms. ED. 


eat offal of any kind. Let their food be well cooked, and their skins 
and kennels kept scrupulously clean. Dogs that are used for sheep 
and cattle ought, twice a year at least, to go under treatment for the 
expulsion of worms, whether they are infested or not ; an anthelmintic 
would make sure, and could hardly hurt them. 

For the expulsion of tape-worms we depend mostly on areca-nut. 
In order that the tape-worm should receive the full benefit of the 
remedy, we order a dose of castor oil the day before in the morning, 
and recommend no food to be given that day except beef-tea or mutton 
broth. The bowels are thus empty next morning, so that the parasite 
cannot shelter itself anywhere, and is therefore sure to be acted on. 

Infusion of cusco is sometimes used as an anthelmintic, so is worm- 
wood, and the liquid extract of male fern, and in America spigelia root 
and pumpkin seeds. 

The best tonic to give in cases of worms is the extract of quassia. 

Extract of quassia, 1 to 10 grains ; extract of hyoscyamus, t to 5 
grains. To make one pill. Thrice daily. 



Washing with Spratts' medicated soap. Extra clean kennels. 
Dusting with Keating, and afterwards washing. This may not kill the 
fleas, but it drives them off. Take the dog on the grass while dusting, 
and begin along the spine. Never do it in the house. 


I have noticed these disagreeable bloodsuckers only on the heads and 
bodies of sporting or Collie dogs, who had been boring for some time 
through coverts and thickets. They soon make themselves visible, 
as the body swells up with the blood they suck until they resemble 
small soft warts about as big as a pea. They belong to the natural 
family, Jxodiadae. 

Treatment If not very numerous they should be cut off, and the 
part touched with a little turps. The sulphuret of calcium will also 
kill them, so will the more dangerous white precipitate, or even a strong 
solution of carbolic acid, which must be used sparingly, however. 


The lice are hatched from nits, which we find clinging in rows, and 
very tenaciously too, to the hairs. The insects themselves are more 
difficult to find, but they are on puppies sometimes in thousands. To 
destroy them I have tried several plans. Oil is very effectual, and has 
safety to recommend it. Common sweet oil is as good a cure as any, 
and you may add a little oil of anise and some sublimed sulphur, which 
will increase the effect. Quassia water may be used to damp the coat. 
The matted portions of a long-haired dog's coat must be cut off with 
scissors, for there the lice often lurk. The oil dressing will not kill the 
nits, so that vinegar must be used. After a few days the dressing 
must be repeated, and so on three or four times. To do any good, the 
whole of the dog's coat must be drenched in oil, and the dog washed 
with good dog soap and warm water twelve hours afterwards. 




IT is popularly, but rather erroneously, supposed that every 
dog is entitled to one bite. Perhaps it would be more accurate 
to state that every dog may with impunity have one snap or 
one intended bite, but only dogs of hitherto irreproachable 
character are permitted the honour of a genuine tasteful bite. 

Once a dog, however, has displayed dangerous propensities, 
even though he has never had the satisfaction of effecting an 
actual bite, and once his owner or the person who harbours 
him becomes aware of these evil inclinations (scienter) either 
of his own knowledge or by notice, the Law looks upon such 
dog as a dangerous beast which the owner keeps at his peril. 

The onus of proof is on the victim to show that the owner 
had previous knowledge of the animal's ferocity, though in 
reality very little evidence of scienter is as a rule required, 
and notice need not necessarily be given directly to the owner, 
but to any person who has charge of the dog. 

The person attacked has yet another remedy. He can, if 
he is able, kill the dog before it can bite him, but he is not 
justified in shooting the animal as it runs away, even after 
being bitten. 

By 28 and 29 Viet., c. 60, the owner of a dog which attacks 
sheep or cattle and cattle includes horses is responsible for 
all damage, and there is no necessity to prove previous evil 
propensities. This Act is wholly repealed by the Act called 
the Dogs' Act, 1906, which came into force on January ist, 
1907, but the new Act re-enacts the section having reference 
to damage to cattle, and says that in such cases it is not 
w 337 


necessary for the persons claiming damages to show a previous 
mischievous propensity in the dog or the owner's knowledge 
of such previous propensity or to show that the injury was 
attributable to neglect on the part of the owner ; the word 
" cattle " includes horses, asses, sheep, goats, and swine. 

The Law looks upon fighting between dogs as a natural 
and necessary incident in the career of every member of the 
canine race, and gives no redress to the owner of the vanquished 
animal, provided the fight was a fair one, and the contestants 
appear to consider it so. The owner, however, of a peaceably 
disposed dog which is attacked and injured, or killed, by one 
savage and unrestrained, has a right of action against the 
owner of the latter. The owner of the peaceably disposed 
animal may justifiably kill the savage brute in order to save 
his dog, but he must run the risk of being able to prove that 
this was the only means of putting a stop to the fight. 


Every dog owner must annually take out a licence for each 
dog he keeps. The licence, which is obtainable at all post- 
offices at the cost of 75. 6d., is dated to run from the hour 
it is taken out until the following 3ist December. The 
person in whose custody or upon whose premises the dog is 
found will be deemed its owner until proved otherwise. 

The owners of certain dogs for certain purposes are, however, 
exempted from taking out licences, viz. : (i) Dogs under the 
age of six months ; (2) hounds under twelve months old neither 
used nor hunted with the pack, provided that the Master has 
taken out proper licences for all hounds entered in the pack ; 
(3) one dog kept and used by a blind person solely for his or 
her guidance ; (4) dogs kept and used solely for the purpose of 
tending sheep or cattle or in the exercise of the occupation 
or calling of a shepherd. 


Under the Contagious Diseases (Animals) Acts, 1878-1894, 
local authorities (i.e., county, borough, or district councils) 


were empowered to issue orders regulating the muzzling of 
dogs in public places and the keeping of dogs under control 
(otherwise than by muzzling) . Offenders under these Acts are 
liable to a fine not exceeding 20. 

The Statute 57 and 58 Viet., c. 57, gives the Board of 
Agriculture power to make orders for muzzling dogs, keeping 
them under control, and the detention and disposal of stray 
dogs ; and section 2 of the Dogs Act, 1906 (known by some 
as the Curfew Bell Act), says that the Diseases of Animals 
Act, 1894, shall have effect : 

(a) For prescribing and regulating the wearing by dogs 
while in a highway or in a place of public resort of a collar 
with the name and address of the owner inscribed on the 
collar or on a plate or badge attached thereto : 

(b) With a view to the prevention of worrying of cattle 
for preventing dogs or any class of dogs from straying during 
all or any of the hours between sunset and sunrise. 


The Dogs Act, 1906, has some important sections dealing 
with seizure of stray dogs, and enacts that where a police 
officer has reason to believe that any dog found in a highway 
or place of public resort is a stray dog, he may seize and 
retain it until the owner has claimed it and paid all expenses 
incurred by reason of its detention. If the dog so seized wears 
a collar on which is the address of any person, or if the owner 
of the dog is known, then the chief officer of police or some 
person authorised by him in that behalf shall serve on either 
such person a notice in writing stating that the dog has been 
seized, and will be sold or destroyed if not claimed within seven 
clear days of the service of the notice. 

Failing the owner putting in an appearance and paying all 
expenses of detention within the seven clear days, then the 
chief officer of police or any person authorised by him may 
cause the dog to be sold, or destroyed in a manner to cause as 


little pain as possible. The police must keep a proper register 
of all dogs seized, and every such register shall be open to 
inspection at all reasonable times by any member of the 
public on payment of a fee of one shilling, and the police may 
transfer such dog to any establishment for the reception of 
stray dogs, but only if there is a proper register kept at such 
establishment open to inspection by the public on payment 
of a fee not exceeding one shilling. 

Another section enacts that any person who takes possession 
of a stray dog shall forthwith either return the dog to 
its owner or give notice in writing to the chief officer of 
police of the district where the dog was found, contain- 
ing a description of the dog and stating the place where 
the dog was found, and the place where he is being detained, 
and any person failing to comply with the provisions of this 
section shall be liable on conviction under the Summary 
Jurisdiction Acts to a fine not exceeding forty shillings. 


The power of making Orders dealing with the importation of 
dogs is vested in the Board of Agriculture, who have absolute 
authority in the matter. 

The initial step to be taken by a person wishing to import 
any dog into Great Britain from any other country excepting 
Ireland, the Channel Islands, and the Isle of Man, is that he 
must fill up an application form to the said Board, which he 
has previously obtained from them, in which he applies for a 
licence to land the dog under the conditions imposed by the 
Board, which he undertakes to obey. 

On the form he has to give a full description of the dog, the 
name and address of the owner, the proposed port of landing, 
and the approximate date of landing, and further from 
lists which he will receive from the Board he must select 
the carrying agents he proposes should superintend the 
movement of the dog from the port of landing to the 
place of detention, and also the premises of a veterinary 


surgeon on which he proposes the dog shall be detained and 
isolated as required by the Order. An imported dog must 
be landed and taken to its place of detention in a suitable 
box, hamper, crate or other receptacle, and as a general rule 
has to remain entirely isolated for a period of six months. 


Unquestionably the greatest enemy that the dog possesses 
at the present time is the motor car. 

Presuming the owner of the dog is fortunate enough to 
know whose car it was that ran over his dog, and to have some 
evidence of excessive or unreasonable speed or other negligence 
on the part of the car driver at the time of the accident, he 
will find the law ever ready to assist him. A dog has every bit 
as much right to the high road as a motor car. Efforts have 
been made on the part of motor owners to get the Courts to 
hold that dogs on a high road are only under proper control 
if on a " lead," and that if they are not on a " lead " the 
owner of them is guilty of negligence in allowing his dog to 
stroll about, and therefore is not entitled to recover : such 
efforts have not been successful. Even supposing a Court 
to hold that the fact of a dog being loose in this way or unac- 
companied was evidence of negligence against his owner this 
would by no means defeat his owner's claim, for the law is, 
that though a plaintiff may have been negligent in some such 
way as this, yet if the defendant could, by the exercise of 
reasonable care, have avoided the accident, the plaintiff 
can still recover. There are several cases that decide this 
valuable principle. 



... 219 



... I 7 6 

Assyrian Sculpture and 

Dog 2, 108 


... 49 

Mastiff ... . 

... 3* 10 

Dandie Dinmont 

... 25^ 




... 172 






TN* A 

J :7 

Bedl in gton Terrier ... 

... 226 


. 325 

Bible, Dog in The ... 

... 3, 108 



Black and Tan Terrier 
Blenheim Spaniel 


... 280 

English Water Spaniel 
Egypt, Dog in 

. 153 

2, 108 

Borzoi ... 

. . IOI 

TTtr I? T^I vr* 

-> T ~ 

i ttttDirto 


Breeding : 

Field Spaniel 

. 159 


... 42 

First Bite, Privileges of 



104, 106 



Smooth Fox-terrier 



Fox as progenitor of the 

Dog 5 

Dandie Dinmont ... 

2 57 


... 118 

King Charles Spaniel 
General Notes 

... 285 
... 316 

Fox-terrier, Smooth ... 

... 203 



... 328 

Brussels Griffon 

... 301 





Greeks, Dogs and Ancient, 

3, 108, 271 




... 108 

French ... 





... 199 


... 306 


... 123 


... 67 


... 340 

Clumber Spaniel 

... 154 

Irish Terrier 

... 229 

Clydesdale Terrier ... 

... 264 

Irish Water Spaniel ... 

... 150 

Cocker Spaniel 

... 167 

Italian Greyhound ... 

... 307 



Constipation ... 



DOG 5 


... 109 

Japanese Spaniel 

... 292 





King Charles Spaniel 

... 278 


140, 146 

Law, Dog and the ... 



... 338 



Manchester Terrier ... 





Mastiff, Assyrian 

... 3, 10 

English ... ... 


Miniature Breeds : 

French Bulldog 



/ o 


Black and Tan Terrier 

/ / 


Toy Bull-terrier ... 
Italian Greyhound 

J +J 


Shetland Sheepdog 

J / 

... 308 

Motor Cars and Dogs 


Muzzling Regulations 



... 38 






... 288 

Phoenicians, and Dogs 





... 271 



Toy White 


Primitive Man and Dog 



Puppies, Treatment of: 





... It 



Great Dane 

1 J 


Old English Sheepdog 


... 64 


Puppies, Treatment of continued : 



King Charles Spaniel 


Brussels Griffon ... 

General Notes 
RETRIEVER, Flat-Coated 


Rome, Dogs and Ancient 



Scottish Terrier 
Setter, English 


Black and Tan 

Sheepdog, Old English 
Shetland Sheepdog... 
Skin Diseases 

Skye Terrier 

Spaniel Family, The 
Spaniel, Irish Water... 





English Springer 

Welsh Springer 


King Charles ... 

Springer, English 


St. Bernard 

Stray Dogs 

Sussex Spaniel 

TERRIER, Old Working 
White English... 
Black and Tan 


Smooth Fox- ... 
Wire-hair Fox- 








J 34 












Terrier, Irish 

Welsh .; 


West Highland White 

Dandie Dinmont 

Skye, and Clydesdale 

Yorkshire ... '..., 

Toy Dogs: 
Pomeranian ... 

Poodle, White 

King Charles Spaniel 
Pekinese and Japanese ... 

Maltese and Pug 

Brussels Griffon 






Toy Dogs continued : 
Miniature Black and Tan, 
Bull-terrier, Italian Grey- 
hound and Shetland 


WATERLOO CUP ... ... 109 

Welsh Terrier 236 

West Highland White Terrier 246 

Whippet 113 

Wolf as progenitor of Dog 5, 6 

Wolfhound, Irish 90 

Russian (Borzoi) ... 101 

Worms, Treatment for ... 334 




rO"fr> 202 Main Library 








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